Open-mid central rounded vowel
The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɞ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
3\. The symbol is called closed reversed epsilon. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ɔ̈⟩.
|Open-mid central rounded vowel|
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded • rounded
IPA charts were first published with this vowel transcribed as a closed epsilon, ⟨ʚ⟩ (that is, a closed variant of ⟨ɛ⟩, much as the high-mid vowel letter ⟨ɵ⟩ is a closed variant of ⟨e⟩), and this variant made its way into Unicode as U+029A ʚ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED OPEN E. The IPA charts were later changed to the current closed reversed epsilon ⟨ɞ⟩, and this was adopted into Unicode as U+025E ɞ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED REVERSED OPEN E.
- Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
- Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
- It is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.
|Afrikaans||Standard||lug||[lɞχ]||'air'||Also been described as mid [ɞ̝], typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. Many speakers merge /œ/ with /ə/, even in formal speech. See Afrikaans phonology|
|English||Irish||but||[bɞθ̠]||'but'||Corresponds to [ʌ] in other varieties. See English phonology|
|New Zealand||not||[nɞʔt]||'not'||Possible realization of /ɒ/. See New Zealand English phonology|
|French||Parisian||sort||[sɞːʁ]||'fate'||Described variously as an allophone of /ɔ/ before /ʁ/ and as the default allophone of /ɔ/. See French phonology|
|Irish||tomhail||[tɞːlʲ]||'consume' (imp.)||See Irish phonology|
|Limburgish||Maastrichtian||väöl||[vɞːl]||'much'||Front [œː] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œː⟩.|
|Navajo||tsosts’id||[tsʰɞstsʼɪt]||'seven'||See Navajo phonology|
|Northern Tiwa||Taos dialect||ącut'uonbo||[ʔãˌtʃʊt̚ːˈʔuɞnbɑ]||'his-garment-around'||Allophone of /ɑ/. See Taos phonology|
|Norwegian||Stavangersk||topp||[tʰɞpː]||'top'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Poitevin||o doune||[ɞ dun]||'he gives'|
|Somali||keenaysaa||[keːnɞjsɑː]||'she brings'||See Somali phonology|
|West Frisian||Southwestern dialects||boare||[ˈbɞːrə]||'tomcat'||Corresponds to [wa] in other dialects. See West Frisian phonology|
- While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
- Wissing (2012), p. 711.
- Wissing (2016), section "The rounded and unrounded mid-central vowels".
- Wells (1982), p. 422.
- Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
- Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
- Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
- Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
- Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
- Peters (2006), p. 119.
- McDonough, Ladefoged & George (1993). The authors gave a narrow transcription of [ɵ], though at the time the IPA had only this one symbol for a mid central rounded vowel, and it is clear from the discussion and formant charts that this vowel a centralized open-mid vowel.
- Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
- Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)
- Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2013) [First published 2003], Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (3rd ed.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-50650-2
- Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
- Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
- Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
- Hoekstra, Jarich (2003), "Frisian. Standardization in progress of a language in decay", Germanic Standardizations. Past to Present (PDF), 18, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 193–209, ISBN 978-90-272-1856-8
- Hof, Jan Jelles (1933), Friesche Dialectgeographie (PDF), The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-07
- McDonough, Joyce; Ladefoged, Peter; George, Helen (1993), "Navajo Vowels and Phonetic Universal Tendencies", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages, 84: 143–150
- Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
- Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, II: The British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0
- Wissing, Daan (2012), "Integrasie van artikulatoriese en akoestiese eienskappe van vokale: 'n beskrywingsraamwerk", LitNet Akademies (in Afrikaans), Stellenbosch: LitNet, 9 (2): 701–743, ISSN 1995-5928, archived from the original on 15 April 2017, retrieved 16 April 2017
- Wissing, Daan (2016). "Afrikaans phonology – segment inventory". Taalportaal. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- List of languages with [ɞ] on PHOIBLE