Open main menu

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hejazi Arabic pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-acw}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

The romanization of the examples is based on the romanization system used on Wiktionary.

See Hejazi Arabic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Urban Hejazi Arabic.

Consonants
IPA Arabic letter[1] Example Romanization English approximation
ʔ ء, أ, إ, ؤ, ئ سأل saʼal uh-(ʔ)oh
ʕ ع عين ʿēn no equivalent
b ب بنت bint bike
d (ذ) د (ذيل) دب dubb (dēl or ēl) done
(ظ) ض (ظفر) ضب abb (ifir or ifir) emphatic /d/
[2] ج جريدة jarīda job
ð[3] ذ ذكر akar or dakar this
f ف فيل fīl fast
ɡ ق قمر gamar gas
q[4] استقلال istiglāl {istiqlāl} no equivalent
h هـ هادي hādi hat
ħ ح حر arr no equivalent
j ي يد yadd yes
k ك كلب kalb cat
l ل لون lōn lip (clear l)
ɫ[5] الله allāh peel (dark l)
m م موية mōya mother
n ن نوم nōm nest
θ[3] ث ثواب awāb or tawāb think
r[2] ر راس rās trilled r
s (ث) س (ثابت) سرير sarīr (sābit or ābit) sorry
ص صبّار abbār emphatic /s/
ʃ ش شمس šams ship
t (ث) ة ,ت (ثوب) تمر tamur (tōb or ōb) star
ط طير ēr emphatic /t/
w و ورقة waraga water
x خ خس ass loch (Scottish)
ɣ غ غريب arīb French r but softer
z (ذ) ز (ذكي) زمان zamān (zaki or aki) zebra
ظ ظرف arf emphatic /z/
ðˤ[6] ظاهرة āhra emphatic /ð/
Non-native Consonants[7]
p پ پيتزا or بيتزا pītza or bītza put
v ڤ ڤيروس or فيروس vayrūs or fayrūs view
تش تشيك īk china
Vowels
IPA Example Romanization English approximation
Monophthongs
a فَم famm father but shorter
u[8] قَبُو gabu to
ʊ ~ o[8] حُب ubb put or like law but shorter (General American)
i[9] مَدْرِي madri happy
ɪ ~ e[9] سِر sirr sit or set
[10] نار nār father
نور nūr food
صوت ōt for
مين mīn need
بيت bēt hair
Diphthongs
aw دوْري dawri how
aj ليْمون laymūn tie
Suprasegmentals
IPA examples Explanation
ˈ يوم /ˈjoːm/ ("day") Indicates that the following syllable is stressed.
ː سَكِّينَة /sakˈkiːna/ ("knife") Indicates a long vowel or a geminate consonant.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In general Hejazis alternate between the three letters ⟨ث⟩ pronounced /θ, t, or s/, ⟨ذ⟩ pronounced /ð, d, or z/ and ⟨ظ⟩ pronounced /dˤ, zˤ/ or [ðˤ] (allophone), on the other hand ⟨ض⟩ is pronounced /zˤ/ only in words derived from the two trilateral roots ⟨ض ب ط⟩ and ⟨ض ر ط⟩.
  2. ^ a b the affricate /d͡ʒ/ج⟩ and the trill /r/ر⟩ are realised as a [ʒ] (English s in pleasure) and a tap [ɾ] respectively by a number of speakers or in a number of words.
  3. ^ a b The phonemes /θ/ and /ð/ are used fully or partially and mostly by younger speakers due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic and other dialects in the Arabian Peninsula, for older speakers they mainly occur in Classical Arabic borrowings and foreign loanwords.
  4. ^ [q] is an allophone of /ɡ/ ⟨ق⟩ and it only occurs in few phrases and words due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic.
  5. ^ The marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it, such as يلا /jaɫːa/ "come on", they contrast in والله /waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walːa/ ('or').
  6. ^ [ðˤ] is an optional allophone of the grapheme ⟨ظ⟩. In general, most urban Hejazi speakers pronounce it as /zˤ/ or merge it with /dˤ/ depending on the word.
  7. ^ The phonemes /p/ and /v/ are only found in loanwords and they can be substituted by /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker, /tʃ/ occurs only in loanwords as well and it is not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory but as a sequence of /t/ت⟩ and /ʃ/ش⟩.
  8. ^ a b Word initial and medial /u/ is typically pronounced [ʊ] or [o̞] depending on the word and speaker, but strictly pronounced [u] at the end of words, and before /w/.
  9. ^ a b Word initial and medial /i/ is typically pronounced [ɪ] or [e̞] depending on the word and speaker, but strictly pronounced [i] at the end of words, and before /j/
  10. ^ [ɑː] is an optional allophone for /aː/ in some words such as ألمانيا [almɑːnja] ('Germany'), بابا [bɑːbɑ] ('dad') and يابان [jaːbɑːn] ('Japan').