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The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The Sweden pronunciation is based primarily on Central Standard Swedish, and the Finland one on Helsinki pronunciation. See Swedish phonology for details about pronunciation.

Consonants
Sweden

SWE

Finland

FIN

Examples English approximation
b About this sound bok book
ɕ t͡ɕ About this sound kjol, About this sound tjock, About this sound kön like sheep, but more "y"-like
d About this sound dop dad
ɖ rd About this sound nord[1] Retroflex /d/
f About this sound fot foot
ɡ About this sound god good
h About this sound hot hat
ɧ ɕ About this sound sju, About this sound stjärna, About this sound skör, About this sound station, About this sound pension, About this sound geni, About this sound choklad[2] somewhat like Scottish loch (varies regionally)
j About this sound jord, About this sound genom, About this sound Göteborg yoyo
k About this sound kon cone
l ɫ About this sound lov lack
ɭ rl About this sound rl[1] Retroflex /l/
m About this sound mod mode
n About this sound nod node
ɳ rn About this sound barn[1] Retroflex /n/
ŋ About this sound ng long
p About this sound pol pole
r About this sound rov[3] a trilled r when articulated clearly or in slow or
formal speech; in normal speech, it is usually
a tapped r or an alveolar approximant
most consistently [r] in Finland.
s About this sound sot soot
ʂ rs About this sound torsdag[1] Retroflex /ʃ/
t About this sound tok tea
ʈ rt About this sound parti[1] Retroflex /t/
v About this sound våt vote
Rare sounds
Sweden

SWE

Finland

FIN

Examples English approximation
w Wales Wales
About this sound Zlatan, About this sound Bratislava father
œɪ About this sound Creutz, About this sound Reuter void
Vowels
Sweden

SWE

Finland

FIN

Examples English approximation
a ɑ About this sound matt[4] cut
ɑː About this sound mat[4] bra
About this sound fet there
ɛ e About this sound häll, About this sound fett sell
ɛː About this sound häl RP pair
æ About this sound värk[5],About this sound verk[5] trap
æː About this sound ära[5] ham
ɪ i About this sound sill hit
About this sound sil leave
ɔ o About this sound moll[6] RP pot
About this sound mål[6] floor
œ ø About this sound nött[6] French sœur. somewhat like RP nurse
œː About this sound öra[5][6] German Schön. somewhat like RP burn
øː About this sound nöt[6]
ɵ ʉ About this sound full,
About this sound musik[6][7]
Dutch hut
ʉ About this sound duell,
About this sound känguru[6][7][8]
Australian goose; like German About this sound müssen
ʉː About this sound ful[6][9] Australian choose; like German About this sound üben
ʊ u About this sound bott[6] put
About this sound bot[6] boot
ʏ y About this sound syll[6][8] somewhat like hit; Norwegian About this sound nytt
About this sound syl[6][9] somewhat like leave; Norwegian About this sound lys
Stress, tone and syllabification
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ anden[10]
[ˈanːdɛn][11]
tone 1 / acute accent:[12]
² anden[15]
[²anːdɛn][11]
tone 2 / grave accent:[12]
  • falling-falling tone in Stockholm: About this sound [ˈânːdɛ̂n]
  • falling-rising tone in Gothenburg: [ˈânːdɛ̌n]
  • rising-falling tone in Malmö: [ˈǎnːdɛ̂n]
  • simple primary stress in Finland[13] and (rarely) some
    parts of mainland Sweden: [ˈanːdɛn][14]
ˌ Oxenstierna
[²ʊksɛnˌɧæːɳa]
secondary stress, as in intonation
. fria
[²friː.a]
syllable break: co-op, rower

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realisations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, they are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt]. Nevertheless, retroflexion might occur in some varieties of Finland Swedish, especially among young speakers and in fast speech.
  2. ^ Swedish /ɧ/ varies regionally and is sometimes [], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ].
  3. ^ /r/ varies considerably in different dialects. It is pronounced alveolar or similarly in virtually all dialects, but in South Swedish dialects, it is uvular, similar to the Parisian French "r". At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative [ʒ], as in English "genre" or "vision".
  4. ^ a b The quality of the vowels tends to change a lot between Finland dialects and those of Sweden, especially Southern and Central Sweden. In general terms, [ɑː] is realised more often as [ɒː] in Sweden and as a true [ɑː] in Finland. In the area of Helsinski (Helsingfors) it may be fully centralised [äː]. No difference in the vowel quality occurs in Finland Swedish.
  5. ^ a b c d Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are lowered to [æ] and [æː], whereas the rounded /œ/ and /øː/ are lowered to open-mid [œ] and [œː]. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid [œ] and the open-mid [œ], with both being transcribed as ⟨œ⟩. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones [ɶ] and [ɶː].
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l [ɔ, , œ, œː, øː, ʏ, ] are protruded vowels, and [ɵ, ʉ, ʉː, ʊ, ] are compressed. See roundedness for details.
  7. ^ a b [ɵ] and [ʉ] are unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /ɵ/ (stressed /ɵ/ is always realized as [ɵ]):
  8. ^ a b The distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [ʏ] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Swedish compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen   [ˈmʏsn̩]).
    • Swedish protruded [ʏ] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [ʏ] (as in nytt   [nʏtː]).
  9. ^ a b The distinction between compressed [ʉː] and protruded [] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Swedish compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [] (as in üben   [ˈyːbn̩]).
    • Swedish protruded [] sounds more similar to English unrounded [] (as in leave) than to German compressed [], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [] (as in lys   [lyːs]).
  10. ^ Meaning the duck.
  11. ^ a b Placed before the stressed syllable. For words with the second toneme, ⟨²⟩ will be used instead of the primary stress mark.
  12. ^ a b Unless it is needed, the narrow phonetic transcription of Swedish tonemes is not to be used in articles.
  13. ^ a b The variety of Swedish spoken on the Åland Islands usually resembles phonetically speaking the dialects of the Uppland area rather than Finland Swedish, but the pitch accent is largely missing
  14. ^ a b Finland Swedish, as well as a few accents of Mainland Sweden, have a simple primary stress rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In such accents, anden (meaning 'wild duck') and anden (meaning 'spirit') are pronounced identically.
  15. ^ Meaning the spirit.

BibliographyEdit

  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Reuter, Mikael (1971). "Vokalerna i finlandsvenska: En instrumentell analys och ett försök till systematisering enligt särdrag". Studier i nordisk filologi (in Swedish). Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. 46: 240–249. 
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1 

External linksEdit