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The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close-mid back-central unrounded vowel.[2] Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɤ⟩, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ⟨ɣ⟩, which has a descender. Despite that, some writings[3] use this symbol for the voiced velar fricative.

Close-mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ
IPA number315
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɤ
Unicode (hex)U+0264
X-SAMPA7
Kirshenbaumo-
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Audio sample

Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was ⟨Latin letter small capital Gamma.svg⟩, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top; this symbol was in turn derived from and replaced the inverted small capital A, ⟨⟩, that represented the sound before the 1928 revision to the IPA.[4] The symbol was ultimately revised to be ⟨Ram's horns.svg⟩, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gammaɣ⟩.[5] Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤ LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (HTML ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.

Contents

FeaturesEdit

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back
Close
 
 
 
Near-close
 
 
Close-mid
 
 
 
Mid
Open-mid
 
 
 
Near-open
 
Open
 
 
 

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Alekano gamó [ɣɑmɤʔ] 'cucumber'
Bashkir туғыҙ/tuğïð  [tuˈʁɤð]  'nine'
Chinese Mandarin /hē  [xɤ˥]  'to drink' Usually pronounced as a sequence [ɰɤ̞]. See Standard Chinese phonology
Southern Min /ô [ɤ˧] 'oyster'
English Cape Flats[6] foot [fɤt] 'foot' Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be [u] or [ʉ] instead.[6] See South African English phonology
Indian South African[7] Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be a weakly rounded [ʊ] instead.[7] See South African English phonology
New Zealand[8][9] treacle [ˈtɹ̝̊iːkɤ] 'treacle' Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid.[8][9] Corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology
White South African[10] pill [pʰɤɫ] 'pill' Allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/.[10] Also described as near-close [ɯ̞].[11] See South African English phonology
Estonian[12] kõrv [kɤrv] 'ear' Can be close-mid central [ɘ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[12] See Estonian phonology
Gayo[13] kule [kuˈlɤː] 'tiger' One of the possible allophones of /ə/.[13]
Irish Ulster[14] Uladh [ɤl̪ˠu] 'Ulster' See Irish phonology
Kaingang[15] [ˈᵐbɤ] 'tail' Varies between back [ɤ] and central [ɘ][16]
Korean Gyeongsang dialect 거기/geogi [ˈkɤ̘ɡɪ] 'there' See Korean phonology
Mah Meri[17] [example needed] Allophone of /ə/; can be mid central [ə] or open-mid back [ʌ] instead.[17]
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌmã̀ˑˈpɤ̄u̯mã̄] 'it was squeezed' May be central [ɘ] instead. See Taos phonology
Önge önge [ˈɤŋe] 'man'
Samogitian õlgs [ˈɤˑɫgs] 'long'
Scottish Gaelic doirbh [d̪̊ɤrʲɤv] 'difficult' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sundanese ieu [iɤ] 'this'
Thai[18] ธอ/thoe [tʰɤː] 'you'
Xumi Upper[19] [Htsɤ][clarification needed] 'crown of a head' Occasional realization of /o/.[19]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  3. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  4. ^ International Phonetic Association (1912). The principles of the International Phonetic Association. Paris, Association Phonétique Internationale. p. 10.
  5. ^ Nicholas, Nick (2003). "Greek-derived IPA symbols". Greek Unicode Issues. University of California, Irvine. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
  6. ^ a b Finn (2004), p. 970.
  7. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004), p. 956.
  8. ^ a b "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3.
  9. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
  10. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 617.
  11. ^ Bowerman (2004), p. 936.
  12. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 369.
  13. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  14. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999:114–115)
  15. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  16. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  17. ^ a b Kruspe & Hajek (2009), p. 245.
  18. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 25.
  19. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.

ReferencesEdit

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823869-X
  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169[permanent dead link]
  • Eades, Domenyk; Hajek, John (2006), "Gayo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 107–115, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002416
  • Finn, Peter (2004), "Cape Flats English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 934–984, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685
  • Kruspe, Nicole; Hajek, John (2009), "Mah Meri", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (2): 241–248, doi:10.1017/S0025100309003946
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (2004), "Indian South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 953–963, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Nowikow, Wieczysław (2012) [First published 1992], Fonetyka hiszpańska (3rd ed.), Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 978-83-01-16856-8
  • Tingsabadh, M. R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (1): 24–28, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 3: Beyond The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0

External linksEdit