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Help:IPA/Scottish Gaelic

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Scottish Gaelic pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Scottish Gaelic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Scottish Gaelic, and Scottish Gaelic orthography for the exact correspondence between sounds and letters in Scottish Gaelic.

Consonants[1]
Broad Slender English approximations
IPA Examples IPA Examples
f[2] fad, fead, pholl, pheann fade
ɣ dhà, deireadh, ghaol, dragh ʝ dh'iarr, dh'innis, gheall, ghin Spanish luego; yard (but stronger)
h[2] thonn, thig, shùil, sheòl haste
j eala, beò, theàrn, iolaire, piuthar, shiùbhlainn, gràidh yard
k gaol, beagan, caileag, amharc gille, fairrge, thig, chunnaic scat; askew
[3] còta kʲʰ[3] cìr cup; cure
l̪ˠ làmh, balla, geal l mo leaba, cliathaich, baile, fuil health; lice
ʎ leaba, slige, gille health; scallion
m[2] mac, mic, lampa, ìm main
n̪ˠ nàire, snàmh, clann ɲ nighean, sneachda, cinneadh, ròin tenth; onion
n mo nàire, anail, bean tenth; nice
ŋ long ŋʲ aingeal think; angular
p[2] ball, nàbuidh, abair, corp space
[2][3] peann, poll pain
rud, riochd, oirre, orra Spanish rojo
ɾ rud, mo riochd, crann, fear ɾʲ cridhe, fir crane; creed (both Scotland)
solas, speal, sgialachd ʃ seòl, stiùir, slighe, snìomh soot; shade
dall, fada, ad, falt dìleas, maide, thèid, fuilt stock; stew (RP)
t̪ʰ[3] tana tʲʰ[3] tìr tide, tune (RP)
v[2] bhean, sàibh, mhàthair, deimhinn, làmh veil
x chòta, balach ç chì, balaich loch (Scotland); huge
Monophthongs
Short Long English approximations
IPA Examples IPA Examples
a mac, glaine làmh, àite, gearr rat; rather (both Scotland)
e teth, fead, cheil glè, chèile, beud hit; hay (both Scotland)
ɛ fear, each ɛː cnàimh, sèimh let; flare (RP)
ə[4] fada, baile viva
i mise, fios ìseal, pìobaire, cinn reef
ɪ[4] uilig, capaill hit
o tobar, bodhar bò, còig load (Scotland)
ɔ cnoc, sgoil, deoch ɔː bròn, mòine, cl, corr dog
u ugh, bun, sgioltachd, fliuch cùl, sùil, diombach, tiurr, cunntas pull; rule
ɯ duine, uisge ɯː craobh, aois good; roof
ɤ dragh, coire ɤː fadhlach ago; blur (both RP)
Diphthongs
IPA Examples English approximation
ai claidheamh, chaill, cainnt price
au amharc, abhainn, ball, gann loud
ɛu seall, theann, dream Spanish euro
ia Niall, pian, feur, beul he and she
fiacail, iasg, ceud, deug, sìos, fìon idea
ɔu toll, tonn, com low (GA)
ua uamhasach, suaineadh, uaine you and me
fuar, uair, buaidh bluer
ɯi chraoibh, ghaoith, tuill, tuinn two years
ɤi maighdean, greim, coibhneil, oighre, coilltean, broinn light (Scotland)
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Explanation
ˈ uinneag [ˈɯɲak] primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
. naidheachd [ˈn̪ˠɛ.əxk] syllable break
 ̃ samhradh [ˈs̪ãũɾəɣ] nasal vowel

Varying IPA conventionsEdit

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. Most systems vary from pure IPA, particularly the systems used in Celtic Studies. The following table lists some of the variations commonly encountered. If an IPA symbol is not in the table below, this indicates that the source uses the same symbol as above.

Borgstrøm (1937)[5]
(Barra)
Borgstrøm (1940)[6]
(Outer Hebrides)
Oftedal (1956)[7]
(Lewis)
Ó Murchú (1989)[8]
(East Perthshire)
Cox (2002)[9]
(Lewis)
Ó Maolalaigh (2008)[10]
(over-regional)
Black (2006)[11]
(over-regional)
Klevenhaus (2009)[12]
Bauer (2011)[13]
(both over-regional)
ç ç ç′ ç x′ ç ç ç ç
ʝ j j′ ǰ ɣ′ ʝ j j ʝ
k g̊, k g̬, k g ɡ g g g,[14] k[15] g
g̊′, k′ g̬′, k′ ǵ ɡ′ g̭' gʲ,[14][15]
k k k k k k
kʲʰ k′ʽ k′ʽ k′ k′
l̪ˠ L L L ɬ L ɫ̪ L L
ʎ L′ L′ L′ N/A L′ ʎ
l l′ l′ l l l l l l
n̪ˠ N N N N/A N ᵰ̪ N N
ɲ N′ N′ N′ N/A N′ ɲ
p b̥, p b̬, p b b b b b, p b
p p p p p p
R R, Ṛ R N/A R R R
ɾ r r r r r r r r
ɾʲ r′ r′, ð′ ð N/A ð
s s s s s s s s
ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ š ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ
d̥, t d̬, t d d d d, t d
d̥′ž, d̥′, t′ d̬′ž, d̬′, t′ d′ ǰ d′ dʲ, tʲ
t̪ʰ t t t t t
tʲʰ tʽ′ʃ, tʽ′ tʽ′ʃ, tʽ′ t′ č t′
ɯ ʎ ʎ ɯ ɯ ɯ ɯ ʎ ɯ
ɤ ø ø ə ɤ ɤ ɤ ə ɤ
ɛ ɛ, æ ɛ, æ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ
a a a a ɑ a a a a

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Scottish Gaelic makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ›, are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, and in all positions in Scottish English. Slender consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹y› sound in yes. In Scottish Gaelic orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹a›, ‹o›, ‹u›, while slender ones are surrounded by ‹e› and ‹i›.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Neither broad nor slender, slender positions instead having an on- or off-glide /j/.
  3. ^ a b c d e In initial position, the aspirated stops /kʰ, kʲʰ, pʰ, t̪ʰ, tʲʰ/ are postaspirated [kʰ, kʲʰ, pʰ, t̪ʰ, tʲʰ]. In medial or final position after a stressed vowel, they are preaspirated [ʰk, ʰkʲ, ʰp, ʰt̪, ʰtʲ].
  4. ^ a b [ə] and [ɪ] are never long and they only ever occur in unstressed position, the latter before slender consonants.
  5. ^ Borgstrøm, Carl Hjalmar (1937). "The Dialect of Barra in the Outer Hebrides". Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap. 8: 71–242.
  6. ^ Borgstrøm, Carl Hjalmar (1940). The Dialects of the Outer Hebrides. A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, vol. 1 (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap suppl. vol. 1). Oslo: Aschehoug.
  7. ^ Oftedal, Magne (1956). The Gaelic of Leurbost. A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, vol. 3 (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap suppl. vol. 4). Oslo: Aschehoug.
  8. ^ Ó Murchú, Máirtín (1989). East Perthshire Gaelic. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-93-6.
  9. ^ Cox, Richard A. V. (2002). The Gaelic Place-names of Carloway, Isle of Lewis. School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 1-85500-192-6.
  10. ^ Ó Maolalaigh, Roibeard (2008). Scottish Gaelic in Twelve Weeks. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-643-4.
  11. ^ Black, Ronald (2006). Cothrom Ionnsachaidh. Edinburgh. ISBN 0906981336.
  12. ^ Klevenhaus, Michael (2009). Lehrbuch der schottish-gälischen Sprache. Hamburg: Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-520-2.
  13. ^ Bauer, Michael (2011). Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Scottish Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz. ISBN 978-1907165009.
  14. ^ a b Word-initial.
  15. ^ a b Medial or final.