Prešov (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈpreʂɔw] (listen), Hungarian: Eperjes, Rusyn and Ukrainian: Пряшів) is a city in Eastern Slovakia. It is the seat of administrative Prešov Region (Slovak: Prešovský kraj) and Šariš, as well as the historic Sáros County of the Kingdom of Hungary. With a population of approximately 90,000 for the city, and in total about 110,000 with the metropolitan area, it is the third-largest city in Slovakia. It belongs to the Košice-Prešov agglomeration and is the natural cultural, economic, transport and administrative center of the Šariš region. It lends its name to the Eperjes-Tokaj Hill-Chain which was considered as the geographic entity on the first map of Hungary from 1528.[5] There are many tourist attractions in Prešov such as castles, pools and the old town.

Prešov
City
City centre of Prešov
City centre of Prešov
Flag of Prešov
Coat of arms of Prešov
Prešov is located in Prešov Region
Prešov
Prešov
Location in Slovakia
Prešov is located in Slovakia
Prešov
Prešov
Prešov (Slovakia)
Coordinates: 49°00′06″N 21°14′22″E / 49.00167°N 21.23944°E / 49.00167; 21.23944Coordinates: 49°00′06″N 21°14′22″E / 49.00167°N 21.23944°E / 49.00167; 21.23944
Country Slovakia
RegionPrešov
DistrictPrešov
First mentioned1247
Government
 • MayorIng. Andrea Turčanová
Area
 • City70.43[2] km2 (27.19[2] sq mi)
Elevation
296[3] m (971[3] ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • City83,897[1]
 • Metro
110,978
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
080 01[3]
Area code+421 51[3]
Car platePO, PV
Websitepresov.sk

EtymologyEdit

The first written mention is from 1247 (Theutonici de Epuryes).[6] Several authors derived the name from Hungarian: eper (strawberry). The theory was questioned in the 1940s and newer Slovak works suggest a derivation from Slavic personal name Preš/Prešä and its later phonetic adaptation (introduction of e before the initial consonant group and removal of the suffix, the original form then ceased to exist).[6] Strawberries[a] depicted on the coat of arms of Prešov are not necessarily determinative, the Latin name Fragopolis (strawberry city) is only a modern translation.[6]

Other alternative names of the city include German: Preschau or Eperies, Hungarian Eperjes, Polish Preszów, Romany Peryeshis, Russian Пряшев (Pryashev) and Rusyn and Ukrainian Пряшів (Priashiv).

People from Prešov are traditionally known as koňare which means "horse keepers".[b]

CharacteristicsEdit

The old town is a showcase of Baroque, Rococo and Gothic architecture. The historical center is lined with buildings built in these styles. In the suburbs, however, the Soviet influence is clearly evident through the massive concrete panel buildings (paneláky) of the housing estates (sídliska) and the Sekčov district. More Soviet-style architecture is seen in the government buildings near the city center.

Significant industries in the city include mechanical and electrical engineering companies and the clothing industry. Solivary, the only salt mining and processing company in Slovakia, also operates in the city. The city is a seat of a Greek Catholic metropolitan see and of the primate of the autocephalous Orthodox Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia.

Many concerts, operas, operettas and stage plays are performed at the new building of the Jonáš Záborský Theatre (Divadlo Jonáša Záborského), as well as at the older theatre premises.

The city and the region were contenders for European Capital of Culture 2013.[7] The nearby city of Košice was chosen.

TopographyEdit

Prešov lies in the eastern part of Slovakia at the confluence of the rivers Torysa and Sekčov in the Košice Basin. It is surrounded by Slanské vrchy from the east and Šarišská vrchovina from the west. Roads I / 18 (Poprad - Michalovce), I / 68 (direction Stará Ľubovňa), I / 20 (direction Košice) intersect in the town and the south-western connection of the D1 motorway (Poprad - Košice) is being built. The Košice - Muszyna railway line leads through Prešov, to which the lines to Humenné and Bardejov connect. Košice lies 36 km (22 mi) south, Poprad 75 km (47 mi) west, Bardejov 41 km (25 mi) north and Vranov nad Topľou 46 km (29 mi) east.

City DistrictsEdit

 
Torysa riverbank in Prešov
 
The historic center with the tower of the Co-Cathedral of St. Nicholas. The background building is the University Hospital

Self-governing city districts. Territorial districts of self-governing city districts:

  • Circuit number 1: Sídlisko III, Sídlisko Mladosť, Rúrky
  • Circuit number 2: Sídlisko II, Kalvária, pod Kamennou baňou, pod Wilecovou hôrkou, Borkút, Vydumanec, Kvašná voda, Cemjata
  • Circuit number 3: north of the city, Mier, Šidlovec, Dúbrava, Surdok, Kúty, Širpo, Nižná Šebastová
  • Circuit number 4: city center – Staré mesto, Táborisko, Sídlisko Duklianskych hrdinov
  • Circuit number 5: Solivar, Soľná Baňa, Šváby, Delňa, Tichá Dolina
  • Circuit number 5.5: Šimonov
  • Circuit number 6: southern part of the housing project Sekčov – building 1 – 4
  • Circuit number 7: northern part of the housing project Sekčov – building 5 – 7, Šalgovík

Cadastral city district: Prešov, Nižná Šebastová, Solivar, Šalgovík, Cemjata

Other districts: Delňa, Dúbrava, Kalvária, Rúrky, Soľná Baňa, Šarišské Lúky, Širpo, Šidlovec, Táborisko, Teľov, Vydumanec, Borkút, Kúty, Surdok

Housing estates: Duklianskych hrdinov, Mier, Mladosť, Sekčov, Sídlisko II, Sídlisko III, Šváby

Previous city districts: Haniska (1970 – 1990), Ľubotice (1970 – 1990), Šarišské Lúky (1970 – 1990, since 1990 it's a part of the village Ľubotice)

In the last few few years and today, the construction of new residential areas and satellite towns in Prešov is being realized, especially in the district Šidlovec, Solivar, Šalgovík, Tichá dolina and Surdok.

WatercoursesEdit

  • Torysa with tributaries:
    • Šidlovský potok (L)
    • Vydumanec (R)
    • Malkovský potok (R)
    • Sekčov (L)
    • Delňa (L)
  • Continues to Sekčov:
    • Šebastovka (L)
    • Ľubotický potok (L)
    • Šalgovícky potok (L)
    • Soľný potok (L)
    • Baracký potok (R)

HistoryEdit

Habitation in the area around Prešov dates as far back as the Paleolithic period. The oldest discovered tools and mammoth bones are 28,000 years old. Continuous settlement dates back to the 8th century.

After the Mongol invasion in 1241, King Béla IV of Hungary invited German colonists to fill the gaps in population. Prešov became a German-speaking settlement, related to the Zipser German and Carpathian German areas,[5] and was elevated to the rank of a royal free town in 1347 by Louis the Great.[8]

 
Historic town houses
 
The 49° latitude is marked by a monument.

In 1412, Prešov helped to create the Pentapolitana, the league of five towns, a trading group. The first record of a school dates from 1429. After the collapse of the old Kingdom of Hungary after the Ottoman invasion of 1526, Prešov became a border city and changed hands several times between two usually rivalrous domains, Habsburg Royal Hungary and Hungarian states normally backed by the Ottomans: the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom, the Principality of Transylvania, and the Principality of Upper Hungary.

Still, Prešov went through an economic boom thanks to trade with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the 16th century it brought in grape vines from the nearby Tokaj wine region, and was home to German-Hungarian, Polish and Greek wine merchants. Some of the first books on Tokaj wine were written in German in Prešov.[5]

In 1572, salt mining began in Solivar (at that time a nearby town, now part of Prešov).

 
Prešov, named here as 'Eperjes', shown close to the border with Transylvania in 1606

Antun Vrančić, a Croatian[9] prelate, writer, diplomat and Archbishop of Esztergom, died in Prešov in 1573.

Prešov was prominent in the Protestant Reformation. It was at the front line in the 1604–1606 Bocskai Uprising, when Imperial Army commander Giorgio Basta retreated to the town after failing to take Košice from the Protestant rebels.

 
A 17th-century siege of Prešov, named here as 'Eperies'

In 1647 the Habsburgs designated it the capital of Sáros county. In late January 1657, Transylvanian Prince George II Rákóczi, a Protestant, invaded Poland with army of some 25,000 which crossed the Carpathians on the road from Prešov to Krosno.

Wolfgang Schustel, a Lutheran reformer during the Reformation, who adopted an uncompromising position on public piety worked in Prešov and other towns. In 1667, the important Evangelical Lutheran College of Eperjes was established by Lutherans in the town.

Imre Thököly, the Protestant Hungarian rebel and Ottoman ally studied at the Protestant college here. In 1685 he was defeated here by the Habsburg at the Battle of Eperjes. In 1687 twenty-four prominent citizens and noblemen were executed, under a tribunal instituted by the Austrian general Antonio Caraffa,[8] for supporting the uprising of Imre Thököly:

"The city particularly suffered during the religious conflicts of the seventeenth century, when it had a reputation for Protestant anti-Habsburg sentiment. In 1687, General Carafa, an emissary of the Austrian emperor, imprisoned a group of local noblemen suspected of insurrection in a former wine warehouse off the square now known as Caraffa's Prison. He subsequently, and notoriously, had 24 of them tortured, executed and their heads placed on spikes around the town, after what we would now call a show trial."[10]

At the beginning of the 18th century, the population was decimated by the Bubonic plague and fires and was reduced to a mere 2,000 inhabitants. By the second half of the century, however, the town had recovered; crafts and trade improved, and new factories were built. In 1752 the salt mine in Solivar was flooded. Since then salt has been extracted from salt brine through boiling.

 
Map of Sáros county showing Prešov, named here as 'Eperjes'

The English author John Paget visited Presov and describes it in his 1839 book Hungary and Transylvania.[11] In 1870 the first railway line was built, connecting the town to Košice. At the end of the 19th century, the town introduced electricity, telephone, telegraph and a sewage systems. In 1887 fire destroyed a large part of the town.[12]

On 16 June 1919, the very brief Slovak Soviet Republic was declared here with the support of the Hungarian Soviet Republic.[13] In 1920, after the Treaty of Trianon, Eperjes became part of the newly created Czechoslovakia as Prešov. During World War II, the nearby town of Košice again became part of the Kingdom of Hungary as a result of the First Vienna Award. As a result, many institutions moved from Košice to Prešov, thus increasing the town's importance. In 1944, a professional Slovak Theatre was established in Prešov. The city is a site in the Holocaust:

"In 1940, on the eve of the Holocaust, Prešov contained five synagogues and more than one in six of the city's population—4,308 people—was Jewish. Three of the synagogues are still standing, but the Jewish community now numbers fewer than 60. Outside the sole functioning synagogue, on Švermova just off the main square, is a memorial to the 6,400 Jews from Prešov and the surrounding region who died in the Holocaust. The broad path leading to the tombstone-shaped monument, surrounded by prison-like bars, is intended to represent the Jewish pre-war population; the narrow path that leads on from it to the synagogue, those who survived."[14]

About two thousand Jews were deported from Prešov to the Dęblin–Irena Ghetto in May 1942. Only a few dozen survived.[15]

On 19 January 1945 Prešov was taken by Soviet troops of the 1st Guards Army. After 1948, during the Communist era in Czechoslovakia, Prešov became an industrial center. Due to World War II, Prešov lost the majority of its Jewish population. Nonetheless, population of the city increased rapidly from 28,000 in 1950 to 52,000 in 1970 and 89,000 in 1990.

Overview of significant historical eventsEdit

  • 4th – 5th century – arrival of Slavs to the territory of Prešov
  • 1247 – the first written mention of Prešov
  • 1299 – granting of city rights by King Andrew III of Hungary
  • 1412 (the 80s of the 15th century) – Prešov belongs to Pentapolitana (community of 5 royal cities - Prešov, Košice, Bardejov, Levoča, Sabinov)
  • 1429 – the first mention of a town school in Prešov
  • 1453 – the first coat of arms of Prešov
  • 1455 – granting the right of the city of Prešov to organize an annual three-day fair by King Ladislaus the Posthumous
  • 1502 – 1505 – beginning of the construction of the Co-Cathedral of St. Nicholas
  • 1647 – sanctification of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession of the Holy Trinity Church
  • 1667 – College in Prešov, Evangelical Educational Center of Upper Hungary, National Cultural Monument
  • 1687 – Caraffa's slaughterhouse, 24 executed townspeople
  • 1703 – the beginning of the most powerful anti-Habsburg uprising led by Francis II. Rákocim
  • The end of the 18th century – arrival of the first Jews in Prešov
  • 1816 – Prešov becomes the seat of an independent Greek Catholic diocese
  • 1848 – construction of the 1st Jewish synagogue
  • 1886, 1887 – big devastating fires affect Prešov
  • November 1, 1918 – in the afternoon, 41 soldiers and 2 civilians were executed in the city square. This event is also known as the Prešov Uprising (Prešovská vzbura)
  • 16 June 1919 – from the balcony of the town hall the Slovenská Soviet Republic (SSR) was declared
  • 1923 – 1924 – construction of the Art Nouveau building of Bosáková bank
  • December 20, 1944 - the bombing of the city is reminiscent of a small monument on Konštantínova Street
  • January 19, 1945 – liberation of Prešov by the Red Army, the end of World War II is reminiscent of the Liberators Memorial
  • 1950 – the center becomes a city monument reserve
  • 1972 – The Solivary is becoming a national cultural monument
  • July 2, 1995 – Pope John Paul II visited Prešov
  • 2021 – Pope Francis visited Prešov
 
City Hall
 
Military headquarters

The highest representatives of the cityEdit

By granting city privileges in 1299, the people of Prešov gained the right to elect their vogt. Such a vogt embodied the highest executive and judicial power in the city. He was elected among the esteemed burghers, usually for one year. The first vogt in the city of Prešov, whose name has been preserved, was Hanus called Ogh, who is mentioned in historical sources as early as 1314. However, historians have not been able to complete the complete list of all the vogts of Prešov until from 1497.[16] For the first time, a woman became the highest representative of Prešov in 2014, when Andrea Turčanová became the winner of the election. In the elections of 2018, she strengthened her position and won the elections to the mayor of Prešov.

MilitaryEdit

Prešov already had an important geographical position in the Middle Ages, because it was located at the crossroads of trade routes and also belonged to the important defense system of the emerging Hungarian state. The beginnings of the army in Prešov date back to this area, as Hungarian tribes and their allies, which were military-guard groups of Asian ethnic groups, came to these areas to establish guard settlements and fortresses to defend the emerging Kingdom of Hungary from enemy attacks. To this day, the names of the nearby hills Veľká and Lysá stráž have been preserved.[17]

The city had its own garrison probably since 1374, when it was given the right to build defensive walls with bastions and towers by King Louis I. The importance of the military garrison certainly increased because the city of Prešov became a free royal town in the 14th century. At the end of the 16th century, during the 15-year war with Turkey, the city had to sustain a large imperial army. From 1604, when the first of a number of anti-Habsburg uprisings of the Hungarian estates broke out, until 1710, when the city capitulated to a strong Habsburg army, Prešov was besieged many times by various insurgent troops, even by imperial troops. For example: Bocskai uprising, General Bast's troops, Juraj I. Rákoci's insurgents, Veshelini's conspiracy, Kuruk's insurgents, Tököli's uprising, General Caraffa's Prešov slaughterhouses and the insurgents led by Francis II. Rákocim. Prešov then flourished until 1848, because it did not experience any war.[18]

The revolutionary years of 1848–49 pulled not only the free royal city of Prešov, but the whole country into the whirlwind of events. Volunteer towns. Due to its strategic location, Prešov experienced several changes of military forces during this period. For example, General Schlick's imperial army was replaced by Görgey's Hungarian army, which was soon replaced by Austrian and Slovak volunteer units, which in turn were replaced by imperial soldiers together with the Russian army. The fact that the military importance of Prešov continued to grow is also evidenced by the data from the census of 1900, when out of 14,447 inhabitants of Prešov there were up to 1,349 soldiers. The local military garrison consisted of several units of the joint army and militia, the largest of which was the 67th Imperial and Royal Infantry Regiment. The hardships of World War I and especially its end tragically affected the life of Prešov, because on November 1, 1918, under the influence of the revolution in Budapest, soldiers of the 67th Regiment and some other smaller units in Prešov refused to obey their commanders and looted some shops in Prešov. After the arrival of military reinforcements, the insurgents were arrested and despite the fact that there were no casualties during the riots, the statistical court sentenced the participants in the uprising to death. On the same day, November 1, 1918, 41 soldiers and 2 civilians were executed in the square. This event is also known as the Prešov Uprising.[19] The bombing of the city on December 20, 1944, was also devastating for the city of Prešov.

From July 4, 1945, shortly after the end of World War II, military units in the territory of Czechoslovakia were reorganized according to the model of the Red Army. Since then, the following military headquarters have been located in the city of Prešov: infantry regiment headquarters, rifle division headquarters, tank division headquarters, motorized rifle division headquarters, mechanized division headquarters, army corps headquarters, mechanized brigade headquarters.

From 1918 to 2019, these soldiers, who were born in Prešov, brigadier general František Bartko, major general Vojtech Gejza Danielovič, lieutenant general Alexander Mucha, Brigadier General Ing. Karol Navrátil, brigadier general Ing. Ivan Pach,[20] major general Emil Perko, major general Jozef Zadžora.[21][22]

GeographyEdit

Prešov lies at an altitude of 250 m (820 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 70.4 km2 (27.2 sq mi).[23] It is located in the north-eastern Slovakia, at the northern reaches of the Košice Basin, at the confluence of the Torysa River with its tributary Sekčov. Mountain ranges nearby include Slanské vrchy (south-east), Šarišská vrchovina (south-west), Bachureň (west) and Čergov (north). The neighbouring city of Košice is 34 km (21 mi) to the south. Prešov is about 50 km (31 mi) south of the Polish border, 60 km (37 mi) north of the Hungarian border and is some 410 km (250 mi) northeast of Bratislava (by road).

ClimateEdit

Prešov has a warm humid continental climate, bordering an oceanic climate. Prešov has four distinct seasons and is characterized by a significant variation between somewhat warm summers and slightly cold, snowy winters.

Climate data for Prešov
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
1.7
(35.1)
8.3
(46.9)
13.9
(57.0)
19.4
(66.9)
22.2
(72.0)
23.9
(75.0)
23.9
(75.0)
20.0
(68.0)
13.9
(57.0)
5.6
(42.1)
1.1
(34.0)
12.8
(55.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.9
(39.0)
8.9
(48.0)
13.9
(57.0)
16.7
(62.1)
18.3
(64.9)
17.8
(64.0)
14.4
(57.9)
9.4
(48.9)
2.8
(37.0)
−1.7
(28.9)
8.3
(46.9)
Average low °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.3
(37.9)
8.3
(46.9)
11.1
(52.0)
12.2
(54.0)
11.7
(53.1)
8.9
(48.0)
4.4
(39.9)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
3.7
(38.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
34
(1.3)
47
(1.9)
66
(2.6)
92
(3.6)
78
(3.1)
72
(2.8)
51
(2.0)
40
(1.6)
46
(1.8)
35
(1.4)
622
(24.5)
Source: [24]

DemographicsEdit

 
Neptune Fountain on Hlavná ulica (the Main Street) in Prešov
 
Memorial - Prešovská Sloboda (Prešov Freedom)

HistoricEdit

 
Greek Catholic Archbishop's and Metropolitan Office and Cathedral on Hlavná (Main Street)

In the past, Prešov was a typical multiethnic town where Slovak, Hungarian, German, and Yiddish were spoken.

Population of Prešov according to "mother tongue" 1880–1910[25]
Mother

tongue

census 1880 census 1890 census 1900 census 1910
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Slovak 5,705 56.27% 5,573 53.74% 6,804 47.10% 6,494 39.78%
Hungarian 1,963 19.36% 2,670 25,74% 5,513 38.16% 7,976 48.86%
German 1,889 18.63% 1,786 17.22% 1,705 11.80% 1,404 8.60%
Romanian 2 0.02% 4 0.04% 27 0.19% 170 1.04%
Rusyn 162 1.60% 106 1.02% 121 0.84% 47 0.29%
Serbo-Croatian 5 0.05% - - - - - -
Serbian - - 5 0.05% 5 0.03% 2 0.01%
Croatian - - 0 0.0% 6 0.04% 4 0.02%
Slovenian - - 0 0,0% - - - -
Other 132 1.30% 227 2,19% 226 1.84% 226 1.38%
Foreign (non-Hungarian) 30 0.30% - - - - - -
Cannot speak 251 2.48% - - - - - -
Total 10,139 10,317 14,447 16,323

Before World War II Prešov was a home for a large Jewish population of 4,300 and housed a major Jewish museum. During 1939 and 1940 the Jewish community absorbed a flow of Jewish refugees from German Nazi-occupied Poland, and in 1941 additional deportees from Bratislava. In 1942 a series of deportations of Prešov's Jews to the German Nazi death camps in Poland began. Plaques in the town hall and a memorial in the surviving synagogue record that 2 6,400 Jews were deported from the town under the Tiso government of the First Slovak Republic. Only 716 Jewish survivors were found in the city and its surrounding when it was liberated by the Soviet Red Army in January 1945.[citation needed]

ModernEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1910 16,323—    
1930 21,377+31.0%
1950 20,300−5.0%
1965 39,630+95.2%
1980 68,530+72.9%
1991 87,771+28.1%
2001 92,791+5.7%
2011 91,782−1.1%
source [26]

According to the 2011 census, Prešov had 91 782 inhabitants, 81.14% declared Slovak nationality, 1.70% Romani, 1.59% Rusyn, 0,7% Ukrainian, 0.48% Czech, 0.14% Hungarian, 13.8% did not declare any nationality.[27]

ReligionEdit

Roman Catholic ChurchEdit

Prešov is the seat of the Roman Co-Cathedral of St. Nicholas. The city is part of the metropolitan Košice Archdiocese.

Greek Catholic ChurchEdit

Prešov is the seat of the Slovak Greek Catholic metropolis and the Prešov Greek Catholic Archeparchy, which was founded on November 3, 1815, by Emperor Francis II.

Orthodox ChurchEdit

The Prešov Orthodox Diocese was established after World War II by the division of the Mukachevo-Prešov Orthodox Diocese. The Cathedral of St. Prince Alexander Nevsky was built between 1946 and 1950 in the traditional Russian style.

Evangelical Church of the Augsburg ConfessionEdit

Prešov is also the seat of the diocese of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Slovakia.

Religious educationEdit

There are two theological faculties in the city - the Greek Catholic Theological Faculty and the Orthodox Theological Faculty. Both are part of the University of Prešov.

Religious make-upEdit

The religious make-up was 55.8% Roman Catholics, 12.44% people with no religious affiliation, 8.15% Greek Catholics, 4.05% Lutherans, 1.55% Orthodox, 17.16% did not declare any religious affiliation.[28] On the contrary, we see an increase in the number of atheists, Greek Catholics and the unidentified.

CultureEdit

TheatersEdit

  • Alexander Dukhnovych Theater
  • Jonas Záborský Theater
  • CILILING Children's Theater (www.cililing.sk)
  • Babadlo Children's Theater
  • DRaK Children's Theater
  • Portal Theater
  • Theater studio in Hlavná
  • Erik Németh Theater
  • Prešov National Theater
  • Black Eagle Culture and Recreation Park
  • Viola - center for art
 
The historic building of the Jonáš Záborský Theater
 
Black Eagle Culture and Recreation Park (Park kultúry a oddychu Čierny orol)
 
Exterior gallery on Okružná street

MuseumsEdit

GalleriesEdit

  • Šariš Gallery
  • Caraffa Prison Gallery
  • Wall Gallery
  • Creative Design Gallery
  • Atrium Gallery
  • J.D Galéria J.L - exterior gallery on Okružná street, showing paintings of historical Prešov

LibrariesEdit

CinemasEdit

  • Scala (former Panorama Cinema)
  • Cinemax Max (5 halls)
  • Cinemax Novum (8 halls)
  • Star OC Eperia (5 halls)
  • Garden Cinema
  • Prešov Amphitheater

ScienceEdit

  • Regional Observatory and Planetarium
  • Unipolab - science park of the University of Prešov

MusicEdit

Thanks to the lively musical life and the success of Prešov's music production, the city of Prešov has earned the nickname "Slovak Seattle"[29][30][31][32] or "City of Music" long ago, mainly through the media. However, many musicians from Prešov work not only within their hometown or region, but also reap success in the whole of Slovakia, neighboring countries or even Europe.

However, not only the number of mainstream successful musicians contributed to the musical life of the city, in the past and today, but also more or less (un) known groups and musical subcultures, steadily operating in the city foothills (genres: metal, punk, alternative scene, gospel, pop-rock, folk, jazz, country), concert rooms and clubs (Véčko, Bizarre, Christiania, City Club, Stromoradie, Za siedmimi oknami, Wave, Ester rock club, Netopier, Staré Mexico, Insomnia), rock shows of bands with a long tradition (Rock League, over 20 years, Prešov student Liverpool, 6 years, Ladder), but also festivals (Sigortus, Dobrý festival, (t)urbanfest, ImROCK FEST, East Side Music Festival, Festival zlej hudby, Farfest, or Jazz Prešov).

Important events include the Dni mesta Prešov (Days of the City of Prešov), which are held annually on the occasion of the celebrations of the first written mention of the city (as of 2021, 774th anniversary). The celebrations usually include open-air concerts right in the center on Hlavná Street, whereas several guests from the domestic and European alternative scene took turns throughout the years. That includes: Deti Picasso (Russia), Myster Möbius (France/Hungary), Masfél (Hungary), Prague Selection II.; Laura a její tygři (Czech Republic), Srečna Mladina (Slovenia), Squartet (Italy), but also Slovak groups Heľenine Oči, Chiki liki tu-a, Arzén, Mango Molas, Alter Ego, Kapátske chrbáty a Komajota.

Part of the city's celebrations are also side stages, where young bands can also try their luck.

In 2009, the first Prešov film festival. Bastion film festival, was established. The festival takes place on the historic wall behind the Franciscan Church. The organizers are PKO Prešov and Prešov composer and guitarist David Kollar.

After many years, the constant influx and modification of music groups, which are often enforced throughout Slovakia, required documentation, which took place through the Internet database of Prešov bands and performers under the name Frenky's Music Encyclopedia. Historically and currently, the ever-growing database of Prešov musicians is run by Michal Frank, a journalist and editor-in-chief of the Prešov Korzár.

Významní prešovskí hudobníci a kapely:

BuildingsEdit

 
Bosák's house
 
Historic houses and St. Nicolaus Church
 
Church of St. Joseph (Franciscan)
 
Orthodox synagogue on Okružná street
 
Floriánova street
  • State Scientific Library
  • Culture and Recreation Park
  • Observatory and planetarium
  • Fountains and small fountains in Prešov
  • New Jonáš Záborský Theater
  • Jonáš Záborský Historical Theater
  • White House (PSK headquarters)

Historical monumentsEdit

  • Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, which houses the remains of the Blessed Martyrs of Prešov bl. Pavel Petr Gojdič and Vasil Hopek and a faithful copy of the Turin Canvas.
  • Co-Cathedral of St. Nicholas
  • Church of St. Alexander Nevsky
  • Bosák's house (bank)
  • Caraffa Prison (gallery)
  • Florian's Gate
  • Gothic gate
  • Sculpture of the Immaculate Conception
  • Sculpture of St. Roch
  • Evangelical College
  • Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession
  • Church of St. Joseph
  • Greek Catholic Episcopal Palace
  • Rákóczi Palace – the seat of the Regional Museum
  • Klobušický Palace - seat of the Regional Court
  • Tauth's house
  • Weber's house
  • De Rossi's House
  • Szyrmayi Curia – the seat of the Orthodox Theological Faculty of University of Prešov
  • Old town school
  • Wierdt House – the seat of the regional monument office
  • Prešov Calvary – an important monument from the first half of the 18th century. Construction began in 1721 and was completed around 1752. The construction was led by the Jesuits, who administered the Roman Catholic parish. Calvary consists of 16 baroque chapels and a church in honor of the St. Cross, which is built on the highest point
  • Historic town hall
  • Jewish Synagogue – it houses the Judaica Museum of the Jewish Culture of the Slovak National Museum in Bratislava (one of the most beautiful synagogues in Slovakia)
  • Neological synagogue on Konštantínova street
  • Sancta Maria Institute – the seat of the gymasium on Konštantínova Street
  • Kumšt - originally a bastion, rebuilt into the Vodárenská bastion, Jewish Museum (1929 - 1939), since 1947 under the administration of the Regional Museum in Prešov
  • Blacksmith's bastion
  • Franciscan Bastion
  • Remains of the city fortifications
  • Church of Donatus of Muenstereifel on Cemjata
  • Neptune Fountain
  • Jonas Záborský Theater
  • Black Eagle Culture and Recreation Park
  • Alexander Duchnovič Theater - Pulský Palace
  • Dry mill
  • Solivar National Cultural Monument
  • Church of St. Stephen on Hrádku - Salt Castle (Castrum Salis), Solivar
  • Water tower (currently a lookout tower), Táborisko
  • Renaissance manor-house in Nižná Šebastová
  • Parish Church of the Blessed Name of Jesus and Mary and Franciscan Monastery, Nižná Šebastová
  • Statue of Christ in Rio de Janeiro on Trojica
  • Statue of John Paul II
  • Historic underground reservoir on Calvary

CastlesEdit

 
The area of Šariš Castle in winter

Prešov has the largest number of preserved castle ruins among all the regional towns in its vicinity, which led to the creation of the Prešov Castle Road project in 2019. The aim was to connect these castles with an imaginary tourist line and thus support the development of tourism in Prešov and its surroundings. 6 castles took part in the Prešov Castle Road project, namely:

  • Šariš Castle
  • Kapušany Castle
  • Zbojnícky Castle
  • Lipov Castle
  • Obišov Castle
  • Šebeš Castle

ParksEdit

 
Cemjata Lesopark - Fermented water (Kvašná voda)
 
Borkút lesopark

The construction of a central city park, situated between the Sekčov housing estate and Táborisko, is being prepared. In addition to the planned central city park, there are several parks and parks in Prešov:

Northern Park - near Trojica, there is a sculpture of the Immaculate Conception

  • South Park – Hlavná Street, includes a monument to the liberators and the Neptune Fountain
  • Garden of Art – Svätoplukova street
  • Manor garden – Nižná Šebastová
  • Kolman's garden
  • Sculpture park by the amphitheater
  • St. John of Nepomuk Park - Nižná Šebastová
  • Legionary Square Park
  • Park artillerymen's Lesík
  • Čierny Most Park
  • Sekčov Park
  • Clementisova Park
  • Youth Square Park
  • Zabíjaná Lesopark
  • Cemjata Lesopark
  • Borkút Lesopark

SportsEdit

FootballEdit

Prešov is home to one professional football team: 1. FC Tatran Prešov which is the oldest football team in Slovakia.

Ice hockeyEdit

The city's ice hockey club is HC 21 Prešov. Home arena of Prešov is ICE Arena and it has capacity of 5500 visitors. Prešov had hockey team since 1928 (HC Prešov Penguins) but in 2019 it has folded.

HandballEdit

The city's handball club is HT Tatran Prešov which is Slovakia's most popular and currently most successful club. The handball team of Prešov is taking part not only in the Slovak league (where it is dominating), but also in the international SEHA League with the best handball teams from the region. Many handball players from this team are also members of the Slovak national handball team.

OtherEdit

  • City multipurpose sports hall
  • Tatran Handball Arena (home stadium HT Tatran Prešov)
  • Women's Handball Hall - Sídlisko II, by the river Torysa, near Kaufland
  • ICE Arena (home stadium HC Prešov Penguins)
  • University of Prešov Hall
  • Velodrome Prešov
  • Bike Center Prešov, Pumptrack and Dirt track, Sekčov

Regular eventsEdit

  • Academic Prešov - student art festival
  • Turbanfest - a festival of alternative music, theaters and workshops
  • Prešov Music Spring (classical music concerts)
  • Golden Barrel - a show of cartoonists from around the world
  • Slovak Libraries Week
  • Earth Day
  • Evening run through Prešov
  • Šariš hackathon
  • Prešov Half Marathon
  • Lear Run
  • Tour de Prešov - cycling marathon
  • Santa's run
  • Santa's gift
  • Salt day
  • Salt Fair, connected with the International Museum Day
  • The bobbin lace festival - the international participation of bobbins - lasts 1 week. The first days are the courses of bobbin lace and by the end of the week, the event itself is connected with the demonstration of bobbin and the sale of everything related to this technique
  • Good festival
  • Bad music festival
  • Days of the city of Prešov
  • Discovering Prešov
  • Prešov Trinity Fair and festival of historical fencing and craft groups
  • Prešov Cultural Summer
  • Beer Festival - equestrian complex in Sídlisko III
  • Muvina - wine show
  • Church night
  • Prešov markets and parkour races
  • Prešov Music Autumn (classical music concerts)
  • JAZZ Prešov - International Jazz Festival
  • Jazz rock festival
  • Súťaž mladých barmanov a čašníkov – EUROCUP
  • IMAGE - Fashion Show
  • Opal grain - business competition
  • Gorazdov literary Prešov
  • Farmers markets
  • Prešov Student Liverpool - Young musical talents
  • Christmas Salon - exhibition of Prešov artists
  • Prešov Christmas Markets
  • New Year's Eve - a joint celebration of the New Year
  • Guitar Night
  • Prešov likes to read

Economy and infrastructureEdit

Industrial parksEdit

The following industrial parks and industrial zones are located in Prešov:

  • Priemyselný park IPZ Prešov - Záborské (Industrial park IPZ Prešov - Záborské)
  • Priemyselný park Záturecká (Záturecká Industrial park)
  • Priemyselný park Grófske (Grófske Industrial park - under construction)
  • Priemyselný areál Šalgovík (Šalgovík industrial area)
  • Priemyselná zóna Budovateľská (Budovateľská Industrial zone)
  • Priemyselná zóna Širpo (Širpo Industrial zone)
  • Priemyselná zóna Delňa (Delňa Industrial zone)

TransportEdit

 
Construction of the southwestern bypass of Prešov
 
The inner bypass of Prešov, the so-called Waterfront communication
 
One of the newest types of trolleybuses in Prešov - Trolleybus Škoda 30Tr SOR

TrafficEdit

Prešov is connected by the D1 motorway to the south with Košice, to the west with Poprad and Ružomberok. The completion of its connecting sections enabling motorway connections to Bratislava and Žilina is expected in 2024. A high-quality connection with Poland via Svidník and Hungary is to be provided by the R4 expressway.

Today, Prešov has a southwestern motorway bypass, which has been under construction since 2017 and was officially opened on October 28, 2021. The southwestern bypass of Prešov forms part of the D1 motorway in the section Prešov - west and Prešov - south. Since 2019, the 1st stage of the northern bypass from the Prešov - West (Vydumanec) junction to the Prešov - North (Dúbrava) junction, which will be part of the R4 expressway, has been under construction. After the overall construction, the Prešov motorway bypass will bypass the whole city, divert transit traffic in all directions and connect the D1 with the R4. It will start at D1 Prešov - South junction, continue towards the northwest, to the Prešov - West junction, there it will connect to the already completed parts of the D1 motorway, at this junction the R4 will connect to D1. Completion of the construction of the 1st stage of the northern bypass R4 is planned for the spring of 2023 and the 2nd stage in 2024.

International routes of European importance E50 and E371, first class roads I/18, I/68 and I/20 and second class road 546 pass through Prešov. In 2017, the last stage of the so-called Embankment communication (Nábrežná komunikácia), including the reconstruction of the intersection at ZVL, which relieved the city center of transit traffic.

City transportEdit

Urban public transport is provided by the Transport Company of the City of Prešov (Dopravný podnik mesta Prešov, a. s.), which operates a total of 45 regular public transport lines by the following means of transport:

  • trolleybuses (lines: 1, 2, 4, 5, 5D, 7, 8, 38)
  • buses (daily lines: 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 32A, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, nočné linky: N1, N2, N3)

Vehicle fleet MHDEdit

Today, the following vehicles are operated in MHD (Metská hromadná doprava - Public transport) Prešov:

  • trolleybuses: Škoda 24 Tr Irisbus, Škoda 25 Tr Irisbus, Škoda 31 Tr SOR, Škoda 30 Tr SOR
  • buses: Karosa B 941 / B 941E, Karosa B 961 / B 961E, Solaris Urbino 12, Karosa Irisbus Citybus 12M, Karosa Irisbus Citybus 18M, Irisbus Citelis 12M, Irisbus Citelis 18M, Iveco First FCLLI, SOR NB 12 City, SOR NB 18 City, Solaris Urbino 18, Irisbus Crossway LE 12M, SOR BN 10.5 (leased from DPB[33])

History of public transportEdit

 
Trolleybus Škoda 31Tr SOR
 
Low-floor trolleybuses have been running in Prešov since 2006. The Škoda 24Tr on Hlavná Street on line 1 goes on the oldest section of the track to the town of Solivar

The history of public transport in Prešov began in 1949, when Local Transport was established, a municipal enterprise of the city of Prešov as the operator of regular public transport in the territory of Prešov. After the end of World War II, it was not possible to start public transport with a new vehicle fleet, so an offer was accepted for the purchase of older Tatra vehicles from public transport facilities in Prague, Plzeň and Bratislava. The vehicles were initially parked in the courtyard of the old prison on Konštantínova Street, where the company was also located. On September 4, 1949, the traffic on the first lines was ceremoniously opened. Already in the first year of operation, the Prešov public transport buses went beyond the city limits to the municipalities of Šarišské Lúky, Nižná Šebastová, Haniska and Solivar. The following year, the development of public transport continued with the introduction of additional bus lines. The state hospital, Záhrady, Sídlisko II, Budovateľská and Čapajevova street were gradually connected to the public transport network in the 1950s, as well as other municipalities: the town of Veľký Šariš and its part Kanaš, Malý Šariš, Ľubotice, Fintice, Teriakovce and Záborské. In 1959, the first night line began operating and the company was located on its own premises on Petrovanská Street, where it moved in 1951. The year 1958, when the construction of the trolleybus network in the city was approved, brought a new stage in the development of urban transport. All high-capacity intra-city lines were to be electrified, while bus transport was to remain ancillary. Line 1 Was the first to be electrified, which led from Nižná Šebastová through Šarišské Lúky to Solivar. Although its construction was delayed by several technical problems, on May 13, 1962, passengers got to experience trolleybuses. A new depot for trolleybuses and buses was completed in Šarišské Lúky, where the entire vehicle fleet as well as the company's administration moved. Work on other sections soon began, so in 1966 trolleybuses were already running on Košická, Sabinovská and Budovateľská streets. and Gottwald today 17 Novembra Street. In the first half of the 1970s, the track along Sabinovská Street was extended to Dúbrava and trolleybuses also began to serve industrial Širpo. Other projects of lines to Sídlisko III, Šváby, Haniska and Delňa could no longer be carried out. Under the influence of cheap oil, buses also began to gain ground in Prešov. Bus transport recorded a quantitative development, when buses also started to run to Táborisko, Šidlovec, Cemjata, on Pod Kamennou baňou Street and Sídlisko III. In terms of quality, however, this mode of transport has struggled with constant difficulties such as the lack of vehicles, their low capacity and breakdown. These shortcomings were not gradually overcome until the late 1970s. Nevertheless, due to the non-construction of the trolleybus line to Sídlisko III, the service of which was crucial at that time, the buses fully prevailed. The period of the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, when the possibilities of public transport were significantly limited by the lack of fuel, pointed to the suitability of trolleybus transport. Following a review at government level, the electrification program was re-launched. Sídlisko III was the first to be connected to the trolleybus transport network (1985). Trolleybuses achieved a majority share in public transport in the city of Prešov after 1992, when trolleybus transport was introduced to the largest housing estate Sekčov. The issue of the tariff in Prešov has always been characterized by an ever-changing number of tariff bands, on the basis of which the rates for individual journeys were set. In 1949, there were three fare zones, and it was possible to change to another vehicle on one ticket. In 1969, single-ticket transfers were canceled and the number of bands was reduced to two. Since 1984, the government's acreage has simplified the tariff and there has been no division of the network into bands. Different fares for travel to neighboring municipalities were reintroduced in 1993 and existed until 1996. Special rates also applied in 1997 – 99 and again in 2000. Tickets were originally bought from the guide directly in the vehicle, later sold by the driver, respectively a ticketing machine was installed in the vehicle. In 1977, the sale of tickets outside the vehicle was introduced. Since 1995, it is again possible to buy a ticket from the driver, but at an increased price. Public transport is improved by the gradual renewal of the vehicle fleet, focused on low-floor vehicles, the introduction of computer technology into traffic management as well as the reconstruction of track sections of the trolleybus track and overhauls of vehicles. In the future, it is planned to expand ecological trolleybus transport to the Šváby housing estate and the second connection of the city center and the Sekčov housing estate along Rusínská Street.

 
Prešov railway station

Rail transportEdit

Three railway lines Košice - Muszyna with a connection to Poland, the line Prešov - Humenné and Prešov - Bardejov pass through the city. The length of the railway network in the city is 16.7 km (10.4 mi). In 2007, the main railway station in Prešov was modernized, and in 2019, the pre-station area was reconstructed, including the underpass under Masarykova Street, as well as MHD (Public transport) stops.

The following railway stations and stops are located in Prešov:

As part of the integrated transport project, the construction of other railway stops in the city is also planned.

 
Prešov bus station

Bus transportEdit

The main bus transport operator in the Prešov self-governing region is the company SAD Prešov, a.s., which provides suburban, long-distance and international transport. Suburban transport is performed on 63 bus lines serving the districts of Prešov, Bardejov, Sabinov, Svidník, Košice surroundings, Košice, Vranov nad Topľou, Stropkov, Stará Ľubovňa and Levoča. The main transport terminal in Prešov within the bus service is the Prešov Bus Station. SAD Prešov, a.s. in addition to the performance of suburban, long-distance and international transport,also ensures the performance of public transport in Bardejov.

Air TransportEdit

There is currently no public civil airport in Prešov. There is an air base in the Nižná Šebastová district.

 
International cycle route EuroVelo 11
 
Bicycle bridge under Šariš Castle

Bicycle transportEdit

The international cycle route of European significance EuroVelo 11 leads through the functional territory of the city of Prešov, which passes through the cadastres of the municipalities of Veľký Šariš, Prešov, Haniska and Kendice. The route is a part of the General Cycling Route as branch H1 - the main cycling route and belongs to the strategic goals of the Prešov self-governing region, as the main axis of the region. V súčasnosti je v rámci EuroVelo 11 prevádzke súvislá cyklotrasa v trase Wilec hôrka - Mestská hala - Sídlisko II - Sídlisko III - Veľký Šariš - Šarišské Michaľany. Súčasťou tejto trasy je aj cyklomost pod Šarišským hradom s historickým vzhľadom, ktorý sa stal novou vyhľadávanou atrakciou. A part of this route is also a bicycle bridge under the Šariš Castle with a historical look, which has become a new sought-after attraction. Another important cycling route is the so-called a cycle railway leading from Solivar in Prešov to the Sigord recreational area. In addition to these important cycle routes, there are a number of other local cycle routes in Prešov in various parts of the city. So far, the newest cycle routes in Prešov are the cycle route on Masarykova Street, completed in 2019 and the Mlynský náhon cycle route, completed in 2020. Their completion was ensured by the cycling connection of Sídlisko III with the city center and with the Sekčov and Šváby housing estates. In 2020, a new cycle route was also completed at the Sekčov housing estate on the route from Laca Novomeského Street to Šalgovík. For lovers of mountain biking, there are Prešov singletracks available in the Prešov forests, which together form eight routes of varying difficulty with a total length of approximately 20 km (12.4 mi). Prešov singletracks are one of the most attractive cycling areas in Prešov and its surroundings. They are well marked and maintained in excellent condition. The routes lead through Malkovská hôrka, to the recreation center Cemjata (Kyslá and Kvašná voda), to Borkút and it is also possible to get to the Calvary in Prešov.

HealthcareEdit

The largest providers of health care in Prešov are the following public and private facilities:

  • University Hospital with J. A. Raiman Polyclinic Prešov (Fakultná nemocnica s poliklinikou J. A. Raimana Prešov)
  • Military hospital (Vojenská nemocnica)
  • Oáza General Hospital (Všeobecná nemocnica Oáza)
  • Polyclinic Prešov (Poliklinika Prešov)
  • Polyclinic ProCare Prešov (Poliklinika ProCare Prešov)
  • St. Elizabeth Hospital
  • Analytical-diagnostic laboratory and outpatient clinics (Analyticko-diagnostické laboratórium a ambulancie (AdLa))
  • Sofyc Clinic - one-day surgery clinic (Sofyc Clinic - klinika jednodňovej chirurgie)
  • Gynstar - one-day care in the field of gynecology and obstetrics (Gynstar - jednodňová starostlivosť v odbore gynekológia a pôrodníctvo)

In addition to these facilities, medical services are also provided by other smaller clinics and health centers.

 
Faculty of Arts, University of Prešov in Prešov

EducationEdit

Institutions of tertiary education in the city are the University of Prešov with 12,600 students, including 867 doctoral students,[34] and the private International Business College ISM Slovakia in Prešov, with 455 students.[35] In addition, the Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies of the Technical University of Košice is based in the city.

There are 15 public primary schools, six private primary schools and two religious primary schools.[36] Overall, they enroll 9,079 pupils.[36] The city's system of secondary education consists of 10 gymnasia with 3,675 students,[37] 4 specialized high schools with 5,251 students[38] and 11 vocational schools with 5,028 students.[39][40]

BusinessEdit

There are several business (shopping) centers in Prešov. EPERIA Shopping Mall[41] has taken its name according to historic city name Eperies. It is located at the river bank Sekčov, between the "Hobby park"[42] at the west side (with DIY chain store HORNBACH[43]) and STOP-SHOP point[44] from south side. Total shopping area of all three units is approximately 80.000 sq m.[45] Recently new-opened Shopping Mall NOVUM[46] in the very heart of city centre with 33.000 sq. m is the second largest. There are also ZOC-Max Prešov SC,[47] ZOC Koral,[48] Solivaria SC[49] and close Lubotice Retail Park.[50]

One of the most favorite popular locations in Prešov is Plaza Beach Resort.[51] It is an exotic place in a cozy and calm city area, consisting of a luxury hotel with a restaurant and outside swimming pools. The resort has been built in a Mediterranean style.

Hiking trailsEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Prešov is twinned with:[52]

PanoramaEdit

View from Calvary (2006)

GalleryEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Horváth, Tibor (1999). Szlovákia (in Hungarian) (1st ed.). Budapest: Cartographia. ISBN 963-353-180-2.
  • Javor, Martin (2010). Heraldika na východnom Slovensku [Heraldry in Eastern Slovakia] (PDF) (in Slovak). Prešov: Metodicko-pedagogické centrum v Prešove. p. 38. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  • Official History of Prešov
  • Prešov town hall (July 2002), Prešov - city profile. Retrieved in June 2004 from http://www.pis.sk/jpis/obsah/html/presov_profile.htm.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The original and the current coat of arms does not contain any strawberries, but three roses. Also the privilege granted by Ladislaus the Posthumous (1453) says clearly about "three roses". Strawberries were added only by Ferdinand I (1548) and were held by an eagle in the left hand side of the coat under the three roses. Javor 2004.
  2. ^ Public horse breeding stud was built in 1859 in Prešov on Sabinovská ulica, it was a stop for horses on their way to Budapest and gained popularity quickly, so citizens of Prešov were called horse keepers after this famous spot of Austria-Hungary. Horses are also depicted on the jerseys of Prešov's football team, 1. FC Tatran Prešov, which is the very first official football team in Slovakia, founded on 25 May 1898 as Eperjesi Torna és Vívó Egyesület (Hungarian).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Počet obyvateľov podľa pohlavia - obce (ročne)". www.statistics.sk (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Hustota obyvateľstva - obce [om7014rr_ukaz: Rozloha (Štvorcový meter)]". www.statistics.sk (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d "Základná charakteristika". www.statistics.sk (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  4. ^ a b "Hustota obyvateľstva - obce". www.statistics.sk (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  5. ^ a b c Lambert-Gócs, Miles (November 2010). Tokaji Wine: Fame, Fate, Tradition. ISBN 9781934259498.
  6. ^ a b c Štefánik, Martin; Lukačka, Ján, eds. (2010). Lexikón stredovekých miest na Slovensku [Lexicon of Medieval Towns in Slovakia] (PDF) (in Slovak and English). Bratislava: Historický ústav SAV. pp. 331, 352. ISBN 978-80-89396-11-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  7. ^ See Presov 2013 website Archived 11 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Eperjes". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 669.
  9. ^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1984). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: The Sixteenth Century. Vol. IV. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society. p. 921. ISBN 0-87169-162-0.
  10. ^ a.s, Petit Press. "Travel". spectator.sme.sk.
  11. ^ Paget, John (1850). Hungary and Transylvania (new ed.). Lea Blanchard. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  12. ^ a.s, Petit Press. "Travel". spectator.sme.sk. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  13. ^ Pons, Silvio; Smith, Stephen A., eds. (21 September 2017). The Cambridge History of Communism (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781316137024. ISBN 978-1-316-13702-4.
  14. ^ "Travel".
  15. ^ Büchler, Yehoshua (1991). "The deportation of Slovakian Jews to the Lublin District of Poland in 1942". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 6 (2): 159, 166. doi:10.1093/hgs/6.2.151. ISSN 8756-6583.
  16. ^ Sprievodca po historickom Prešove, autor: Peter Švorc a kolektív, vydalo: UNIVERSUM, 1997 str.39
  17. ^ Sprievodca po historickom Prešove, autor: Peter Švorc a kolektív, vydalo: UNIVERSUM, 1997 str.13
  18. ^ Sprievodca po historickom Prešove, autor: Peter Švorc a kolektív, vydalo: UNIVERSUM, 1997 str.26
  19. ^ Sprievodca po historickom Prešove, autor: Peter Švorc a kolektív, vydalo: UNIVERSUM, 1997 str.33
  20. ^ "Prezident vymenoval vojenských a policajných generálov". Prezidentka Slovenskej republiky (in Slovak). Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  21. ^ Štaigl, J., a kolektív: Generáli – slovenská vojenská generalita 1918 – 2009, Magnet Press, Slovakia 2009
  22. ^ 2.armádny zbor na konci tisícročia, vydalo Oddelenie výchovy a kultúry, Veliteľstvo 2.armádneho zboru Prešov, rok 2000, str. 7
  23. ^ "Municipal Statistics". Statistical Office of the Slovak republic. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007.
  24. ^ "Presov, Slovakia Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  25. ^ Majo, Juraj (2012). Historicko-demografický lexikón obcí Slovenska. Bratislava: Štatistický úrad SR. ISBN 978-80-8121-222-2.
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External linksEdit