The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Afrikaans pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Afrikaans phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Afrikaans, as well as dialectal variations that are not represented here.

IPA Examples English approximation
b beet beet
d dak duck
f fiets, ver far
ɦ hoekom behind
j ja yes
k kat skin
l land land
m mens man
n nek neck
ŋ eng long
p pen, rib, lip sport
r ras rolled r
s sak, seep sock
ʃ sjabloon, chef shall
t tak, hond stop
Tsjeggië, tjek chat
χ generaal, weg loch (Scottish English)
v wang van
ʒ visueel vision
Marginal consonants
ʔ beïnvloed
the catch in uh-oh!
djihad jump
ɡ ghries[1], berge, erger goal
w kwaad water
z Zoeloe zoo
ˈ vóórkom [ˈfuərkɔm]
voorkóm [ˌfuərˈkɔm]
as in commandeer
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs (oral)
a bad up
ɑː aap father
æ ek, bel, reg, blerrie back
æː perd, ver, wêreld, bêre jazz
ɛ met met
ɛː nè, mens, hê Modern RP square
ə vis, hemel, vanaand[2] again
əː wîe[3] fur
i polisie deep
spieël, bier[4] need
ɔ bot thought
ɔː môre[5] law
œ hut roughly like book
œː rûe[5]
u hoed, polisie boot
koeël, moer[4] cool
y nuut roughly like cute
uur[4] roughly like true; German über
Monophthongs (nasal)
ɑ̃ː dans No English equivalent, long nasalized [ɑ]; French sans
ɛ̃ː mens No English equivalent, long nasalized [ɛ]; French vin
ɔ̃ː spons No English equivalent, nasalized [ɔː]; French dupont
ai baie price
ɑːi braai prize
ɛi rys, reis may
eer, ere ear
seun roughly like fear in some accents
iu eeu ew
oːi nooi boy
œi ui house (Scottish English)
əu ou boat
so, boot poor (as in poverty)

Notes edit

  1. ^ /ɡ/ is not a native phoneme of Afrikaans; it occurs only in loanwords like gholf or as an allophone of /χ/ at the end of suffixed root nouns or adjectives when both preceded by a short vowel + R cluster and followed by a schwa.
  2. ^ In words which feature a short vowel preceding its longer form (like in vanaand, tamatie and bobotie), the short vowel is neutralised (Donaldson (1993:4, 6)).
  3. ^ /əː/ occurs in no other word (Donaldson (1993:7)).
  4. ^ a b c As phonemes, /iː/ and /uː/ occur only in spieël and koeël, respectively. In other cases, [iː] and [uː] occur as allophones of /i/ and /u/ before /r/. /y/ is also lengthened to [yː] before /r/ (Donaldson (1993:4–6)).
  5. ^ a b /œː/ and /ɔː/ occur only in a few words (Donaldson (1993:7).

References edit

  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993). "1. Pronunciation". A Grammar of Afrikaans. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 1–35. ISBN 978-3-11-0134261. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  • Lass, Roger (1987). "Intradiphthongal Dependencies". In Anderson, John; Durand, Jaques (eds.). Explorations in Dependency Phonology. Dordrecht: Foris Publications Holland. pp. 109–131. ISBN 9067652970. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  • Wissing, Daan (2016). "Afrikaans phonology – segment inventory". Taalportaal. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.

See also edit