International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects

This chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.

See Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic transcriptions used in different dictionaries.

ChartEdit

This chart gives a partial system of diaphonemes for English. The symbols for the diaphonemes are given in bold, followed by their most common phonetic values. For the vowels, a separate phonetic value is given for each major dialect, and words used to name corresponding lexical sets are also given. The diaphonemes and lexical sets given here are based on RP and General American; they are not sufficient to express all of the distinctions found in other dialects, such as Australian English.

English consonants
Dia-
phoneme
[1]
Phones Examples
p , p pen, spin, tip
b b, but, web
t , t, ɾ, ʔ[2] two, sting, bet
d d, , ɾ[3] do, daddy, odd
tʃʰ, chair, nature, teach
, d̥ʒ̊ gin, joy, edge
k , k cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick
ɡ ɡ, ɡ̊ go, get, beg
f f fool, enough, leaf, off, photo
v v, voice, have, of, verve
θ θ, , f[4] thing, teeth
ð ð, ð̥, , v[5] this, breathe, father
s s see, city, pass
z z, zoo, rose
ʃ ʃ she, sure, session, emotion, leash
ʒ ʒ, ʒ̊ genre, pleasure, beige, equation, seizure
h h, ɦ,[6] ç[7] ham, hue
m m, ɱ[8] man, ham
n n no, tin
ŋ ŋ ringer, sing,[9] finger, drink
l l, ɫ,[10] , ɫ̥,[11] ɤ, o,[12] left, bell, sable, please
r ɹʷ, ɹ, ɾ,[13] r,[14] ɻ, ɹ̥ʷ, ɹ̥, ɾ̥, ɻ̊,[11] ʋ[15] run, very, probably
w w, ʍ[11] we, queen
j j yes, nyala
hw ʍ, w[16] what
Marginal consonants
x x, χ, k, , h, ɦ, ç loch (Scottish),[17] ugh[18]
ʔ ʔ uh-oh
ɬ ɬ, l[19] Llangefni
English vowels and diphthongs
Dia-
phoneme
[1]
AmE AuE[20][21] BahE BarE CaE[22] CIE EnE FiE InE[23] IrE[24] NZE[25][26] PaE ScE[27] SIE SAE[28][29] SSE WaE[30] Keyword Examples
AAVE Boston accent Cajun English General American[31][32][25] Inland Northern American English Mid-Atlantic accent Mid-Atlantic American English New York accent Southern American English Cockney Geordie RP[33][34] Scouse Ulster English West & South-West Ireland English Dublin English Supraregional southern Irish English Abercraf English Port Talbot English Cardiff English
Non-Rhotic Rhotic Older Younger Non-Rhotic Older Rhotic Non-Rhotic Older Rhotic Cultivated General Broad Conservative Contemporary Belfast Mid-Ulster traditional Ulster Scots Local Dublin English New Dublin English Cultivated General Broad Cultivated General Broad
æ ɛː~ɛə̯~eə̯ eə̯~ɛə̯[35] æ eə̯~ɛə̯~æ[35] eə̯~ɪə̯ æ æə̯~ɛə̯~eə̯[35] ɛə̯~eə̯~ɪə̯[35] eə̯~æjə[35] æː[36] aː~æː~ɛː[36] æː~ɛː[36] æ~a a æ~ɛə̯[35] æ æ~ɛ~ɛɪ a æ a a æ æ~ɛ äː~a æ a æ~a æ ɛ~ɛ̝ æ ä ɑ~æ æ a~æ æ~ɛ~ ɛ[37] a [36] ~æː[36] TRAP ham
æ~ɛː~ɛə̯ æ~ɛə̯ æ~ɛə̯ æ æ~æjə~æ̠ɛæ̠ æ~a bad
æ æ, ɛə̯~eə̯~ɪə̯[35] æ a~æ~ɛ æ~ɛ æ a a~æ lad
ɑː / æ ä~a a æə̯~ɛə̯~eə̯[35] ɛə̯~eə̯~ɪə̯[35] äː äː~ɐː~a̠ː~ɐ̟ː a̠ː~ɐ̟ː ɑː ɑ̟ː a~ɑ äː æː~ ɐː~äː ɑ ɑ̟ː ɑː ɒː~ɔː ä[38] BATH pass
ɑː a~ä~ɑ a~ä ɑ ɑ~ä a~ä ɑː ɑ ɑ~ä ɑ ɑ ɒ~ɑ ɒː~ɑː ~ɑː äː~ɑː ɑː ɑː ~æː PALM father
ɒ ɒ~ɑ ɒ ɒ̝ ɒ̝~ɔ ɔ ɒ~ɑ ɒ ɒ~ɔ ɒ ɒ ɔ ɒ ɔ ɔ~ä ɒ~ɑ~ä äː ɔː ä ɑ~ɒ~ɔ ɑ ɔ ɑ ɔ ɒ̈ ɒ̈~ʌ̈ ɒ̈ ɔ ɒ ɑ̟ LOT not
ɒ / ɔː ɒ(ɔ̯)~ɔ(ʊ̯) a ɒ~ɔ~ɑ[39] ɒ~ɑ ɔə̯~ɒ̝ə̯ ɔə̯~oə̯~ʊə̯ ɑɒ̯~ɑ ɔo̯~ɑɒ̯ ɑɒ̯~ɑ ɔ ɒː ɒː o̞ː ɒː ~ä ɔː ɒ ɒ̈, o̞ː ɒ̈~ʌ̈, ɒ̈, CLOTH off[40]
ɔː ɔː o̞ː o̞ː~~o̝ː ~o̝ː ɒː~ɑː ~ɔː ɔː~ɔ̝ə~ɔuə ɔː o̞ː ɔː ɒː~ɔː~ ɒː o̞ː ɒː ʌ̈ː THOUGHT law
oː~oʊ~ɔo pause
ə ə ə~ɐ ə ɐ~a ə ə ə ə~ɐ ə ə[41] ə COMMA about
ɪ ɪ~iə̯ ɪ~ɪ̞~ɪ̈ ɪ ɪ̞ ɪ~ɪ̈ ɪ~ɪ̈ ɪ~ɪ̈ ɪ~ɪjə~iə̯ ɪ ɪ~i i ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ̞ ɪ ɪ̈~ë ə~ɘ ɛ ɪ ɪ̈ ɪ ɪ~ë̞~ə~ʌ ɪ ɪ ɪ̈ [41] ɪ~i ɪ ɪ̞ KIT bit
ɪ[41] i[41] kit
i i ɪ~i ɪi̯~i i ɪi̯~i ɪ~i ɪi̯ ɪi̯~ɘ̟i̯ ɘ̟ːi̯ i ~i i ɪi̯ i i e ɪi̯ ɘi̯ i e~ɪ~i i i HAPPY city
i ɪi̯~i ɪi̯~i ɪi̯ ɪi̯~iː əi~ɐi , ei̯ ɪi̯ , ɪ̈i̯ ~ ɪ̈ɪ̯ ɪi̯ i FLEECE see
eɪ̯~ɛɪ̯ eɪ̯ eɪ̯ eɪ̯~ɛɪ̯ ɛi̯~æ̠i̯ ɛɪ̯ æɪ̯~ɐ̟ɪ̯ ɐ̟ːɪ̯~a̠ːɪ̯ eɪ̯~ɛɪ̯ eɪ̯~ eɪ̯ æɪ~aɪ ~eɪ̯~ɪə̯ e̞ɪ̯ ɛɪ̯ eɪ̯ eː~ɪː, eə̯~ɪə̯ eː~eɪ̯~ɛɪ̯ ɛɪ̯ æe̯ ɐe̯ eɪ̯~ e eɪ̯~ eɪ̯ eɪ̯~ɛɪ̯~æɪ̯ æɪ̯~äɪ̯~ʌɪ̯ e[42] ei̯ FACE date
eɪ̯ day
ɛ ɛ~eə̯ ɛ ɛ~æ ɛ ɛ~ɜ ɛ~e ɛ ɛ~ɛjə ~e~e̝ e~e̝ ɛ e, eɪ~eə~ɛɪ ɛ ɛ ɛ̝ə̯ ɛ e~ ɛ e~ ɛ, e[43] ɛ DRESS bed[44]
ɪ~iə̯ ɪ ɪ~ɪjə~iə̯ pen
i length
ʌ ʌ~ɜ ʌ~ɐ ʌ ʌ~ɜ~ɐ ʌ~ɔ ɐ ʌ ʌ̈ ɜ ä ä~ɐ~a̠~ɐ̟ a̠~ɐ̟ ʌ ʌ~ɜ~ɐ ʌ~ɔ ɐ̟~a ʊ̞~ɤ ɐ ɜ~ʌ̟~ɑ̟[45] ʊ ʌ~ɐ ə~ɜ ɞ~ʌ̈ ʌ̈~ʊ ʊ ɤ~ʊ ʌ̈~ʊ ɐ~ä ʌ ʌ~ɐ ɐ~ä ʌ~ɜ~ä ə~ɜ STRUT run
ʊ ʊ~ɵ~ø̞ ʊ ʊ̞ ʊ ʊ̈~ʏ ʊ ʊ~u u ʊ ʊ, ʊ̈ ʊ ɵ ʊ ʉ ʊ̈ ʊ ʊ ʊ~ʊ̈ ʊ ʉ ʊ ʊ~ɵ ʊ~u ʊ ɘ FOOT put
ʉː~ʊ ~ʊ hood
ʊu̯~u u~ʊu̯~ɵu̯ u ~ʊu̯~ʉu̯~ɵu̯ u~ɵu̯ ʉu̯ u~ʊu̯~ɤʊ̯~ɤu̯ ʊu~ɵu~ʊ̈y~ʏy~ʉ̞u̟ ʊu̯ ʊ̈ʉ̯~ɵʉ̯ ɵːʉ̯~ɘːʉ̯ ʉː ʉu̯ ~ʉ əʉ~ʉː~ɨː~ʊː u̟ː~ʉː,ɵʊ̯ ʊu̯ ʊ̈ʉ̯ ʉː, ɪ̈u̯~ɪ̈ʊ̯ u ʉː u u u̟ː ʉː~ ʉː u GOOSE through
ɪu̯[46] threw
juː (j)ʊu̯~(j)u (j)u~(j)ʊu̯~(j)ɵu̯ (j)u̟~(j)ʊu̯~(j)ʉu̯~(j)ɵu̯ (j)u~(j)ɵu̯ juː (j)ʉu̯ (j)u~(j)ʊu̯~(j)ɤʊ̯~(j)ɤu̯ (j)ʊu~(j)ɵu~(j)ʊ̈y~(j)ʏy~(j)ʉ̞u̟ jʊu̯ jʊ̈ʉ̯~jɵʉ̯ jɵːʉ̯~jɘːʉ̯ jʉː juː (j)ʉu̯ juː~ jəʉ~jʉː~jɨː~jʊː ju̟ː~jʉː,jɵʊ̯ jʊu̯ jʊ̈ʉ̯ jʉː, jɪ̈u̯~jɪ̈ʊ̯ ju juː jʊ̈ juː jʉː ju ju ju̟ː jʉː~jyː jʉː ju cute
äɪ̯ ɐi̯[47] ɑɪ̯~aː ʌɪ̯~ɜɪ̯~ɐɪ̯[47] äɪ̯ ɐɪ̯ äɪ̯ ɐi~äɪ~äɛ äɪ̯ ɑ̟e̯~ɑe̯ ɑːe̯~ɒːe̯ ɑɪ̯ ʌɪ̯ ʌɪ̯~ɜɪ̯~ɐɪ̯[47] aɪ̯~ɑɪ̯~ɒɪ̯ ɑɪ~ɒɪ~ɑ̟ə~ɑ̟ː äi̯ äɪ̯ ɑ̟ɪ̯ aɪ̯~ɑɪ̯~ ɐe̯ äɪ̯ ɐi̯~ɜi̯[47] æɪ̯~ɐɪ̯ əɪ̯~ɐɪ̯ ɑɪ̯~ɐɪ̯ aɪ̯~ɑɪ̯ ɑ̟ɪ̯ ɑe̯ ɒe̯ ɑɪ̯ ɜi̯, äe̯ ɑɪ̯ äɪ̯ äɪ̯~äː ɑɪ̯~ɑ̟ː ai̯ ɐ̟ɪ̯ ɜɪ̯ ɜi̯ PRICE flight
äː~äe̯~aː äɪ̯ äɪ̯ aɪ̯~ae̯~æɪ̯ äɪ̯ ɑɪ̯~ɒɪ̯~äɪ̯ äː~äɛ ɑɪ̯ äe̯~ɜi̯ my
ɔɪ oɪ̯ ɔɪ̯~oɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɔɪ̯~oɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɔɪ̯~oɪ̯ oi̯ o̞ɪ̯ o̞ɪ̯~oɪ̯ o̞ːɪ̯~oːɪ̯ oɪ̯~ɑɪ̯ oɪ̯~ʌɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɔɪ̯~oɪ̯ ɔ̝ɪ~oɪ oe̯ ɔɪ̯ oɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ əɪ̯~ɑɪ̯ aɪ̯~äɪ̯ ɒɪ̯~oɪ̯ ɒɪ̯ oɪ̯ oe̯ ɔɪ̯ oi̯ ɔɪ̯ ɔɪ̯~ɒɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɔi̯ ɔɪ̯ ɒɪ̯ ʌ̈i̯ CHOICE boy
ʌʊ̯~ɔʊ̯ oʊ̯~ɔʊ̯ oʊ̯~ʌʊ̯~ɔʊ̯~o ʌo̯~oʊ̯~o oʊ̯ ɘʊ̯~ɜʊ̯ oʊ̯~ʌ̈ʊ̯ ɜʊ~ɜʊ̈~ɜʏ ɵ̞ʊ̯ ɜʉ̯~ɞʉ̯~ɐʉ̯~ɐ̹ʉ̯ ɐːʉ̯~ɐ̹ːʉ̯ oʊ̯~ɵʊ̯ ~oə̯ oʊ̯ əʊ̯ æ̈ɤ̈~æ̈ɤ̝̈~ɐɤ̈~ɐɤ̝̈~
æ̈ʊ~ɐʊ~aʊ~ɐø~
œ̈ø~ʌ̈ː~œ̈
~ʊə̯~ɵː əʊ̯ əʉ̯ ɛʉ̯~ɛʊ̯~eʉ̯~
eʊ̯~əʉ̯~əʊ̯
ʌo̯~ʌɔ̯ əʊ̯ oʊ̯~əʊ̯ ɵʊ̯ ɞʉ̯ ɐʉ̯ oː~oʊ̯ oː~oʊ̯ ɛʊ̯~œʊ̯ œʉ̯~œɤ̯̈~œː ʌʊ̯ o[42] ɘu̯ GOAT no
ou̯ oʊ̯ tow
ɔu̯ ɒ̝ʊ̯~ɔʊ̯ ɔːʊ̯ ɒʊ~ɔo~aɤ ɔʊ̯ ɔo̯ soul
æɔ̯~æə̯ ɐʊ̯[47] aʊ̯~aː aʊ̯~æʊ̯ äʊ̯~ɐʊ̯ ɑʊ̯ æʊ̯~ɛɔ̯ aʊ̯~æʊ̯ æɒ̯~ɛjɔ äʊ̯ æɔ̯ ɛːo̯~ɛːɤ̯ ao̯~ɑə̯~aɵ~aɛ̯ ʌʊ̯ ʌʊ̯~ɜʊ̯[47] aʊ̯ æʊ~æə~æː~aː~æiə äu̯~æu̯~ɛu̯~əu̯~ ɑ̟ʊ̯ aʊ̯ aɔ̯ äʊ̯ ɐʏ̯~ɜʉ̯ ɐʊ̯~ʌʊ̯ ɛʊ̯ aʊ̯~ɛʊ̯ aʊ̯ æo̯ ɛo̯~ɛə̯ ɑʊ̯ ɜʉ̯ ɑʊ̯ äʊ̯ äː æʊ̯ au̯ ɐu̯ ɜʊ̯ ɑ̟u̯ MOUTH about
aʊ̯ äʊ̯~ɑʊ̯ now
ɑːr ɑ(ɹ)~ɒ(ɹ) ɑɹ~ɒɹ a(ɹ)~ä(ɹ) ɑ(ɹ)~a(ɹ) ɑɹ äɻ~ɐɻ ɑː(ɹ) ɑɹ ɒə̯(ɹ) äə̯(ɹ) ɑɹ~ɒɹ ɑ(ɹ)~ɒ(ɹ) ɑɹ~ɒɹ äː(ɹ) äː(ɹ)~ɐː(ɹ)~a̠ː(ɹ)~ɐ̟ː(ɹ) a̠ː(ɹ)~ɐ̟ː(ɹ) ɑː(ɹ) aːɹ ɑɹ~ɐɹ ɑː(ɾ) ɑː(ɹ) ɒː(ɾ)~ɑː(ɹ) ɑ̟ː(ɹ) aː(ɾ)~ɑː(ɾ) ɑː(ɹ) äː(ɾ) ɑɻ æːɹ~ äːɹ~ɑɹ ɐː(ɹ)~äː(ɹ) ɑɹ äɾ ɑː(ɾ) ɑ̟ː(ɹ) ɑː(ɹ) ɒː(ɾ)~ɔː(ɾ) ä(ɹ) aː(ɾ) aː(ɹ)~æː(ɹ) START arm
ɪər iə̯(ɹ)~iɤ̯(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɹ)~ɪɐ̯(ɹ) i(ɹ)~ɪ(ɹ) ɪɹ~iɹ iɻ~iə̯ɻ ɪə̯(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɹ)~iə̯(ɹ) ɪɹ~iɹ iə̯(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɹ) ɪː(ɹ)~iː(ɹ), ɪə̯(ɹ)~iə̯(ɹ) iː(ɹ), iːə̯(ɹ) iə̯(ɹ)~eə̯(ɹ) eːɹ ɪɹ iə̯(ɾ)~ɪə̯(ɾ) iə(ɹ)~ɪː(ɹ)~ɪiɐ(ɹ) iɐ̯(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɹ) ɪː(ɹ)~ɪə̯(ɹ) iɛ̯(ɾ) ɪə̯(ɹ)~iə̯(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɾ)~iː(ɾ) iːɹ ɪə̯(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɹ)[48] ɪɹ~iɹ iə̯ɾ ɪə̯(ɾ)~iə̯(ɾ) ɪə̯(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɾ)~ɪː(ɾ) iə̯(ɹ) iːə(ɾ)~jøː(ɾ) iːə(ɹ)~jøː(ɹ) NEAR deer
ɛər ɛə̯(ɹ) ɛɹ ɛə̯(ɹ)~ɛɐ̯(ɹ) ɛ(ɹ)~æ(ɹ) ɛɹ eə̯ɻ~ ɛə̯(ɹ) ɛə̯(ɹ)~eə̯(ɹ) ɛɹ~eɹ ɛ(j)ə(ɹ) e̞ɹ~ɛ(j)ɹ e̞ə̯(ɹ) e̞ː(ɹ)~eː(ɹ)~e̝ː(ɹ) eː(ɹ)~e̝ː(ɹ) eə̯(ɹ) ɛɹ ɛə̯(ɾ) ɛ̝ə(ɹ)~ɛː(ɹ)~ɛiə(ɹ) ɛː(ɹ) ɛə̯(ɹ) ɛː(ɹ)~ɛə̯(ɹ)[49] ɪː(ɾ)~eː(ɾ)~ëː(ɾ)~ɛː(ɾ)~
ɛ̈ː(ɾ)~œː(ɾ)~əː(ɾ)~
ɘː(ɾ)~ɜː(ɾ)~ɵː(ɾ)
ɛə̯(ɹ) ɛə̯(ɾ)~eː(ɾ) ɚː ɛːɹ eːɹ e̞ə̯(ɹ) ɛɹ eə̯ɾ ɛə̯(ɾ)~ɛɐ̯(ɾ) ɛə̯(ɹ) ɛə̯(ɹ)~ɛː(ɹ)~eː(ɹ) eː(ɾ)~e̝ː(ɾ) ɛ(ɹ) ɛː(ɾ) ɛː(ɹ)~eː(ɹ) SQUARE mare
ɜːr ɚ ɚ əː(ɹ) ɚ ʌə(ɹ)~ʌɹ ɚ ɚ~əɻ ɜː(ɹ)~əː(ɹ) ɚ ɚ əɪ̯ ɚ ɚ~ɐɹ ɜ(ɹ) ɚ~ɐɹ əː(ɹ) əː(ɹ)~ɵ̞ː(ɹ)~ɘː(ɹ)~ɵː(ɹ)~ə̝ː(ɹ)~ɵ̝ː(ɹ) ɘː(ɹ)~ɵː(ɹ)~ə̝ː(ɹ)~ɵ̝ː(ɹ) ə(ɹ)~ɜ(ɹ)~ɜi̯(ɹ) ɤ ɚ əː(ɾ) ɜː(ɹ)~ɜ̟ː(ɹ)~œ̈ː(ɹ) øː(ɹ)~ɪː(ɹ)~əː(ɹ)~ɔː(ɹ) əː(ɹ)~ɐː(ɹ) əː(ɹ) əː(ɹ)~ɐː(ɹ) ɜː(ɾ)~äɾ ɚː ɚː[50] ɚː ʊːɹ[50] ɚː ɵː(ɹ) ɚ ʌɾ[50] əː(ɾ)~ɐː(ɾ) əː(ɹ)~ɐː(ɹ) ø̈ː(ɹ)~ø̞̈ː(ɹ) ø̈ː(ɾ)~ø̞̈ː(ɾ) ə(ɹ) əː(ɾ) øː(ɾ) øː(ɹ) NURSE burn
ɪɾ~ʌɾ[50] bird
əɹ ɛːɹ[50] ɛːɹ[50] ɛɾ[50] earth
ər ə(ɹ) ə(ɹ) ə(ɹ) ə(ɹ) ə(ɹ) ɚ ə(ɹ) œ(ɾ)~ə(ɾ) ə(ɹ)~ɐ(ɹ) ə(ɹ) ə(ɾ) ɐ(ɹ)~a(ɹ) ə(ɾ) ɚ ə(ɹ) əɾ ə(ɾ)~ɐ(ɾ) ə(ɹ) ə(ɾ) ə(ɾ) ə(ɹ) LETTER winner[51]
ʌə(ɹ)~ʌɹ donor
ɔːr oə̯(ɹ)~ɔə̯(ɹ)~ɔo̯(ɹ) ɔə̯(ɹ)~ɒə̯(ɹ)~ɒ(ɹ) ɔə(ɹ)~ɔɹ ɔɹ~oɹ ɔɻ~oɻ ɔə̯(ɹ) oɹ~ɔɹ oɐ̯(ɹ)~ɔə̯(ɹ) oɹ~ɔɹ o(u)ə(ɹ) o(u)ɹ o̞ː(ɹ) o̞ː(ɹ)~oː(ɹ)~o̝ː(ɹ) oː(ɹ)~o̝ː(ɹ) ɔə̯(ɹ) ɒːɹ~ɑːɹ ɔɹ ɑː(ɾ)~əː(ɾ) ɔː(ɹ)~ɔ̝ə(ɹ)~ɔuə(ɹ), oː(ɹ)~oʊ(ɹ)~ɔo(ɹ) ɔː(ɹ) o̞ː(ɹ) oː(ɹ) o̞ː(ɾ) oː(ɹ) ɔː(ɾ) ɔːɹ äːɹ~ɑːɹ ɒːɹ~oːɹ oː(ɹ) ɔɾ oː(ɾ) o̞ː(ɹ) oː(ɹ) oː(ɾ) ɔ(ɹ) ɒː(ɾ) ʌ̈ː(ɹ) NORTH sort
ɔə̯(ɹ)~oɐ̯(ɹ) oə̯(ɹ) oːɹ oː(ɾ)~əː(ɾ) oːɹ ɔːɹ ɒːɹ oːɹ o̝(ə̯)ɾ oː(ɾ) FORCE tore
ʊər ʊə̯(ɹ)~ʊɐ̯(ɹ) uə(ɹ)~ʊə(ɹ) ʊɹ~ɔɹ~oɹ uɻ~oɻ ʊə̯(ɹ) ʊə̯(ɹ) ʊ̈ʉ̯ə(ɹ)~ɵʉ̯ə(ɹ), o̞ː(ɹ)~oː(ɹ)~o̝ː(ɹ) ɵːʉ̯ə(ɹ)~ɘːʉ̯ə(ɹ), oː(ɹ)~o̝ː(ɹ) uə̯(ɹ) ʊɹ~ɔɹ uə̯(ɾ) ʊə(ɹ)~ʊː(ɹ)~ɔː(ɹ)~ɔ̝ə(ɹ)~ɔuə(ɹ) uɐ̯(ɹ) ʊə̯(ɹ) uɛ̯(ɾ)~ɪ̈u̯ə(ɾ)~ɪ̈ʊ̯ə(ɾ)~
o̞ː(ɾ)
oə̯(ɹ) ʊə̯(ɾ)~uː(ɾ) uːɹ ʊə̯(ɹ) ʉːə(ɹ), oː(ɹ) ʉɾ oə̯(ɾ)~oɐ̯(ɾ) ʊə̯(ɹ) ʊə̯(ɹ)~oː(ɹ) uə̯(ɹ) uːə(ɾ) uːə(ɹ)~ʌ̈ː(ɹ) CURE tour
jʊər juə̯(ɹ)~jʊə̯(ɹ) juɹ~jʊɹ jʊə̯(ɹ)~jʊɐ̯(ɹ) jʊɹ~jɚ jʊə̯(ɹ) jɔɹ~joɹ~jɚ juɐ̯(ɹ)~juə̯(ɹ) juɹ juə̯(ɹ) juɹ~jɚ jʊə̯(ɹ) jʊ̈ʉ̯ə(ɹ)~jɵʉ̯ə(ɹ), jo̞ː(ɹ)~joː(ɹ)~jo̝ː(ɹ) jɵːʉ̯ə(ɹ)~jɘːʉ̯ə(ɹ), joː(ɹ)~jo̝ː(ɹ) juə̯(ɹ) joːɹ jɚ~jʊɹ~jɵɹ juə̯(ɾ) jʊə(ɹ)~jʊː(ɹ)~jɔː(ɹ)~jɔ̝ə(ɹ)~jɔuə(ɹ) juɐ̯(ɹ) jʊə̯(ɹ) joː(ɹ) jo̞ː(ɾ) joə̯(ɹ) jʊə̯(ɾ)~juː(ɾ) juːɹ jʊə̯(ɹ) jʉːə(ɹ), joː(ɹ) joɚ jʉɾ joə̯(ɾ)~joɐ̯(ɾ) jʊə̯(ɹ) jʊə̯(ɹ)~joː(ɹ) joː(ɾ) jɔ(ɹ) ɪuːə(ɾ) juːə(ɹ)~jʌ̈ː(ɹ) pure
Dia-
phoneme
[1]
AmE AuE BahE BarE CaE CIE EnE FiE InE IrE NZE PaE ScE SIE SAE SSE WaE Keyword Examples
Other symbols used in transcription of English pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, rapping /ˈræpɪŋ/
ˌ Secondary stress/full vowel indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, pronunciation /prəˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃən/
. Syllable separation indicator; for example, ice cream /ˈaɪs.kriːm/ vs. I scream /ˌaɪ.ˈskriːm/
̩ ̍ Syllabic consonant indicator (placed under the syllabic consonant); for example, ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c This is a compromise IPA transcription, which covers most dialects of English.
  2. ^ /t/ is pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English, and is possible in RP in words like butter, [ʔ] in some positions in Scottish English, English English, American English and Australian English, and [] non-initially in Irish English.
  3. ^ /d/ is pronounced [ɾ] if preceded and followed by vowels in GA and Australian English.
  4. ^ /θ/ is pronounced as a dental stop [] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, Indian English, and New York English, merges with /f/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /t/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. The dental stop [] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /θ/.
  5. ^ /ð/ is pronounced as a dental stop [d̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, Indian English, and New York English, merges with /v/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /d/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. [] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /ð/.
  6. ^ The glottal fricative /h/ is often pronounced as voiced [ɦ] between vowel sounds and after voiced consonants. Initial voiced [ɦ] occurs in some accents of the Southern Hemisphere.
  7. ^ /h/ is pronounced [ç] before the palatal approximant /j/, sometimes even replacing the cluster /hj/, and sometimes before high front vowels.
  8. ^ The bilabial nasal /m/ is pronounced as labiodental [ɱ] before f and v, as in symphony [ˈsɪɱfəni], circumvent [ˌsɝkəɱˈvɛnt], some value [ˌsʌɱˈvæɫjuː].
  9. ^ In some dialects, such as Brummie, words like ringer, sing /ˈɹɪŋə ˈsɪŋ/, which have a velar nasal [ŋ] in most dialects, are pronounced with an additional /ɡ/, like "finger": /ˈɹɪŋɡə/.
  10. ^ Velarized [ɫ] traditionally does not occur in Irish English; clear or plain [l] does not occur in Australian, New Zealand, Scottish, or American English. RP, some other English accents, and South African English, however, have clear [l] in syllable onsets and dark [ɫ] in syllable rimes.
  11. ^ a b c Sonorants are voiceless after a fortis (voiceless) stop at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
  12. ^ L-vocalization in which l is pronounced as a kind of a back vowel ([ɤ] or [o], or non-syllabic [ɤ̯, o̯], forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel) occurs in New Zealand English and many regional accents, such as African-American Vernacular English, Cockney, New York English, Estuary English, Pittsburgh English, Standard Singapore English.
  13. ^ /r/ is pronounced as a tap [ɾ] in some varieties of Scottish, Irish, Indian, Welsh and South African English.
  14. ^ The alveolar trill [r] only occurs in some varieties of Scottish, Welsh, Indian and South African English.
  15. ^ R-labialization, in which r is pronounced as [ʋ], is found in some accents in Southern England.
  16. ^ Some dialects, such as Scottish English, Irish English, and many American South and New England dialects, distinguish voiceless [ʍ] from voiced [w]; see winewhine merger and voiceless labiovelar approximant.
  17. ^ Marginal in most accents, and otherwise merged with /k/, see Lockloch merger.
  18. ^ This common English interjection is usually pronounced with [x] in unscripted spoken English, but it is most often read /ʌɡ/ or /ʌk/
  19. ^ Only exists in Welsh English. Non-Welsh speakers usually replace it with l.
  20. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  21. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007)
  22. ^ Boberg (2004)
  23. ^ Sailaja (2009:19–26)
  24. ^ Wells (1982:422)
  25. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
  26. ^ Bauer et al. (2007:97–102)
  27. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  28. ^ Bekker (2008)
  29. ^ Lass (2002:111–119)
  30. ^ Coupland & Thomas (1990:93–136)
  31. ^ Kenyon & Knott (1953)
  32. ^ Kenyon (1950)
  33. ^ Roach (2004:241–243)
  34. ^ "Case Studies – Received Pronunciation Phonology – RP Vowel Sounds". British Library.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i In most of the United States (with high dialectal variation), and to a lesser degree in Canada, special /æ/ tensing systems occur.
  36. ^ a b c d e See badlad split for this distinction.
  37. ^ Suzanna Bet Hashim and Brown, Adam (2000) 'The [e] and [æ] vowels in Singapore English'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.) The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics ISBN 981-04-2598-8, pp. 84–92.
  38. ^ Deterding, David (2007). Singapore English. United Kingdom: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 24–26. ISBN 978 0 7486 3096 7.
  39. ^ ɒ~ɔ occurs in American accents without the cotcaught merger (about half of today's speakers); the rest have ɑ.
  40. ^ In American accents without the cotcaught merger, the LOT vowel (generally written o) appears as ɒ~ɔ instead of ɑ before the fricatives /f/, /θ/ and /s/ and the velar nasal /ŋ/; also usually before /ɡ/, especially in single-syllable words (dog, log, frog, etc.), and occasionally before /k/ (as in chocolate). See Lotcloth split. In American accents with the cotcaught merger (about half of today's speakers), only ɑ occurs.
  41. ^ a b c d It is not clear whether this a true phonemic split, since the distribution of the two sounds is predictable; see Kitbit split.
  42. ^ a b Deterding, David (2000) 'Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.), The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99.
  43. ^ Mary W.J. Tay (1982). "'The phonology of educated Singapore English'". English World-Wide. "3" ("2"): 135–45. doi:10.1075/eww.3.2.02tay.
  44. ^ Often transcribed /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  45. ^ The STRUT vowel in BrE is highly variable in the triangle defined by ə, ʌ and ɑ, see 'STRUT for Dummies'
  46. ^ In Welsh English, you, yew and ewe are /juː/, /jɪu/ and /ɪu/ respectively; in most other varieties of English they are homophones.
  47. ^ a b c d e f Some dialects of North American English have a vowel shift called Canadian raising, in which the first element of the diphthongs /aɪ, aʊ/ is raised in certain cases, yielding [ʌɪ̯, ʌʊ̯] or [əɪ̯, əʊ̯]. Canadian English has raising of both diphthongs, but most dialects in the United States only have raising of /aɪ/. In monosyllables, raising occurs before voiceless consonants, so right [ɹʌɪ̯t] and out [ʌʊ̯t] have raised vowels, but eyes [aɪz] and loud [laʊd] do not.
  48. ^ Merging NEAR and SQUARE is especially common amongst young New Zealanders.
  49. ^ While the actual pronunciation is [ɛə(ɹ) ~ ɛː(ɹ)], it can also be transcribed /eə(ɹ)/.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g See Fernfirfur merger for this distinction in some varieties.
  51. ^ Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ], especially in transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations, as [ə(ɹ)].

ReferencesEdit