In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Active articulators are so named because they are capable of voluntary movement, while passive articulators are so called because they are normally fixed and are the parts with which the active articulator makes contact. Along with the manner of articulation and phonation, the place of articulation gives the consonant its distinctive sound.
The terminology in this article has been developed for precisely describing all the consonants in all the world's spoken languages. No known language distinguishes all of the places described here so less precision is needed to distinguish the sounds of a particular language.
- Air pressure from the lungs creates a steady flow of air through the trachea (windpipe), larynx (voice box) and pharynx (back of the throat). Therefore, the air moves out of the lungs through a coordinated action of the diaphragm, abdominal muscles, chest muscles and rib cage.
- The vocal folds in the larynx vibrate, creating fluctuations in air pressure, known as sound waves.
- Resonances in the vocal tract modify these waves according to the position and shape of the lips, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other speech organs, creating formant regions and so different qualities of sonorant (voiced) sound.
- Mouth radiates the sound waves into the environment.
- Nasal cavity adds resonance to some sounds such as [m] and [n] to give nasal quality of the so-called nasal consonants.
The larynx or voice box is a cylindrical framework of cartilage that serves to anchor the vocal folds. When the muscles of the vocal folds contract, the airflow from the lungs is impeded until the vocal folds are forced apart again by the increasing air pressure from the lungs. The process continues in a periodic cycle that is felt as a vibration (buzzing). In singing, the vibration frequency of the vocal folds determines the pitch of the sound produced. Voiced phonemes such as the pure vowels are, by definition, distinguished by the buzzing sound of this periodic oscillation of the vocal cords.
The lips of the mouth can be used in a similar way to create a similar sound, as any toddler or trumpeter can demonstrate. A rubber balloon, inflated but not tied off and stretched tightly across the neck produces a squeak or buzz, depending on the tension across the neck and the level of pressure inside the balloon. Similar actions with similar results occur when the vocal cords are contracted or relaxed across the larynx.
Passive places of articulationEdit
The passive place of articulation is the place on the more stationary part of the vocal tract where the articulation occurs and can be anywhere from the lips, upper teeth, gums, or roof of the mouth to the back of the throat. Although it is a continuum, there are several contrastive areas so languages may distinguish consonants by articulating them in different areas, but few languages contrast two sounds within the same area unless there is some other feature which contrasts as well. The following areas are contrastive:
- The upper lip (labial)
- The upper teeth, either on the edge of the teeth or inner surface (dental)
- The alveolar ridge, the gum line just behind the teeth (alveolar)
- The back of the alveolar ridge (post-alveolar)
- The hard palate on the roof of the mouth (palatal)
- The soft palate further back on the roof of the mouth (velar)
- The uvula hanging down at the entrance to the throat (uvular)
- The throat itself, a.k.a. the pharynx (pharyngeal)
- The epiglottis at the entrance to the windpipe, above the voice box (epiglottal)
The regions are not strictly separated. For instance, in some sounds in many languages, the surface of the tongue contacts a relatively large area from the back of the upper teeth to the alveolar ridge, which is common enough to have received its own name, denti-alveolar. Likewise, the alveolar and post-alveolar regions merge into each other, as do the hard and soft palate, the soft palate and the uvula, and all adjacent regions. Terms like pre-velar (intermediate between palatal and velar), post-velar (between velar and uvular), and upper vs. lower pharyngeal may be used to specify more precisely where an articulation takes place. However, although a language may contrast pre-velar and post-velar sounds, it does not also contrast them with palatal and uvular sounds (of the same type of consonant) so contrasts are limited to the number above, if not always their exact location.
Active places of articulationEdit
The articulatory gesture of the active place of articulation involves the more mobile part of the vocal tract, typically some part of the tongue or lips. The following areas are known to be contrastive:
- The lower lip (labial)
- Various parts of the front of the tongue (coronal):
- The body of the tongue (dorsal)
- The base a.k.a. root of the tongue and the throat (pharyngeal)
- The aryepiglottic fold inside the throat (aryepiglottal)
- The glottis at the very back of the windpipe (glottal)
In bilabial consonants, both lips move so the articulatory gesture brings the lips together, but by convention, the lower lip is said to be active and the upper lip passive. Similarly, in linguolabial consonants the tongue contacts the upper lip with the upper lip actively moving down to meet the tongue; nonetheless, the tongue is conventionally said to be active and the lip passive if for no other reason than that the parts of the mouth below the vocal tract are typically active, and those above the vocal tract are typically passive.
In dorsal gestures, different parts of the body of the tongue contact different parts of the roof of the mouth, but it cannot be independently controlled so they are all subsumed under the term dorsal. That is unlike coronal gestures involving the front of the tongue, which is more flexible.
The epiglottis may be active, contacting the pharynx, or passive, being contacted by the aryepiglottal folds. Distinctions made in these laryngeal areas are very difficult to observe and are the subject of ongoing investigation, and several still-unidentified combinations are thought possible.
The glottis acts upon itself. There is a sometimes fuzzy line between glottal, aryepiglottal, and epiglottal consonants and phonation, which uses these same areas.
Unlike the passive articulation, which is a continuum, there are five discrete active articulators: the lip (labial consonants), the flexible front of the tongue (coronal consonants: laminal, apical, and subapical), the middle–back of the tongue (dorsal consonants), the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis (pharyngeal or radical consonants), and the glottis (glottal consonants). The articulators are discrete in that they can act independently of each other, and two or more may work together in what is called coarticulation (see below). The distinction, however, between the various coronal articulations, laminal, apical, and subapical is a continuum, without clear boundaries.
Table of gestures and passive articulators and resulting places of articulationEdit
The following table shows the possible combinations of active and passive articulators.
The possible locations for sibilants as well as non-sibilants to occur are indicated in . For sibilants, there are additional complications involving tongue shape; see the article on sibilants for a chart of possible articulations.
|Major class →||Labial||Coronal||"Guttural"|
|Active articulator →||Lower lip
|Underside of tongue
|Upper teeth/alveolar ridge||denti-alveolar|
|Alveolar ridge||laminal alveolar||apico-alveolar|
|Back of alveolar ridge
|Hard palate (front)||retroflex||palatal|
|Grave||Soft palate||subapical velar||velar|
A precise vocabulary of compounding the two places of articulation is sometimes seen. However, it is usually reduced to the passive articulation, which is generally sufficient. Thus dorsal–palatal, dorsal–velar, and dorsal–uvular are usually just called "palatal", "velar", and "uvular". If there is ambiguity, additional terms have been invented, so subapical–palatal is more commonly called "retroflex".
NOTE: Additional shades of passive articulation are sometimes specified using pre- or post-, for example prepalatal (near the border between the postalveolar region and the hard palate; prevelar (at the back of the hard palate, also post-palatal or even medio-palatal for the middle of the hard palate); or postvelar (near the border of the soft palate and the uvula). They can be useful in the precise description of sounds that are articulated somewhat farther forward or back than a prototypical consonant; for this purpose, the "fronted" and "retracted" IPA diacritics can be used. However, no additional shade is needed to phonemically distinguish two consonants in a single language.[a]
Consonants that have the same place of articulation, such as the alveolar sounds /n, t, d, s, z, l/ in English, are said to be homorganic. Similarly, labial /p, b, m/ and velar /k, ɡ, ŋ/ are homorganic. A homorganic nasal rule, an instance of assimilation, operates in many languages, where a nasal consonant must be homorganic with a following stop. We see this with English intolerable but implausible; another example is found in Yoruba, where the present tense of ba "hide" is mba "is hiding", while the present of sun "sleep" is nsun "is sleeping".
Central and lateral articulationEdit
The tongue contacts the mouth with a surface that has two dimensions: length and width. So far, only points of articulation along its length have been considered. However, articulation varies along its width as well. When the airstream is directed down the center of the tongue, the consonant is said to be central. If, however, it is deflected off to one side, escaping between the side of the tongue and the side teeth, it is said to be lateral. Nonetheless, for simplicity's sake the place of articulation is assumed to be the point along the length of the tongue, and the consonant may in addition be said to be central or lateral. That is, a consonant may be lateral alveolar, like English /l/ (the tongue contacts the alveolar ridge, but allows air to flow off to the side), or lateral palatal, like Castilian Spanish ll /ʎ/. Some Indigenous Australian languages contrast dental, alveolar, retroflex, and palatal laterals, and many Native American languages have lateral fricatives and affricates as well.
Some languages have consonants with two simultaneous places of articulation, which is called coarticulation. When these are doubly articulated, the articulators must be independently movable, and therefore there may be only one each from the major categories labial, coronal, dorsal and pharyngeal.
The only common doubly articulated consonants are labial–velar stops like [k͡p], [ɡ͡b] and less commonly [ŋ͡m], which are found throughout Western Africa and Central Africa. Other combinations are rare but include labial–(post)alveolar stops [t͡p d͡b n͡m], found as distinct consonants only in a single language in New Guinea, and a uvular–epiglottal stop, [q͡ʡ], found in Somali.
More commonly, coarticulation involves secondary articulation of an approximantic nature. Then, both articulations can be similar such as labialized labial [mʷ] or palatalized velar [kʲ]. That is the case of English [w], which is a velar consonant with secondary labial articulation.
Common coarticulations include these:
- Labialization, rounding the lips while producing the obstruction, as in [kʷ] and English [w].
- Palatalization, raising the body of the tongue toward the hard palate while producing the obstruction, as in Russian [tʲ] and [ɕ].
- Velarization, raising the back of the tongue toward the soft palate (velum), as in the English dark el, [lˠ] (also transcribed [ɫ]).
- Pharyngealization, constriction of the throat (pharynx), such as Arabic "emphatic" [tˤ].
- Occasionally claims to the contrary are met. For example, some dialects of Malayalam are said to distinguish palatal, prevelar and velar consonants. In reality, the dialects distinguish palato-alveolar (palatalized postalveolar), palatal and velar consonants; the claim is based on the imprecise usage of "palatal" to mean "palato-alveolar".
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
- Titze, I. R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-717893-3.
- Titze, I. R. (2008). "The Human Instrument". Scientific American. 298 (1): 94–101. Bibcode:2008SciAm.298a..94T. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0108-94. PMID 18225701.