Voiced labiodental approximant

The voiced labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is something between an English /w/ and /v/, pronounced with the teeth and lips held in the position used to articulate the letter V. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʋ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\. With an advanced diacritic, ʋ̟, this letter also indicates a bilabial approximant, though the diacritic is frequently omitted because no contrast is likely.[1][2][failed verification]

Voiced labiodental approximant
IPA Number150
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʋ
Unicode (hex)U+028B
X-SAMPAP or v\
Braille⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)

The labiodental approximant is the typical realization of /v/ in the Indian South African variety of English. As the voiceless /f/ is also realized as an approximant ([ʋ̥]), it is also an example of a language contrasting voiceless and voiced labiodental approximants.[3]

Features edit

Features of the voiced labiodental approximant:

Occurrence edit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Äiwoo nyiveli [ɲiʋeli] 'garden land'[4]
Armenian Eastern[5] ոսկի [ʋɔski] 'gold'
Assyrian hawa ܗܘܐ [hɑːʋɑ] 'wind' Predominant in the Urmia dialects. For some speakers, [v] is used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.
Catalan Balearic fava [ˈfɑʋɐ] 'bean' Allophone of /v/.[6] See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin

/ wèi



'for' Prevalent in northern dialects. Corresponds to /w/ in other varieties.
Chuvash аван [aʋ'an] 'good, well' Corresponds to /w/ in other varieties.
Dhivehi ވަޅު / valhu [ʋaɭu] 'well' (noun)
Danish Standard[7] véd [ʋe̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ] 'know(s)' Also described as a short plosive [b̪̆]; rarely realized as a fricative [v] instead.[8] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard wang [ʋɑŋ] 'cheek' In southern dialects of the Netherlands realised as bilabial [β̞]. See Dutch phonology
English Indian[3] vine [ʋaɪ̯n] 'vine' Corresponds to a fricative [v] in other accents.
Some speakers rine 'rine' Mostly idiosyncratic but somewhat dialectal[9] (especially in London and South East England). See English phonology and R-labialization
Faroese[10] ða [ˈɹøːʋa] 'speech' Word-initial and intervocalic allophone of /v/. In the first case, it is in a free variation with a fricative [v].[10] See Faroese phonology
Finnish vauva [ˈʋɑu̯ʋɑ] 'baby' See Finnish phonology
German Swiss was [ʋas] 'what' Corresponds to /v/ in Standard German[11]
Guaraní avañe'ẽ [ʔãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ] 'Guaraní language' Contrasts with /w/ and /ɰ/
Hawaiian wikiwiki [ʋikiʋiki] 'fast' May also be realized as [w] or [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
Hindustani Hindi वाला [ʋɑːlɑː] (the) 'one' Also an allophone of /w/. See Hindustani phonology.
Urdu والا
Italian Some speakers[12] raro [ˈʋäːʋo] 'rare' Rendition alternative to the standard Italian alveolar trill [r], due to individual orthoepic defects and/or regional variations that make the alternative sound more prevalent, notably in South Tyrol (among the Italian-speaking minority), Val d'Aosta (bordering with France) and in parts of the Parma province, more markedly around Fidenza. Other alternative sounds may be a uvular trill [ʀ] or a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ].[12] See Italian phonology.
Khmer អាវុធ / avŭth [ʔɑːʋut] 'weapon' See Khmer phonology
Lao ຫວານ / Van [ʋaːn˩(˧)] 'sweet' See Lao phonology
Marathi जन [ʋə(d)zən] 'weight' See Marathi phonology
Miyako[13] [ʋ̩tɑ] 'thick' May be syllabic.
Norwegian Urban East[14][15] venn [ʋe̞nː] 'friend' Sometimes realized as a fricative [v].[15][16] See Norwegian phonology
Nsenga ŵanthu [ʋaⁿtʰu] 'people'
Punjabi Gurmukhi ਵਾਲ [ʋäːl] 'hair'
Shahmukhi وال
Russian[17] волосы [ˈʋʷo̞ɫ̪əs̪ɨ̞] 'hair' Common realization of /v/; contrasts with palatalized form.[17] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian цврчак / cvrčak [t͡sʋř̩ːt͡ʃak] 'cricket' /v/ is a phonetic fricative, although it has less frication than /f/. However, it does not interact with unvoiced consonants in clusters as a fricative would, and so is considered to be phonologically a sonorant (approximant).[18][19]
Shona vanhu [ʋan̤u] 'people' Contrasts with /v/ and /w/.
Slovak[20] voda [ˈʋo̞dä] 'water' Usual realization of /v/.[20] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[21] veter [ˈʋéːt̪ə̀ɾ] 'wind' Also described as fricative [v].[22][23] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[24] Chilean hablar [äʋˈläɾ] 'to speak' Allophone of /b/. See Spanish phonology
Swedish Some speakers vän [ʋɛːn] 'friend' See Swedish phonology
Tamil வாய் [ʋɑj] 'mouth' See Tamil phonology
Telugu [ʋala] 'net'
Ukrainian[25] він [ʋin] 'he' Possible prevocalic realization of /w/, most commonly before /i/.[25] See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian wêr [ʋɛːr] 'where' See West Frisian phonology

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Ladefoged, Peter (1968). A Phonetic Study of West African Languages: An Auditory-instrumental Survey (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 9780521069632.
  2. ^ Mathangwane, Joyce Thambole Mogatse (1996). Phonetics and Phonology of Ikalanga: A Diachronic and Synchronic Study (Thesis). Berkeley: University of California. p. 79.
  3. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004:960)
  4. ^ Næss, Åshild (2017). A short dictionary of Äiwoo. Asia-Pacific Linguistics. Vol. A-PL 35. Canberra. hdl:1885/112469. ISBN 978-1-922185-37-2. OCLC 970690673.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:20)
  6. ^ a b Saborit Vilar (2009:52)
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  8. ^ Basbøll (2005:27 and 66)
  9. ^ Foulkes & Docherty (1999:?)
  10. ^ a b Árnason (2011:115)
  11. ^ Schmid, Stephan (2010). "Segmental features of Swiss German ethnolects". In Calamai, Silvia; Celata, Chiara; Ciucci, Luca (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop "Sociophonetics, at the crossroads of speech variation, processing and communication". Edizioni della Normale. pp. 69–72. ISBN 978-88-7642-434-2. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  12. ^ a b Canepari (1999), pp. 98–101.
  13. ^ Pellard, Thomas (19 January 2009). Why it is important to study the Ryukyuan languages: The example of Õgami Ryukuan (PDF) (Speech). Oxford. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2015.
  14. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:22 and 25)
  15. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:41)
  16. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  17. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:223)
  18. ^ Morén (2005:5–6)
  19. ^ Brown, Wayles; Alt, Theresa (2004). "A Handbook of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian". SEELRC. Duke University.
  20. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  21. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  22. ^ Priestley (2002:394)
  23. ^ Greenberg (2006:18)
  24. ^ Sadowsky, Scott (2010). "El alófono labiodental sonoro [v] del fonema /b/ en el castellano de Concepción (Chile): Una investigación exploratoria" (PDF). Estudios de Fonética Experimental. XIX: 231–261. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2018.
  25. ^ a b Žovtobrjux & Kulyk (1965:121–122)

Bibliography edit

External links edit