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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Romanian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Romanian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Romanian and Romanian alphabet for the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation.

Consonants
IPA Examples in Romanian Examples in English
b ban boy
d dop day
[1] ger gender
f foc face
ɡ gol, unghie good
h horn hat
k cal, chip, kilogram, quasar skip
l lună love
m mic moon
n nor name
ŋ[2] lung long
p pas span
r rac, mare curd (Scottish English)
s sare sun
ʃ șarpe shape
t tare stop
ts[1] țară cats
[1] cer choose
v val, watt voice
z[3] zid zone
ʒ jar measure
Non-native consonants
ɲ Saligny roughly like canyon
Vowels
IPA Examples in Romanian Examples in English
a a roughly like father
e erou roughly like bet
ə ăsta about
i inel, mie beet
ɨ înspre, cârnat roses (for some English dialects)
o oraș law (British English)
u uda, dual fool
Non-native vowels
ɑ̃ Henri roughly like croissant
ɵ chemin de fer roughly like sir
ø bleu, loess
y ecru, fürer roughly like few
 
Semivowels[4]
IPA Examples in Romanian Examples in English
j iarnă, creioane, rai, yacht you or boy
w băcăuan, dulău, tweeter wine or cow
Diphthongs[4]
e̯a bea, Andreea short [e] followed by full [a]; similar to yard
e̯o vreo short [e] followed by full [o]; similar to yawn
o̯a foarte, oace short [o] followed by full [a]; similar to wagon
 
Other symbols
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ dulău [duˈləw] Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ˌ extraordinar [ˌekstra.ordiˈnar] Secondary stress
. mie [ˈmi.e] Syllable marker, generally used between vowels in hiatus
ʲ[5] rupi [ˈrupʲ] Palatalization (placed after the palatalized consonant)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c The affricates are correctly written with tie-bars: [t͡s], [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ]. As the tie-bars display incorrectly with some fonts, they are often omitted. However, the affricates contrast with the plosive-fricative sequences: [ts], [tʃ] and [dʒ]. Usually, the spelling of the Romanian word indicates the pronunciation, with the affricates spelled ț, c, g, with one letter, and the sequences spelled ts, tș, dj, with two. However, personal names are the most common exceptions.
  2. ^ Not a separate phoneme but an allophone of /n/ before velars.
  3. ^ [z] is also an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  4. ^ a b The approximants /j/ and /w/ can appear before and after vowels, including the diphthongs /e̯a/ and /o̯a/, in almost any combination.
  5. ^ Palatalization occurs only with a single final i.

ReferencesEdit

  • Chițoran, Ioana (2001), The Phonology of Romanian: A Constraint-based Approach, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3110167662