Open-mid central rounded vowel

The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel,[1] is a vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɞ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 3\. The symbol is called closed reversed epsilon. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ɔ̈⟩.

Open-mid central rounded vowel
ɞ
IPA Number395
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɞ
Unicode (hex)U+025E
X-SAMPA3\
Braille⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Audio sample

IPA charts were first published with this vowel transcribed as a closed epsilon, ⟨ʚ⟩ (that is, a closed variant of ⟨ɛ⟩, much as the high-mid vowel letter ⟨ɵ⟩ is a closed variant of ⟨e⟩), and this variant made its way into Unicode as U+029A ʚ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED OPEN E. The IPA charts were later changed to the current closed reversed epsilon ⟨ɞ⟩, and this was adopted into Unicode as U+025E ɞ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED REVERSED OPEN E.

FeaturesEdit

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] lug [lɞχ] 'air' Also been described as mid [ɞ̝], typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. Many speakers merge /œ/ with /ə/, even in formal speech.[3] See Afrikaans phonology
English Irish[4] but [bɞθ̠] 'but' Corresponds to [ʌ] in other varieties. See English phonology
New Zealand[5] not [nɞʔt] 'not' Possible realization of /ɒ/.[5] See New Zealand English phonology
French Parisian[6] sort [sɞːʁ] 'fate' Described variously as an allophone of /ɔ/ before /ʁ/[7] and as the default allophone of /ɔ/.[6] See French phonology
Irish tomhail [tɞːlʲ] 'consume' (imp.) See Irish phonology
Kashubian ptôch [ptɞx] 'bird'
Limburgish Maastrichtian[8] väöl [vɞːl] 'much' Front [œː] in other dialects.[9][10] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œː⟩.
Navajo[11] tsosts’id [tsʰɞstsʼɪt] 'seven' See Navajo phonology
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect ącut'uonbo [ʔãˌtʃʊt̚ːˈʔuɞnbɑ] 'his-garment-around' Allophone of /ɑ/. See Taos phonology
Norwegian Stavangersk[12] topp [tʰɞpː] 'top' See Norwegian phonology
Poitevin o doune [ɞ dun] 'he gives'
Somali keenaysaa [keːnɞjsɑː] 'she brings' See Somali phonology
West Frisian Southwestern dialects[13] boare [ˈbɞːrə] 'tomcat' Corresponds to [wa] in other dialects.[13] See West Frisian phonology

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Wissing (2012), p. 711.
  3. ^ Wissing (2016), section "The rounded and unrounded mid-central vowels".
  4. ^ Wells (1982), p. 422.
  5. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  6. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  7. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  8. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  9. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  10. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  11. ^ McDonough, Ladefoged & George (1993). The authors gave a narrow transcription of [ɵ], though at the time the IPA had only this one symbol for a mid central rounded vowel, and it is clear from the discussion and formant charts that this vowel a centralized open-mid vowel.
  12. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  13. ^ a b Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)

ReferencesEdit

  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2013) [First published 2003], Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (3rd ed.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-50650-2
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
  • Hoekstra, Jarich (2003), "Frisian. Standardization in progress of a language in decay", Germanic Standardizations. Past to Present (PDF), 18, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 193–209, ISBN 978-90-272-1856-8
  • Hof, Jan Jelles (1933), Friesche Dialectgeographie (PDF), The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-07
  • McDonough, Joyce; Ladefoged, Peter; George, Helen (1993), "Navajo Vowels and Phonetic Universal Tendencies", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages, 84: 143–150
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, II: The British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0
  • Wissing, Daan (2012), "Integrasie van artikulatoriese en akoestiese eienskappe van vokale: 'n beskrywingsraamwerk", LitNet Akademies (in Afrikaans), Stellenbosch: LitNet, 9 (2): 701–743, ISSN 1995-5928, archived from the original on 15 April 2017, retrieved 16 April 2017
  • Wissing, Daan (2016). "Afrikaans phonology – segment inventory". Taalportaal. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External linksEdit