List of dialects of the English language
This is an overview list of dialects of the English language. Dialects are linguistic varieties which may differ in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. For the classification of varieties of English in terms of pronunciation only, see Regional accents of English.
Dialects can be defined as "sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible". English speakers from different countries and regions use a variety of different accents (systems of pronunciation), as well as various localized words and grammatical constructions; many different dialects can be identified based on these factors. Dialects can be classified at broader or narrower levels: within a broad national or regional dialect, various more localized sub-dialects can be identified, and so on. The combination of differences in pronunciation and use of local words may make some English dialects almost unintelligible to speakers from other regions.
The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into three general categories: the British Isles dialects, those of North America, and those of Australasia. Dialects can be associated not only with place, but also with particular social groups. Within a given English-speaking country, there will often be a form of the language considered to be Standard English – the Standard Englishes of different countries differ, and each can itself be considered a dialect. Standard English is often associated with the more educated layers of society.
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- Northern (In the northeast, local speech is akin to Scots)
- Cumbrian (Cumbria including Barrovian in Barrow-in-Furness)
- Geordie (Tyneside)
- Hartlepudlian (Hartlepool)
- Lancastrian (Lancashire)
- Mackem (Sunderland)
- Mancunian (Manchester)
- Northumbrian (rural Northumberland)
- Pitmatic (Durham and Northumberland)
- Scouse (Liverpool)
- Smoggie (Teesside)
- Yorkshire (also known as Broad Yorkshire)
- East Midlands
- West Midlands
- East Anglian
- West Country
- Scottish English comprising varieties based the Standard English of England.
- Scots is either considered one of the ancient varieties of English with its own distinct dialects or a distinct Germanic language separate from (Scottish) English.
Isle of ManEdit
Republic of IrelandEdit
- Dublin 4 (D4)
- Inner city
- Limerick city
- North East
- Sligo town
- Waterford city
- Wexford town
Ulster Scots dialects in Donegal (See Scots above.)
- Cultural and ethnic American English
- General American English
- General American: the "standard" or "mainstream" spectrum of American English.
- Regional and local American English
- Eastern New England
- Southeast super-region
- Mid-Atlantic (Delaware Valley)
- North Midland: Omaha, Lincoln, Columbia, Springfield, Muncie, Columbus, etc.
- South Midland: Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Topeka, Wichita, Kansas City, St. Louis (in transition), Decatur, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Dayton, etc.
- "Hoi Toider"
- New Orleans
- New York City
- North Central (Upper Midwestern): Brockway, Minot, Bismark, Bemidji, Chisholm, Duluth, Marquette, etc.
- Western Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh)
- Extinct or near-extinct American English
- Atlantic Canadian English
- Standard Canadian English
Indigenous North AmericaEdit
Native American English dialects:
Central and South AmericaEdit
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesEdit
Trinidad and TobagoEdit
- Standard Indian English
- Indian English: the "standard" English used by administration and educated peoples.
- Regional and local Indian English
- Malaysian English (Manglish)
- Philippine English (PhE)
- Singapore English (SE)
- Sri Lankan English (SLE)
- South African English
- Black South African English
- Cape Flats English
- Indian South African English
- White South African English
- Broad accent
- General accent
- Cultivated accent
- Black South African English
Australian English (AusE, AusEng):
New Zealand English (NZE, NZEng):
These encoding systems should not be confused with sign languages such as British Sign Language and American Sign Language, which, while they are informed by English, have their own grammar and vocabulary.
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The following are portmanteaus devised to describe certain local varieties of English and other linguistic phenomena involving English. Although similarly named, they are actually quite different in nature, with some being genuine mixed languages, some being instances of heavy code-switching between English and another language, some being genuine local dialects of English used by first-language English speakers, and some being non-native pronunciations of English. A few portmanteaus (such as Greeklish and Fingilish) are transliteration methods rather than any kind of spoken variant of English.
- Anglish (English stressing words of Germanic origin)
- Arabish (Arabic English, mostly chat romanization)
- Army creole (military dialect of acronyms and profanity)
- Benglish (Bengali English)
- Bislish (Bisaya English)
- Corsish (Corsican English)
- Chinglish (Chinese English)
- Czenglish (Czech English)
- Danglish (Danish English)
- Dunglish (Dutch English)
- Engrish/Japlish (Japanese English) - most popularly refers to broken English used by Japanese in attempts at foreign branding.
- Finglish (Finnish English)
- Franglais (French English)
- Denglisch/Germlish/Genglish/Ginglish/Germish/Pseudo-Anglicism (German English)
- Greeklish (Greek English)
- Hebrish (Hebrew English, chat romanization) – also sometimes used to refer to English written with Hebrew characters
- Hinglish (Hindi English)
- Hunglish (Hungarian English)
- Italgish (Italian English)
- Konglish (South Korean English)
- Manglish (Malaysian English)
- Maltenglish (Maltese English)
- Norwenglish (Norwegian English)
- Poglish/Ponglish (Polish English)
- Porglish (Portuguese English)
- Punglish (Punjabi English)
- Rominglish/Romglish (Romanian English)
- Runglish (Russian English)
- Serblish (Serbian English) and Cronglish/Croglish/Croenglish
- Sardish (Sardinian English)
- Sheng (a Swahili-English cant; originated among urban youths Nairobi, Kenya)
- Siculish (Sicilian English)
- Singlish (Singapore English, multiple pidgins)
- Spanglish (Spanish English)
- Swanglish/Kiswanglish (Swahili English)
- Swenglish (Swedish English)
- Taglish (Tagalog English)
- Tanglish (Tamil and English)
- Tenglish (Telugu and English)
- Tinglish/Thailish (Thai English)
- Ukrainglish (Ukrainian English)
- Vinish (Vietnamese English)
- Wenglish (Welsh English)
- Yeshivish (Yeshiva English)
- Wakelin, Martyn Francis (2008). Discovering English Dialects. Oxford: Shire Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7478-0176-4.
- Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 2003
- JC Wells, Accents of English, Cambridge University Press, 1983, page 351
- A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.894
- Hickey, Raymond (2005). Dublin English: Evolution and Change. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 196–198. ISBN 90-272-4895-8.
- Hickey, Raymond (2002). A Source Book for Irish English (PDF). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 28–29. ISBN 90-272-3753-0.
ISBN 1-58811-209-8 (US)
- Daniel Schreier, Peter Trudgill. The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Mar 4, 2010 pg. 10
- Sounds Familiar? Listen to examples of regional accents and dialects from across the UK on the British Library's 'Sounds Familiar?' website
- A national map of the regional dialects of American English
- IDEA – International Dialects of English Archive
- Dialect poetry from the English regions
- American Languages: Our Nation's Many Voices - An online audio resource presenting interviews with speakers of German-American and American English dialects from across the United States