The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Slovak language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-sk}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Slovak phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Slovak.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b b, vstup do[1] bill
d domov, prvýkrát bolo[1] door
ɟ[2] ďaleko, byť zaradený[1] dew
f farba, vták[3] focus
ɡ garáž, kde[1] go
ɦ hlava ahead
j jogurt yellow
k koláč, ping-pong[4] scan
l láska[5] pill
vlk little
l̩ː vĺča little left (long)
ʎ ľad[5] failure
m maslo, hanba[6] milk
n noc[6] now
ɲ laň canyon
p pavúk, dub[4] spill
r robot atom (US)
prst
r̩ː vŕba Spanish perro
s slnko, mráz[4] six
ʂ šach, ž[4] shell
t tulipán, hlad[4] stand
c[2] radosť, loď[4] stew
ts cena, jedz[4] bats
človek, [4] chase
ʋ sever[3] between vine and wine
x chlieb, sneh loch (Scottish)
z zima, ananás bol[1] zoo
ʐ žena, Aleš bol[1] fusion
Marginal consonants
dz dz, noc bez[1] heads
bán, cárovič bol[1] job
ɣ vrh guľou[1] between got and hot
ɱ informácia[6] comfort
ŋ banka[6] sing
v vzrast,[3] Adolf bol[1] vine
w pravda, krv,[3] Tatrou wine
Vowels[7]
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a matka art
ráno father
ɛɐ mäso[8] German Herz (when pronounced [hɛɐts])
e drevo Traditional RP left
i tri, syr kit
písať, výr leave
ɔ dom off
u ruža bull
úroda food
Marginal monophthongs
fén Traditional RP bed
ɔː móda dog
Diphthongs
ɪɐ piaty yap (rather than German Wirt)
ɪe viera yes
ʊɔ stôl warrior
Marginal diphthongs
ɪu vyššiu use (rather than new in Welsh English)
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ Revúca [ˈreʋuːtsa] Primary stress always falls on the first syllable of a word.
. Mária [ˈmaːri.a] [9] Syllabification

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /b, d, ɟ, dz, dʐ, ɡ, z, ʐ/, [b, d, ɟ, dz, , ɡ, z, ʐ] also occur as allophones of /p, t, c, ts, tʂ, k, s, ʂ/ before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɡ, ɟ, dʐ, z, ʐ, ɦ/. /f/ and /x/ are also voiced in this environment, to [v] and [ɣ].
  2. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 99, 106.
  3. ^ a b c d The phones transcribed [f, v, ʋ, w] are allophones of a single /v/ phoneme (but note that [f, v] are also allophones of the /f/ phoneme):
    [f] occurs word-initially before the voiceless obstruents /p, t, c, k, tʂ, s, ʂ, x/;
    [v] occurs word-initially before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʐ, z, ʐ, ɦ/;
    [w] or [ʋ] (in our transcriptions always represented as [w]) occur in the syllable coda;
    [ʋ] occurs in all other cases (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /k, p, s, ʂ, t, c, ts, tʂ/, [k, p, s, ʂ, t, c, ts, ] also occur as word-final allophones of /ɡ, b, z, ʐ, d, ɟ, dz, dʐ/ unless the following word starts with any of the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɡ, ɟ, dʐ, z, ʐ, ɦ/ and is pronounced without a pause, in which case they are realized as voiced [ɡ, b, z, ʐ, d, ɟ, dz, ].
  5. ^ a b The /l–ʎ/ contrast is neutralized before front vowels, when only the alveolar /l/ occurs. The neutralization is taken further in western dialects in which the alveolo-palatal /ʎ/ merges with the alveolar /l/ in all environments (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)).
  6. ^ a b c d Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Before velar consonants they are [ŋ], and before labial consonants they are [m]; the labiodental [ɱ] appears before /f/ and /v/. Orthographic ⟨n⟩ before ⟨p⟩ and ⟨b⟩ is rare and is confined mostly to loanwords.
  7. ^ In the majority of cases only one long vowel per word may occur. The phonemic diphthongs /ɪɐ, ɪe, ɪu, ʊɔ/ count as long vowels.
  8. ^ [ɛɐ] is a phonological monophthong, usually transcribed with ⟨æ⟩. However, for speakers that distinguish it from [e], it is clearly an opening diphthong (Pavlík 2004:94).
  9. ^ Syllable breaks are indicated only in the case of the sequences [i.a], [i.e] and [i.u], which occur in loanwords and are spelled the same as the native diphthongs [ɪɐ, ɪe, ɪu]. In the case of other hiatuses, the syllable break is omitted.

ReferencesEdit

  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), Bosák, Ján; Petrufová, Magdaléna (eds.), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" [Slovak Speech Sounds and the International Phonetic Alphabet] (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis [The Linguistic Journal] (in Slovak), Bratislava: Slovak Academic Press, spol. s r. o. (55/2): 87–109, ISSN 0021-5597
  • Jazyková poradňa : Ako správne skloňovať cudzie vlastné mená Merliah a Kylie? (in Slovak), Bratislava: Petit Press