Help:IPA/Serbo-Croatian

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Serbo-Croatian (the Croatian and Serbian standards thereof) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-sh}}, {{IPA-sr}}, {{IPA-hr}}, and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Examples below in the Latin script are given in the Ijekavian pronunciation, while Cyrillic ones are in the Ekavian pronunciation. See Serbo-Croatian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

Consonants
IPA Example English approximation
Latin Cyrillic
b bob боб bob
d dan дан doom
dz otac bi[1] отац би gods
đak[2] ђак jeep
ep[2][3] џeп just
f film филм film
ɡ gore горе gore
ɣ vrh bi[1] врх би Spanish fuego
j ja ја yaw
k kola кола score
l Luka Лука fill
bicikl бицикл little
ʎ bilje биље million
m more море more
ɱ informacija информација comfort
n ne не no
njutn њутн burden
ŋ banka банка bank
ɲ konj коњ canyon
p pet пет space
r robot робот trilled r
vrba врба US verb, but trilled
s stol стол stole
ʃ šuma[3] шума shell
t tata тата star
ćup[2] ћуп cheap
ts ribica рибица shorts
čekić[2][3] чекић choose
ʋ voda[4] вода between vet and wet
v Afganistan[1] Афганистан vacant
x hir хир Scottish loch
z zima зима zoo
ʒ žaba[3] жаба treasure
Vowels
IPA Example English approximation
Latin Cyrillic
a rad рад father
e let лет let
i list лист least
o more море more
u trup труп tool
Tone and vowel length
Tonic marks are not normally written but are found in dictionaries.[5]
IPA Example Explanation
Latin Cyrillic
e sezóna сезо́на non-tonic short vowel
ùzēti у̀зе̄ти non-tonic long vowel[6]
ě djèca дјѐца short vowel with rising tone
ěː kréda кре́да long vowel with rising tone
ê sjȅme сјȅме short vowel with falling tone
êː rȇp рȇп long vowel with falling tone

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Consonant clusters are usually either all voiced or all voiceless, regardless if the sounds occur in two separate words. [dz], [v] and [ɣ] only occur in these instances.
  2. ^ a b c d Many speakers in Croatia and some in Bosnia have no distinction between /tɕ/ and /tʃ/ (⟨ć⟩ and ⟨č⟩) or between /dʑ/ and /dʒ/ (⟨đ⟩ and ⟨dž⟩) and are both pronounced [tʃ] and [dʒ] respectively.
  3. ^ a b c d /ʃ/, /tʃ/, /ʒ/ and /dʒ/ are sometimes transcribed as [ʂ], [], [ʐ] and [], respectively. The fricatives /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ may be realized [ɕ] or [ʑ] before /tɕ/ or /dʑ/.
  4. ^ ⟨v⟩ is a light fricative, more precisely transcribed [ʋ̝] or [v̞]. However, it does not behave as a fricative in that it does not devoice to *[f] before a voiceless consonant and it does not cause preceding voiceless consonants to become voiced.
  5. ^ Tone marks can also be found on syllabic consonants, such as [ř̩] and [r̩̂ː]. Some articles may use the stress mark, [ˈe], which could correspond to either of the tonic accents (rising or falling) and so they are not a complete transcription, although many speakers in Croatia have no tone distinctions.
  6. ^ Many speakers in Croatia and Serbia pronounce most unstressed long vowels as short.

External linksEdit