Help:IPA/Inupiaq

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Alaskan Inuit pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ik}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Inuit phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Inupiaq and other Inuit languages.

Consonants[a]
IPA Examples nearest English equivalent
h savił̣haq[b] ahead
ɣ agiaq Spanish fuego, roughly like ugh
j qayaq yes
k kataktuq ski
l alapittuq land
ɬ iłuaqtuq By getting the tongue up to the roof and giving a quick breath out; Welsh llwyd.
ʎ iaga like, but more of a y-like sound
ʎ̥ sikł̣aq Above, but whispered.
m mannik man
n nuna now
ŋ iġñiiŋ sing
ɲ iñuk onion, Spanish ñ
p putu spoil
q qupak like k but further down the throat
ʁ niġiruq French rester
s sisuruq soon
ʂ iqsraq shrub, but retroflex
t talu stop
iñuich, tikikaa rich
v kiviruq[c] love
ʐ iri pleasure but retroflex
Marginal sounds
f tavsi[c] after
ɴ iġñiq like n but further down the throat
x akłaq,[d] siñikhuni loch (Scottish English)
χ mayuqłuŋa,[d] anniqhuni[b] like above but deepened
Vowels[e]
IPA Examples nearest English equivalent
aapa spa
ɑ nuqaqti[f] father
ɐ amiq nut
e qiquayak[f] bed (Australian English)
kiigaa knee
i iki really
o mitquq[f] yawn (Australian English)
kuuk coo
u niġirugut roof
Diphthongs
ai aivig irate
au auk how
ia qiaruq fiat
iu kiugaa cute
ua uamittuq quality
ui uiga gooey

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Between vowels, Inupiaq consonants can occur either short or long. In IPA, long consonants may be written doubled or be followed by the length sign: /nn/ or /nː/.
  2. ^ a b [χ] exists as a separate sound in some dialects, but is merged into /h/ in others.
  3. ^ a b The labial fricative /v/ and its voiceless allophone are labiodental [v, f] in some dialects and bilabial [β, ɸ] in others.
  4. ^ a b /k, q/ can have fricative allophones [x, χ], respectively, before consonants.
  5. ^ Inupiaq has three vowel phonemes /a, i, u/, which combine in every permutation to form three short vowels, three long vowels, and six diphthongs.
  6. ^ a b c The short vowels /ɐ, i, u/ are lowered to [ɑ, e, o], respectively, when adjacent to uvular consonants /q, ʁ/.