Voiced retroflex fricative

The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʐ , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a z (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant).

Voiced retroflex fricative
IPA Number137
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʐ
Unicode (hex)U+0290
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)

Features edit

Schematic mid-sagittal section

Features of the voiced retroflex sibilant:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue can be apical (pointed) or, in some fricatives, laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles, as in most sounds.

Occurrence edit

In the following transcriptions, diacritics may be used to distinguish between apical [ʐ̺] and laminal [ʐ̻].

The commonality of [ʐ] cross-linguistically is 2% in a phonological analysis of 2155 languages[1]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz абжа/abža [ˈabʐa] 'half' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe жъы/jı [ʐ̻ə] 'old' Laminal.
Awetí[2] [pɨtiˈʐɨk˺] 'to pray' Diachronically related to [ɾ] and also to some other alveolar sounds in certain occasions. As word lists created in the 1900s appoint for [ɾ] where there is [ʐ] now, this sound is supposed to be the result of a very recent sound change that is analogically happening in waurá.[2]
Chinese Changshu dialect 常熟 /dʐan ʐɔʔ/ [tʂʱä̃233 ʐɔʔ23] (without tone sandhi) 'Changshu' Pronounced [ʂʱ] when occurring at the first syllable. A native Wu Chinese speaker may reduce it a sound closer to a retroflex approximant [ɻ] (similar to the Standard Mandarin r) when trying to force a unnatural voiced pronunciation on the first syllable.
Faroese renn [ʐɛn] 'run'
Lower Sorbian[3][4] Łužyca [ˈwuʐɨt͡sa] 'Lusatia'
Mapudungun[5] rayen [ʐɜˈjën] 'flower' May be [ɻ] or [ɭ] instead.[5]
Marrithiyel Marri Tjevin dialect [wiˈɲaʐu] 'they are laughing' Voicing is non-contrastive.
Mehináku[6] [ɨˈʐũte] 'parrot' Resulted from the voicing of /ʂ/ in between vowels.[6]
Pashto Southern dialect تږى/tâjai [ˈtəʐai] 'thirsty' See Pashto phonology
Polish Standard[7] żona [ˈʐ̻ɔn̪ä] 'wife' Also represented orthographically by ⟨rz⟩ and when written so, it can be instead pronounced as the raised alveolar non-sonorant trill by few speakers.[8] It is transcribed as /ʒ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[9] zapłacił [ʐäˈpwät͡ɕiw] 'he paid' Some speakers. It is a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ʐ/ and /z/ into [z] (see Szadzenie).
Suwałki dialect[10]
Romagnol di [ˈdiːʐ] 'ten' Apical; may be [z̺ʲ] or [ʒ] instead.
Russian[7] жена/žena [ʐɨ̞ˈna] 'wife' See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic South Barra, Vatersay, Tiree air muir [ɛʐ ˈmuʐ] 'at sea' Realised as a palatalised /ɾʲ/ in most dialects, or as /ð/ in some other Hebridean dialects, particularly Lewis and South Uist.
Serbo-Croatian жут / žut [ʐûːt̪] 'yellow' Typically transcribed as /ʒ/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[11] žaba [ˈʐäbä] 'frog'
Spanish Andean hacer [a'seʐ] 'do' The phoneme [r] changes to [ʐ], when it is at the end of a syllable
marrón, ratón [maˈʐon], [ʐa'ton] 'brown', 'mouse' See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central dialects fri [fʐi] 'free' Allophone of /ɹ/. Also may be pronounced as [r] or [ɾ]. See Swedish phonology
Tilquiapan Zapotec[12] ? [ʐan] 'bottom'
Torwali[13] ݜوڙ [ʂuʐ] 'straight'
Ubykh [ʐa] 'firewood' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian жaбa/žaba [ˈʐɑbɐ] 'frog' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian Some dialects[14][15] [example needed] Used in dialects spoken in villages north of Hoyerswerda; corresponds to [ʒ] in standard language.[3]
Yi ry [ʐʐ̩˧] 'grass'

Voiced retroflex non-sibilant fricative edit

Voiced retroflex non-sibilant fricative
IPA Number152 429

Features edit

Features of the voiced retroflex non-sibilant fricative:

Occurrence edit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Eastern Cape[16] red [ɻ˔ed] 'red' Apical; typical realization of /r/ in that region.[16] See South African English phonology

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Phoible.org. (2018). PHOIBLE Online - Segments. [online] Available at: http://phoible.org/parameters.
  2. ^ a b Drude (2020), p. 190.
  3. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984:40–41)
  4. ^ Zygis (2003:180–181, 190–191)
  5. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 90.
  6. ^ a b Felipe (2020), pp. 87–89.
  7. ^ a b Hamann (2004:65)
  8. ^ "Gwary polskie - Frykatywne rż (ř)". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  9. ^ "Gwary polskie - Gwara regionu". www.gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  10. ^ "Gwary polskie - Szadzenie". www.gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  11. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  12. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  13. ^ Lunsford (2001:16–20)
  14. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:41)
  15. ^ Zygis (2003:180)
  16. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:165)

References edit

External links edit