Rusyn language (//; Carpathian Rusyn: русиньскый язык (rusîn'skyj jazyk), русиньска бесїда (rusîn'ska bes'ida); Pannonian Rusyn: руски язик (ruski jazik), руска бешеда (ruska bešeda)), also known as Rusnak language (Carpathian Rusyn: руснацькый язык / an older term), is an East Slavic lect, spoken by the Rusyns in several regions of Eastern Europe, and also in Rusyn diaspora throughout the World.
|русинськый язык; руски язик|
rusîns'kyj jazyk; ruski jazik
Census population: 70,000. These are numbers from national official bureaus for statistics:
Slovakia – 33,482
Serbia – 15,626
Poland – 10,000
Ukraine – 6,725
Croatia – 2,337
Hungary – 1,113
Czech Republic – 777
|Cyrillic script (Rusyn alphabets)|
Latin script (Slovakia)
In English language, the term Rusyn is recognized officially by the ISO, but some other designations are sometimes also used, derived mainly from exonymic terms such as Ruthenian or Ruthene (UK: //, US: //), that have several wider meanings, and thus (by adding regional adjectives) some specific designations are formed, such as: Carpathian Ruthenian/Ruthene or Carpatho-Ruthenian/Ruthene.
There are several controversial theories about the nature of Rusyn as a language or dialect. Czech, Slovak, and Hungarian, as well as American and some Polish and Serbian linguists treat it as a distinct language (with its own ISO 639-3 code), whereas other scholars (especially in Ukraine but also Poland, Serbia, and Romania) treat it as a Southwestern dialect of Ukrainian.
In terms of geographical distribution, Rusyn language is represented by two specific clusters: the first is encompassing Carpathian Rusyn or Carpatho-Rusyn varieties, and the second is represented by Pannonian Rusyn.
Carpathian Rusyn is spoken in:
- the Zakarpattia Oblast of Ukraine.
- northeastern regions of Slovakia.
- southeastern regions of Poland. The variety of Rusyn spoken in Poland is generally known as Lemko language (лемківскій язык lemkivskij jazyk).
- northeastern regions of Hungary.
- northern regions of Romania (in Maramureș).
The classification of Rusyn language is linguistically and politically controversial. During the 19th century, several questions were raised among linguists, regarding the classification of East Slavic dialects that were spoken in the northeastern (Carpathian) regions of the Kingdom of Hungary, and also in neighbouring regions of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. On those questions, three main theories emerged:
- Some linguists claimed that East Slavic dialects of the Carpathian region should be classified as specific varieties of Russian language.
- Other linguists argued that those dialects should be classified as western varieties of a distinctive Ukrainian language.
- Third group claimed that those dialects are specific enough to be recognized as a distinctive East Slavic language.
Those linguistic disputes did not affect the official terminology, used by the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, that actualy ruled the Carpathian region. For Austro-Hungarian state authorities, the entire East Slavic linguistic body within the borders of the Monarchy was classified under an archaic and exonymic term: Ruthenian language (German: Ruthenische sprache, Hungarian: Rutén nyelv), that was employed up to 1918.
After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary (1918), the newly proclaimed Hungarian Republic recognized Rusyn regional autonomy in Subcarpathian regions and created, at the beginning of 1919, a department for Rusyn language and literature at the Budapest University.
By the end of 1919, the region of Subcarpathian Ruthenia was appended to the newly formed Czechoslovak state, as its easternmost province. During the next twenty years, linguistic debates were continued between the same three options (pro-Russian, pro-Ukrainian, and local Rusyn), with Czechoslovak state authorities occasionally acting as arbiters.
In March 1939, the region proclaimed independence under the name Carpatho-Ukraine, but it was immediately occupied and annexed by Hungary. The region was later occupied (1944) and annexed (1945) by the Soviet Union, and incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR, which proceeded with implementation of Ukrainian linguistic standards. In Soviet Ukraine, Rusyns were not recognized as a distinctive ethnicity, and their langue was considered as a dialect of Ukrainian language. Poland employed similar policies, using internal deportations to move many Eastern Slavs from southeastern to newly acquired western regions (Operation Vistula), and switch their language to Polish, and Ukrainian at school.
After the dissolution of Soviet Union in 1991, modern standards of minority rights where gradually applied throughout the Eastern Europe, thus affecting the attitude of several states towards the Rusyn language. As successors of Yugoslavia, Serbia and Croatia continued to recognize Rusyn language as an official minority language.
Scholars with the former Institute of Slavic and Balkan Studies in Moscow (now the Institute of Slavonic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences) formally acknowledged Rusyn as a separate language in 1992, and trained specialists to study the language. These studies were financially supported by the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Ukrainian state authorities do not recognize Rusyns as a separate ethnicity, regardless of Rusyn self-identification. Ukraine officially considered Rusyn as a dialect of Ukrainian. In 2012, Ukraine adopted a new law, recognizing Rusyn as one of several minority and regional languages, but that law was revoked in 2014.
Rusyn is listed as a protected language by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Poland (as Lemko), Serbia and Slovakia.
It is not possible to estimate accurately the number of fluent speakers of Rusyn; however, their number is estimated in the tens of thousands.
Grammars and codificationEdit
Early grammars include Dmytrij Vyslockij's (Дмитрий Вислоцкий) Карпаторусский букварь (Karpatorusskij bukvar') Vanja Hunjanky (1931), Metodyj Trochanovskij's Буквар. Перша книжечка для народных школ. (Bukvar. Perša knyžečka dlja narodnıx škol.) (1935)., and Ivan Harajda (1941). The archaic Harajda's grammar is currently promoted in the Rusyn Wikipedia, although part of the articles are written using other standards (see below).
Currently, there are three codified varieties of Rusyn:
- The Prešov variety in Slovakia (ongoing codification since 1995). A standard grammar was proposed in 1995 by Vasyl Jabur, Anna Plíšková and Kvetoslava Koporová. Its orthography is largely based on Zhelekhivka, a late 19th century variety of the Ukrainian alphabet.
- The Lemko variety in Poland. A standard grammar and dictionary were proposed in 2000 by Mirosława Chomiak and Henryk Fontański.
- The Pannonian Rusyn variety in Serbia and Croatia. It is significantly different from the above two in vocabulary and grammar features. It was first standardized in 1923 by G. Kostelnik. The modern standard has been developed since the 1980s by Julian Ramač, Helena Međeši and Mihajlo Fejsa (Serbia), and Mihály Káprály (Hungary).
Apart from these codified varieties, there are publications using a mixture of these standards (most notably in Hungary and in Transcarpathian Ukraine), as well as attempts to revitalize the pre-war etymological orthography with old Cyrillic letters (most notably ѣ, or yat'); the latter can be observed in multiple edits in the Rusyn Wikipedia, where various articles represent various codified varieties.
A soft consonant combination sound [ʃʲt͡ʃʲ] exists more among the northern and western dialects. In the eastern dialects the sound is recognized as [ʃʲʃʲ], including the area on which the standard dialect is based. It is noted that a combination sound like this one, could have evolved into a soft fricative sound [ʃʲ].
The Carpathian Rusyn alphabetsEdit
Each of the three Rusyn standard varieties has its own Cyrillic alphabet. The table below shows the alphabet of Slovakia (Prešov) Rusyn. The alphabet of the other Carpathian Rusyn standard, Lemko (Poland) Rusyn, differs from it only by lacking ё and ї. For the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet, see Pannonian Rusyn language § Writing system.
|Ё||ё||ё||ë||jo||jo/'o||ë||/jo/||not present in Lemko Rusyn or Pannonian Rusyn|
|І||і||i||i||I||i||I||ì||/i/||not present in Pannonian Rusyn|
|Ї||ї||ї||ï||ji||ji/'i||ï||ï||/ji/||not present in Lemko Rusyn|
|И||и||и||i/y||y||î||I||I||/ɪ/||The Pannonian Rusyn alphabet places this letter directly after з, like the Ukrainian alphabet.|
According to ALA–LC romanization, it is romanized i for Pannonian Rusyn and y otherwise.
|Ы||ы||ы||ŷ||y||y||y/ŷ||y||/ɨ/||not present in Pannonian Rusyn|
|Ь||ь||мнягкый знак (ірь)||′||’||'||′||′||/ʲ/||"Soft Sign": marks the preceding consonant as palatalized (soft)|
|Ъ||ъ||твердый знак (ір)||″||’||"||–||″||"Hard Sign": marks the preceding consonant as NOT palatalized (hard). Not present in Pannonian Rusyn|
Number of letters and relationship to the Ukrainian alphabetEdit
The Lemko Rusyn alphabet of Poland has 34 letters. It includes all the Ukrainian letters with the exception of ї, plus ы and ъ.
The Lemko and Prešov Rusyn alphabets place ъ at the very end, while the vast majority of Cyrillic alphabets place it after щ. They also place ы before й, while the vast majority of Cyrillic alphabets place it after ш, щ (if present), and ъ (if present).
In the Prešov Rusyn alphabet, і and ї come before и, and likewise, і comes before и in the Lemko Rusyn alphabet (which doesn't have ї). In the Ukrainian alphabet, however, и precedes і and ї, and the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet (which doesn't have і) follows this precedent by placing и before ї.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2017)
- Amerikansky Russky Viestnik †
- Besida, a Lemko journal
- Karpatska Rus'
- Lem.fm, Gorlice, Poland
- Lemko, Philadelphia, USA †
- Narodnȳ novynkȳ (Народны новинкы)
- Podkarpatská Rus (Подкарпатська Русь)
- Ruske slovo (Руске слово), Ruski Kerestur, Serbia
- Rusnatsi u Shvetse (Руснаци у Швеце)
- Rusynska besida (Русинська бесіда)
The ISO processEdit
In April 2019, a group of linguists (including Aleksandr Dulichenko), supported a proposal that was addressed to the ISO, requesting suppression of the code (rue) and division of Rusyn language in two distinctive and separate languages, that would be named as: East Rusyn language (designating Carpathian Rusyn varieties), and South Rusyn language (designating Pannonian Rusyn varieties). In January 2020, the ISO authorities rejected the request.
In November 2020, the same group of linguists, with some additional support, formulated a new proposal, also addressed to the ISO, requesting recognition of a new language, under the proposed name: Ruthenian language (with additional designation as: Rusnak language). According to their proposal, that designation would represent a specific linguistic variety, that was referred to in their previous proposal (from April 2019) as South Rusyn (otherwise known as Pannonian Rusyn, a term not mentioned in either of two proposals). The request is still under deliberation.
If granted, the pending request from November 2020 would have various implications, both in the fields of ISO classification and terminology. Eventual recognition of the proposed new language would effectively reduce the scope of the present code (rue) to Carpathian varieties of Rusyn language, thus leading to an outcome that was already rejected by ISO authorities in January 2020.
The proposal from November 2020 did not provide an explanation for terminological transition from initialy proposed term South Rusyn (2019) to newly proposed terms Ruthenian and Rusnak (2020). Both terms (Ruthenian and Rusnak) that are claimed for the proposed new language (encompassing only Pannonian varieties of Rusyn language), already have much wider and well established meanings, both in historical and scientific terminology. In the field of Slavistic studies, the term Ruthenian language is used primarily as a common exonymic designation for former East Slavic linguistic varieties that were spoken on the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine during the late medieval and early modern periods, from the 15th up to the 18th centuries.
The other term (Rusnak), that was included in the November 2020 proposal as a requested alternative designation for the linguistic variety spoken by Pannonian Rusyns, also has much wider meaning, since it is used by both Pannonian and Carpathian Rusyns as one of several self-designations for their people and language, thus revealing the lack of basis for the requested reduction of that term to only one of those groups.
|Rusyn edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Rusyn language at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. "Population and Housing Census 2011: Table 11. Resident population by nationality – 2011, 2001, 1991" (PDF). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- Republic of Serbia, Republic Statistical Office (24 December 2002). "Final results of the census 2002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- "Home" (PDF). Central Statistical Office of Poland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. "About number and composition population of UKRAINE by data All-Ukrainian population census 2001 data". Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- "Republic of Croatia – Central Bureau of Statistics". Crostat. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "1.28 Population by mother tongue, nationality and sex, 1900–2001". Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 2001. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- "Obyvatelstvo podle věku, mateřského jazyka a pohlaví". Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- Rusyn at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
- "Implementation of the Charter in Hungary". Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "I Raport dla Sekretarza Rady Europy z realizacji przez Rzeczpospolitą Polską postanowień Europejskiej karty języków regionalnych lub mniejszościowych" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- "The Statue of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia". Skupstinavojvodine.gov.rs. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". www.oed.com.
- http://theses.gla.ac.uk/2781/1/2011BaptieMPhil-1.pdf, p. 8.
- Plishkova 2009, p. 17, 37, 67.
- Magocsi 2015, p. 3, 5, 134, 154, 222-224.
- Magocsi & Pop 2005, p. 267-281.
- Kushko 2007, p. 111-132.
- ISO 639-3: 639 Identifier Documentation: Rusyn (rue)
- "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". www.oed.com.
- Renoff & Reynolds 1975, p. 35, 51, 79-80.
- Bernard Comrie, "Slavic Languages," International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (1992, Oxford, Vol 3), pp. 452–456.
Ethnologue, 16th edition
- George Y. Shevelov, "Ukrainian," The Slavonic Languages, ed. Bernard Comrie and Greville G. Corbett (1993, Routledge), pp. 947–998.
- Moser 2016, p. 124-139.
- Magocsi & Pop 2005, p. 267-269, 275.
- Gavin Baptie (2011): Issues in Rusyn language standardisation, p. 8-9.
- Magocsi & Pop 2005, p. 276-281.
- Moser 2018, p. 87-104.
- Magocsi & Pop 2005, p. 46, 521.
- Csernicskó & Fedinec 2015, p. 93–113.
- Magocsi & Pop 2005, p. 495-497.
- Magocsi & Pop 2005, p. 73.
- Magocsi & Pop 2005, p. 531-532.
- Magocsi & Pop 2005, p. 75.
- "Statute of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina". Skupstinavojvodine.gov.rs. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Іван Гвать. "Україна в лещатах російських спецслужб". Radiosvoboda.org. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Slovenskej Republiky, Národná Rada (1999). "Zákon 184/1999 Z. z. o používaní jazykov národnostných menšín" (in Slovak). Zbierka zákonov. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2010.
- Csernicskó & Fedinec 2016, p. 560-582.
- Vyslockyj, Dmytryj (1931). Карпаторусский букварь [Karpatorusskij bukvar'] (in Rusyn). Cleveland.
- Trochanovskij, Metodyj (1935). Буквар. Перша книжечка для народных школ. [Bukvar. Perša knyžečka dlja narodnıx škol.] (in Rusyn). Lviv.
- Bogdan Horbal (2005). Custer, Richard D. (ed.). "The Rusyn Movement among the Galician Lemkos" (PDF). Rusyn-American Almanac of the Carpatho-Rusyn Society. Pittsburgh (10th Anniversary 2004–2005).
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- http://theses.gla.ac.uk/2781/1/2011BaptieMPhil-1.pdf, p. 52.
- Pugh, Stefan M. (2009). The Rusyn Language. Languages of the World/Materials, 476: München: LINCOM.CS1 maint: location (link)
- "Rusyn / Carpatho-Rusyn (ALA-LC Romanization Tables)" (PDF). The Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "Romanization of Rusyn: BGN/PCGN 2016 System" (PDF). NGA GEOnet Names Server. October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
- "IDS G: Transliterationstabellen 4. Transliteration der slavischen kyrillischen Alphabete" (PDF). Informationsverbund Deutchschweiz (IDS) (Version 15.10.01 ed.). 2001. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Кушницькый, Мигаль (27 May 2020). "Carpatho-Rusyn Phonetics ep3 - О/Ō | Карпаторусинська фонетика №3". YouTube.
- Кушницькый, Мигаль (1 May 2020). "Carpatho-Rusyn phonetics. Ep#2 - і, ї, ӯ | Карпаторусинська фонетика. Другый епізод". YouTube.
- "ruegrammatica". rueportal.eu.
- "Хыжа | lem.fm - Радийо Руской Бурсы". lem.fm - Радийо Руской Бурсы. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "Руске слово". Руске слово.
- "Rusnaci u svece". tripod.lycos.com. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- ISO 639-3: 639 Identifier Documentation: Rusyn (rue)
- ISO 639-3: Change Request Documentation: 2019-016
- ISO 639-3: Change Request Documentation: 2021-005
- Comments received for ISO 639-3 Change Request 2019-016 / Outcome: Rejected
- Request for Change to ISO 639-3 Language Code: 2021-005
- Bunčić 2015, p. 276-289.
- Bunčić, Daniel (2015). "On the dialectal basis of the Ruthenian literary language" (PDF). Die Welt der Slaven. 60 (2): 276–289.
- Csernicskó, István; Fedinec, Csilla (2015). "Language and Language Policy in Transcarpathia between the Two World Wars" (PDF). Minority Studies: Demography, Minority Education, Ethnopolitics. 18: 93–113.
- Csernicskó, István; Fedinec, Csilla (2016). "Four Language Laws of Ukraine". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. 23: 560–582.
- Danylenko, Andrii (2009). "Myxajlo Lučkaj - A Dissident Forerunner of Literary Rusyn?". The Slavonic and East European Review. 87 (2): 201–226.
- Дуць-Файфер, Олена (2019). "Писма - документы Світового Конґресу Русинів і Світовой Рады Русинів (1991-2019)". Річник Руской Бурсы. 15: 17–89.
- Aleksandr Dmitrievich Dulichenko. Jugoslavo-Ruthenica. Роботи з рускей филолоґиї. Нови Сад 1995.
- Fejsa, Mihajlo P. (2018a). "Verb forms/constructions in the Prešov variant and the Bačka-Srem variant of the Rusyn language". Studia Slavica. 63 (2): 367–378. doi:10.1556/060.2018.63.2.16.
- Геровский Г.Ю. Язык Подкарпатской Руси – Москва, 1995
- Harasowska, Marta (1999). Morphophonemic Variability, Productivity, and Change: The Case of Rusyn. Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110157611.
- Kushko, Nadiya (2007). "Literary Standards of the Rusyn Language: The Historical Context and Contemporary Situation". The Slavic and East European Journal. 51 (1): 111–132. JSTOR 20459424.
- Taras Kuzio, "The Rusyn question in Ukraine: sorting out fact from fiction", Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, XXXII (2005)
- Magocsi, Paul R. (1988a). Carpatho-Rusyn Studies: An Annotated Bibliography. 1. New York: Garland. ISBN 9780824012144.
- Magocsi, Paul R. (1988b). Carpatho-Rusyn Studies: An Annotated Bibliography. 2. New York: Garland. ISBN 9780880334204.
- Magocsi, Paul R. (1993). "Scholarly seminar on the codification of the Rusyn language (Bardejovské Kúpele, November 6-7, 1992)" (PDF). Revue des Études Slaves. 65 (3): 597–599.
- Magocsi, Paul R. (1995). "A new Slavic language is born" (PDF). Revue des Études Slaves. 67 (1): 238–240.
- Magocsi, Paul R. (1996). "The Rusyn language question revisited" (PDF). International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 120: 63–84. doi:10.1515/ijsl.1996.120.63. S2CID 56325995.
- Magocsi, Paul R. (2015). With Their Backs to the Mountains: A History of Carpathian Rus' and Carpatho-Rusyns. Budapest-New York: Central European University Press. ISBN 9786155053467.
- Magocsi, Paul R.; Pop, Ivan I., eds. (2005) . Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture (2. rev. ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
- Moser, Michael A. (2018). "The Fate of the Ruthenian or Little Russian (Ukrainian) Language in Austrian Galicia (1772-1867)". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 35 (2017-2018) (1/4): 87–104. JSTOR 44983536.
- Moser, Michael A. (2016). "Rusyn: A New-Old Language In-between Nations and States". The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 124–139. doi:10.1007/978-1-137-34839-5_7. ISBN 978-1-349-57703-3.
- Plišková, Anna (2007). Rusínsky jazyk na Slovensku: Náčrt vývoja a súčasné problémy (PDF). Prešov: Metodicko-pedagogické centrum.
- Plishkova, Anna (2009). Language and National Identity: Rusyns South of Carpathians. Boulder: East European Monographs.
- Renoff, Richard; Reynolds, Stephen, eds. (1975). Proceedings of the Conference on Carpatho-Ruthenian Immigration, 8 June 1974. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 9780916458003.
- Rusinko, Elaine (2003). Straddling Borders: Literature and Identity in Subcarpathian Rus'. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
- Gregory Zatkovich. The Rusin Question in a Nutshell. OCLC 22065508.
|Rusyn edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Rusyn test of Wiktionary at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rusyn language.|
- The World Academy of Rusyn Culture
- Rusyn Greco Catholic Church in Novi Sad (Vojvodina-Serbia)
- Rusyn-Ukrainian Dictionary
- Course of Lemko-Rusyn Language (in Polish and Lemko)