Charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Bengali pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Bengali phonology and Bengali alphabet for a more thorough look at the sounds of Bengali.

Consonants
IPA Bengali Examples ISO 15919 English Approximation
b বালি b abash
bʱ[1] ভীরু bh clubhouse
d[2] দা d deal (dental), Indian the
dʱ[2] ধারা dh redhead (dental), Indian that
ɖ[2] ডুমুর American bird
ɖʱ[2] ঢো ḍh American birdhouse
জ, য[3] বন j hedge
ʱ ঝা jh hedgehog
ɡ g agate
ɡʱ বাঘা gh loghouse
ɦ হ, ঃ[4] হাবাঃ h behind
h head
k লম k scan
kʰ খ, ক্ষ শাখা, ক্ষমা kh can
l মালিনী l leaf
m মানুষ m much
n ন, ণ নীলা ,বা n not
ŋ ঙ, ং বাঙালি অং sing
p পাকা p span
pʰ[5] ph pin
r[6] র,‍‍ র্ক, (র্), ‍‍্র বিরাম, তর্ক, শ্র r American atom or ring (flapped or trilled)
ɽ ড়, ঢ় ড় দৃঢ় American larder
s সেলাম s sue
ʃ শ, ষ, স শা ষাময় ś shoe
t[2] ত, ৎ মাল উ t get (dental), Indian think
tʰ[2] থাবা th tub (dental), Indian thought
ʈ[2] American parts
ʈʰ[2] কাঠুরে ṭh American partake
মুচি c catch
ʰ ছাগল ch choose
Marginal consonants
β[1] ভিসা v very
j য়[7] য় y yes
ɸ[5] ফ্যা f find
w[8] ও, উ য়াদা, ইলিয়াম v will
z জ, য[3] জাকাত যিয়ারত z zip
ɳ[9] [10] বা American burn
Vowels
Monophthongs
IPA Bengali Examples ISO 15919 English Approximation
ɔ অ, প মর a off
a আ, পা ঙিনা ā Australian father, RP cut
æ[11] অ্যা, প্যা, এ, পে ত্যাখেলা ae/æ trap
i ই, পি, ঈ, পী দিদী i beat
u[8] উ, পু, ঊ, পূ কুকূ u boot
e এ, পে মেদিনী ē Scottish may
o[8] ও, পো, অ, প জন ঙ্কুর ō Scottish sole
◌̃ ইঁদুর nasal vowel
([ã], [õ], etc.)
Semivowels
য় খায় Similar to very
ভা i happy
যা হায়া ō Similar to look
ঝা u too
Diphthongs
ii̯ িই নিই ii tea
iu̯ িউ বিউভোল iu ew
ei̯ েয় দেয় ēi RP bay
eu̯ েও ঢেও ēu No English equivalent
æe̯ ্যায় ন্যায় aeẏ/æẏ No English equivalent
ai̯ াই পাই āi Buy
ae̯ ায় পায় āẏ Similar to Hi
au̯ াউ পাউ āu How
ao̯ াও পাও āō Similar to How
ɔe̯ ◌য় নয় aẏ No English equivalent
ɔo̯ ◌ও নও No English equivalent
oi̯ োই দোই ōi Similar to boy
oo̯ োও দোও ōō Indian no
ou̯ নৌকা ōu American go
ui̯ ুই, ূই ধুই ui No English equivalent
Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ primary stress
(placed before stressed syllable)[12]
ˌ secondary stress
(placed before stressed syllable)[12]
ː doubled consonant

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b /bʱ/ is phonetically realised either as [] or /β/ (phonetically [v~β]) depending on the speaker and variety. /β/ can additionally occur as an allophone of /bʱ/ in foreign loan words e.g. ভিসা [βisa] 'visa'.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Bengali contrasts dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers although the dental [t] and [d] are used in place of the English /θ/ and /ð/ for some speakers with th-stopping.
  3. ^ a b and may represent a voiced affricate // in Standard Bengali words of native origin, but they can also represent /z/ in foreign words and names (জাকাত [zakat] 'zakah charity', আজিজ [aziz] 'Aziz'). However, many speakers usually replace /z/ with /dʒ/. Additionally, some words that originally had /z/ are now pronounced with // in Standard Bengali (সবজি [ɕobdʑi] 'vegetable', from Persian sabzi).
  4. ^ /ɦ/ may be devoiced to [h] in word-initial or final positions, with [ɦ] occurring medially.
  5. ^ a b /pʰ/ is phonetically realised either as [] or /ɸ/ (phonetically [f~ɸ]) depending on the speaker and variety. /ɸ/ can additionally occur as an allophone of /pʰ/ in foreign loan words e.g. ফ্যান [ɸæn] 'fan'.
  6. ^ The phonetic realisation of /r/ is usually an alveolar flap [ɾ] but may also be an alveolar approximant [ɹ] or alveolar trill [r] depending on the variety and speaker.
  7. ^ The [j] phoneme occurs in some pronunciations of Bengali vowel clusters, such as নয়ন [nɔjon].
  8. ^ a b c When preceding a vowel in word-initial positions, /w/ may occur as an allophone of /o/ and /u/, especially in loan words e.g. ওয়াদা [wada] 'promise', উইলিয়াম [wiliam] 'William'.
  9. ^ https://archive.org/details/dli.calcutta.10258
  10. ^ Mainly occurs as an allophone of [n] in conjunct with other postalveolar (retroflex) consonants.
  11. ^ Thompson, Hanne-Ruth (November 25, 2020). Bengali: A Comprehensive Grammar (Routledge Comprehensive Grammars), 1 (1 ed.). Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 978-0415411394.
  12. ^ a b Primary stress usually occurs in word-initial positions with secondary stress occurring afterwards.

Bibliography edit

See also edit