V, or v, is the twenty-second letter in the Latin alphabet, used in the modern English alphabet, the alphabets of other western European languages and others worldwide. Its name in English is vee (pronounced //), plural vees.
|Writing system||Latin script|
|Type||Alphabetic and Logographic|
|Language of origin||Latin language|
|Time period||~-700 to present|
|Descendants|| • U|
|Transliteration equivalents||Y, U, W|
|Other letters commonly used with||v(x)|
During the Late Middle Ages, two minuscule glyphs of U developed which were both used for sounds including /u/ and modern /v/. The pointed form ⟨v⟩ was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form ⟨u⟩ was used in the middle or end, regardless of sound. So whereas valour and excuse appeared as in modern printing, have and upon were printed as "haue" and "vpon". The first distinction between the letters ⟨v⟩ and ⟨u⟩ is recorded in a Gothic script from 1386, where ⟨v⟩ preceded ⟨u⟩. By the mid-16th century, the ⟨v⟩ form was used to represent the consonant and ⟨u⟩ the vowel sound, giving us the modern letter ⟨v⟩. ⟨u⟩ and ⟨v⟩ were not accepted as distinct letters until many years later. The rounded variant became the modern-day version of ⟨u⟩, and the letter's former pointed form became ⟨v⟩.
In English, special rules of orthography normally apply to the letter ⟨v⟩:
- Traditionally, ⟨v⟩ is not doubled to indicate a short vowel, the way, for example, ⟨p⟩ is doubled to indicate the difference between super and supper. However, that is changing with newly coined words, such as savvy, divvy up and skivvies.
- A word-final // sound (except in of) is normally spelled -⟨ve⟩, regardless of the pronunciation of the vowel before it. This rule does not apply to transliterations of Slavic and Hebrew words, such as Kyiv (Kiev), or to words that started out as abbreviations, such as sov for sovereign.
- The // sound is spelled ⟨o⟩, not ⟨u⟩, before the letter ⟨v⟩. This originated with a mediaeval scribal practice designed to increase legibility by avoiding too many vertical strokes (minims) in a row.
Like ⟨j⟩, ⟨k⟩, ⟨w⟩, ⟨x⟩, and ⟨z⟩, ⟨v⟩ is not used very frequently in English. It is the sixth least frequently used letter in the English language, occurring in roughly 1% of words. ⟨v⟩ is the only letter that cannot be used to form an English two-letter word in the British and Australian versions of the game of Scrabble. It is one of only two letters (the other being ⟨c⟩) that cannot be used this way in the American version. ⟨v⟩ is also the only letter in the English language that is never silent.
Name in other languages edit
- Catalan: ve (pronounced [ˈve]); in dialects that lack contrast between /v/ and /b/, the letter is called ve baixa [ˈbe ˈbajʃə] "low B/V".
- Czech: vé ['vɛː]
- French: vé ['ve]
- German: Vau [ˈfaʊ]
- Italian: vi [ˈvi] or vu [ˈvu]
- Japanese: ⟨v⟩ is called a variety of names originating in English, most commonly ブイ [bɯi] or [bui], but less nativized variants, violating to an extent the phonotactics of Japanese, of ヴィー [viː], ヴイ [vɯi] or [vui], and ヴィ [vi] are also used. The phoneme /v/ in Japanese is used properly only in loanwords, where the preference for either /v/ or /b/ depends on many factors; in general, words that are perceived to be in common use tend toward /b/.
- Polish: fał ['faw]
- Portuguese: vê [ˈve]
- Spanish: uve [ˈuβe] is recommended, but ve [ˈbe] is traditional. If ⟨v⟩ is referred to as the latter, it would have the same pronunciation as the letter ⟨b⟩ in Spanish (i.e. [ˈbe] after pause or nasal sound, otherwise [ˈβe]); thus further terms are needed to distinguish ve from be. In some countries it is called ve corta, ve baja, ve pequeña, ve chica or ve labiodental.
Pronunciation and use edit
|/β/||After vowels, ⟨l⟩, or ⟨r⟩|
|German||Standard||/f/||Typically in Germanic words|
|/v/||Typically in loanwords|
|Irish||/vʲ/||After ⟨i⟩, or before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩||Mainly found in loanwords|
|Mandarin||Standard||/y/||Pinyin latinization; informal replacement for ⟨ü⟩|
In most languages which use the Latin alphabet, ⟨v⟩ represents a voiced bilabial or labiodental sound. In English, it is a voiced labiodental fricative. In most dialects of Spanish, it represents the same sound as ⟨b⟩, that is, [b] or [β]. In Corsican, it represents [b], [v], [β] or [w], depending on the position in the word and the sentence. In contemporary German, it represents [v] in most loan-words while in native German words, it always represents [f]. In standard Dutch it traditionally represents [v] but in many regions it represents [f] in some or all positions.
In Chinese Pinyin, while v is not used, the letter ⟨v⟩ is used by most input methods to enter letter ⟨ü⟩, which most keyboards lack (Romanised Chinese is a popular method to enter Chinese text). Informal romanizations of Mandarin Chinese use ⟨v⟩ as a substitute for the close front rounded vowel /y/, properly written ⟨ü⟩ in pinyin and Wade–Giles.
Related characters edit
- U u : Latin letter ⟨u⟩, originally the same letter as ⟨v⟩
- W w : Latin letter ⟨w⟩, descended from ⟨u⟩
- Ỽ ỽ : Middle Welsh ⟨v⟩
- ⟨v⟩ with diacritics: Ṽ ṽ Ṿ ṿ Ʋ ʋ ᶌ
- IPA-specific symbols related to ⟨v⟩: ⱱ ʋ
- ᶹ : Modifier letter small ⟨v⟩ with hook is used in phonetic transcription
- : Modifier letter small ⟨v⟩ with right hook is a superscript IPA letter
- Ʌ ʌ ᶺ: Turned ⟨v⟩
- ⱴ : ⟨v⟩ with curl
- Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to ⟨v⟩:
- U+1D20 ᴠ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL V
- U+1D5B ᵛ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL V
- U+1D65 ᵥ LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER V
- U+2C7D ⱽ MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL V
Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets edit
- 𐤅: Semitic letter Waw, from which the following symbols originally derive
- Υ υ : Greek letter Upsilon, from which ⟨v⟩ derives
- Y y : Latin letter ⟨y⟩, which, like ⟨v⟩, also derives from Upsilon (but was taken into the alphabet at a later date)
- Ѵ ѵ : Cyrillic letter izhitsa, also descended from Upsilon
- У у : Cyrillic letter ⟨u⟩, also descended from Upsilon via the digraph of omicron and upsilon
- Υ υ : Greek letter Upsilon, from which ⟨v⟩ derives
Ligatures and abbreviations edit
Computing codes edit
|Unicode name||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V||LATIN SMALL LETTER V|
|Numeric character reference||V
- 1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.
Other representations edit
- "V", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "vee", op. cit.
- Pflughaupt, Laurent (2008). Letter by Letter: An Alphabetical Miscellany. trans. Gregory Bruhn. Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-1-56898-737-8. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- Collins Scrabble Dictionary Revised 6th edition (2022) Harper Collins ISBN 978 00085 2391 6
- "2-Letter Words with Definitions". Australian Scrabble Players Association (ASPA). 8 May 2007. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Hasbro staff (2014). "Scrabble word lists:2-Letter Words". Hasbro. Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- Official Scrabble Players Dictionary, 6th Edition (2018) Merriam Webster ISBN 978 08777 9422 6
- "Every Letter Is Silent, Sometimes". Retrieved 5 March 2023.
- Díez Losada, Fernando (2004). La tribuna del idioma (in Spanish). Editorial Tecnologica de CR. p. 176. ISBN 978-9977-66-161-2.
- Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-11. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- Miller, Kirk; Ashby, Michael (2020-11-08). "L2/20-252R: Unicode request for IPA modifier-letters (a), pulmonic" (PDF).
- Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-02-19. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- Ruppel, Klaas; Rueter, Jack; Kolehmainen, Erkki I. (2006-04-07). "L2/06-215: Proposal for Encoding 3 Additional Characters of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- "Roman Liturgy Fonts containing the response and versicle characters – Roman Liturgy". Roman Liturgy. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2016-07-23. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
- Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-09-19. Retrieved 2018-03-24.