Help:IPA/Bengali

Charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Bengali pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-bn}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Bengali phonology and Bengali alphabet for a more thorough look at the sounds of Bengali.

Consonants
IPA Bengali Examples ISO 15919 English Approximation
b বালি b abash
bʱ[1] ভীরু bh clubhouse
d দা d deal (dental), the (Th-stopping)
dʱ ধারা dh redhead
ɖ ডুমুর American English bird
ɖʱ ঢো ḍh American English birdhouse
জ, য[2] বন j hedge
ʱ ঝা jh hedgehog
ɡ g agate
ɡʱ বাঘা gh loghouse
ɦ হ, ঃ[3] হাবাঃ h behind
h head
k লম k scan
kʰ খ, ক্ষ শাখা ক্ষমা kh can
l মালিনী l leaf
m মানুষ m much
n ন, ণ, ঞ নীলা বা n not
ŋ ঙ, ং বাঙালি অং sing
p পাকা p span
pʰ[4] ph pin
r[5] র,‍‍ র্ক, (র্), ‍‍্র বিরাম, তর্ক, শ্র r ring; flapped or trilled r
ɽ ড়, ঢ় ড় দৃঢ় US: larder
s সেলাম s sue
ʃ শ, ষ, স শা ষাময় ś shoe
t ত, ৎ মাল উ t get (dental), think (Th-stopping)
tʰ থাবা th tub (dental), thought (Th-stopping)
ʈ art (rhotic)
ʈʰ কাঠুরে ṭh artist (rhotic)
মুচি c catch
ʰ ছাগল ch choose
Marginal consonants
β[1] ভিসা v very
j য়[6] য় y yes
ɸ[4] ফ্যা f find
w[7] ও, উ য়াদা, ইলিয়াম v will
ɽʱ[8] ঢ় ঢ় ṛh No English equivalent
z জ, য[2] জাকাত যিয়ারত z zip
Vowels
Monophthongs
IPA Bengali Examples ISO 15919 English Approximation
a আ, পা ঙিনা ā Australian father, RP cut
ɛ অ্যা, প্যা, এ, পে ত্যাখেলা ai dress
e এ, পে মেদিনী ē may (monophthongal)
i ই, পি, ঈ, পী দিদী i beat
o[7] ও, পো, অ, প জন ঙ্কুর ō sole (monophthongal)
ɔ অ, প মর a off
u[7] উ, পু, ঊ, পূ কুকূ u boot
◌̃ ইঁদুর nasal vowel
([ã], [õ], etc.)
Semivowels
য় খায় Similar to very
ভা i happy
যা হায়া ō Similar to look
ঝা u too
Diphthongs
ii̯ িই নিই ii tea
iu̯ িউ বিউভোল iu ew
ei̯ েয় দেয় ēi bay (diphthongal)
eu̯ েও ঢেও ēu No English equivalent
ɛe̯ ্যায় ন্যায় aiẏ No English equivalent
ai̯ াই পাই āi Buy
ae̯ ায় পায় āẏ Similar to Hi
au̯ াউ পাউ āu How
ao̯ াও পাও āō Similar to ow
ɔe̯ ◌য় নয় aẏ No English equivalent
ɔo̯ ◌ও নও No English equivalent
oi̯ োই দোই ōi Similar to boy
oo̯ োও দোও ōō no
ou̯ নৌকা ōu go (diphthongal)
ui̯ ুই, ূই ধুই ui No English equivalent
Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ primary stress
(placed before stressed syllable)[9]
ˌ secondary stress
(placed before stressed syllable)[9]
ː doubled consonant

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b /bʱ/ is phonetically realised either as [] or /β/ (phonetically [v~β]) depending on the speaker and variety. /β/ can additionally occur as an allophone of /bʱ/ in foreign loan words e.g. ভিসা [βisa] 'visa'.
  2. ^ a b ⟩ and ⟨⟩ may represent a voiced affricate // in Standard Bengali words of native origin, but they can also represent /z/ in foreign words and names (জাকাত [zakat] 'zakah charity', আজিজ [aziz] 'Aziz'). However, many speakers usually replace /z/ with /dʒ/. Additionally, some words that originally had /z/ are now pronounced with // in Standard Bengali (সবজি [ɕobdʑi] 'vegetable', from Persian sabzi).
  3. ^ /ɦ/ may be devoiced to [h] in word-initial or final positions, with [ɦ] occuring medially.
  4. ^ a b /pʰ/ is phonetically realised either as [] or /ɸ/ (phonetically [f~ɸ]) depending on the speaker and variety. /ɸ/ can additionally occur as an allophone of /pʰ/ in foreign loan words e.g. ফ্যান [ɸɛn] 'fan'.
  5. ^ /r/ is phonetically an alveolar flap [ɾ], alveolar trill [r] or alveolar approximant [ɹ] depending on the variety and speaker.
  6. ^ The [j] phoneme occurs in some pronunciations of Bengali vowel clusters, such as নয়ন [nɔjon].
  7. ^ a b c When preceding a vowel in word-initial positions, /w/ may occur as an allophone of /o/ and /u/, especially in loan words e.g. ওয়াদা [wada] 'promise', উইলিয়াম [wiliam] 'William'.
  8. ^ [ɽʱ] only occurs in the individual pronunciation of the letter ঢ় [ɽʱɔ] and some Sanskrit loanwords but is usually pronounced as [ɽ] in ordinary speech.
  9. ^ a b Primary stress usually occurs in word-initial positions with secondary stress occurring afterwards.

BibliographyEdit

  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla (2010), "Bengali (Bangladeshi Standard)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 221–225, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000071