Guarani (/ˌɡwɑːrəˈn, ˈɡwɑːrəni/ GWAR-ə-NEE, GWAR-ə-nee),[3] specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (avañe' [ʔãʋãɲẽˈʔẽ] "the people's language"), is a South American language that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani branch[4] of the Tupian language family. It is one of the official languages of Paraguay (along with Spanish), where it is spoken by the majority of the population, and where half of the rural population are monolingual speakers of the language.[5][6]

Paraguayan Guarani
Native toParaguay
Native speakers
6.5 million (2020)[1]
Guarani alphabet (Latin script)
Official status
Official language in
Regulated byAcademia de la Lengua Guaraní (Avañe'ẽ Rerekuapavẽ)
Language codes
ISO 639-1gn
ISO 639-2grn
ISO 639-3gug
Guarani-speaking world[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A Guarani speaker
Books in Guarani

Variants of the language are spoken by communities in neighboring countries including parts of northeastern Argentina, southeastern Bolivia and southwestern Brazil, and is a second official language of the Argentine province of Corrientes since 2004.[7][8] Guarani is also one of the three official languages of Mercosur, alongside Spanish and Portuguese.[9]

Guarani is the most widely spoken Native American language and remains commonly used among the Paraguayan people and neighboring communities. This is unique among American languages; language shift towards European colonial languages (in this case, the other official language of Spanish) has otherwise been a nearly universal phenomenon in the Western Hemisphere, but Paraguayans have maintained their traditional language at the same time as Spanish has been adopted.

Jesuit priest Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, who in 1639 published the first written grammar of Guarani in a book called Tesoro de la lengua guaraní (Treasure/Thesaurus of the Guarani Language)[a], described it as a language "so copious and elegant that it can compete with the most famous [of languages]".[10]

The name "Guarani" is generally used for the official language of Paraguay. However, this is part of a dialect chain, most of whose components are also often called Guarani.

History edit

While Guarani, in its Classical form, was the only language spoken in the expansive missionary territories, Paraguayan Guarani has its roots outside of the Jesuit Reductions.

Modern scholarship has shown that Guarani was always the primary language of colonial Paraguay, both inside and outside the reductions. Following the expulsion of the Jesuits in the 18th century, the residents of the reductions gradually migrated north and west towards Asunción, a demographic shift that brought about a decidedly one-sided shift away from the Jesuit dialect that the missionaries had curated in the southern and eastern territories of the colony.[11][12]

By and large, the Guarani of the Jesuits shied away from direct phonological loans from Spanish. Instead, the missionaries relied on the agglutinative nature of the language to formulate new precise translations or calque terms from Guarani morphemes. This process often led the Jesuits to employ complicated, highly synthetic terms to convey European concepts.[13] By contrast, the Guarani spoken outside of the missions was characterized by a free, unregulated flow of Hispanicisms; frequently, Spanish words and phrases were simply incorporated into Guarani with minimal phonological adaptation.

A good example of that phenomenon is found in the word "communion". The Jesuits, using their agglutinative strategy, rendered this word "Tupârahava", a calque based on the word "Tupâ", meaning God.[14] In modern Paraguayan Guarani, the same word is rendered "komuño".[15]

Following the out-migration from the reductions, these two distinct dialects of Guarani came into extensive contact for the first time. The vast majority of speakers abandoned the less colloquial, highly regulated Jesuit variant in favor of the variety that evolved from actual use by speakers in Paraguay.[16] This contemporary form of spoken Guarani is known as Jopará, meaning "mixture" in Guarani.

Political status edit

A government sign in Asunción, Paraguay; bilingual in Guarani and Spanish

Widely spoken, Paraguayan Guarani has nevertheless been repressed by Paraguayan governments throughout most of its history since independence. It was prohibited in state schools for over 100 years. However, populists often used pride in the language to excite nationalistic fervor and promote a narrative of social unity.

During the autocratic regime of Alfredo Stroessner, his Colorado Party used the language to appeal to common Paraguayans although Stroessner himself never gave an address in Guarani.[17] Upon the advent of Paraguayan democracy in 1992, Guarani was established in the new constitution as a language equal to Spanish.[6]

Jopará, the mixture of Spanish and Guarani, is spoken by an estimated 90% of the population of Paraguay. Code-switching between the two languages takes place on a spectrum in which more Spanish is used for official and business-related matters, and more Guarani is used in art and in everyday life.[18]

Guarani is also an official language of Bolivia and of Corrientes Province in Argentina.

Writing system edit

The Lord's Prayer in Guarani in the Church of the Pater Noster in Jerusalem

Guarani became a written language relatively recently. Its modern alphabet is basically a subset of the Latin script (with "J", "K" and "Y" but not "W"), complemented with two diacritics and six digraphs. Its orthography is largely phonemic, with letter values mostly similar to those of Spanish. The tilde is used with many letters that are considered part of the alphabet. In the case of Ñ/ñ, it differentiates the palatal nasal from the alveolar nasal (as in Spanish), whereas it marks stressed nasalisation when used over a vowel (as in Portuguese): ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ, ũ, ỹ. (Nasal vowels have been written with several other diacritics: ä, ā, â, ã.) The tilde also marks nasality in the case of G̃/g̃, used to represent the nasalized velar approximant by combining the velar approximant G with the nasalising tilde. The letter G̃/g̃, which is unique to this language, was introduced into the orthography relatively recently during the mid-20th century and there is disagreement over its use. It is not a precomposed character in Unicode, which can cause typographic inconveniences – such as needing to press "delete" twice in some setups – or imperfect rendering when using computers and fonts that do not properly support the complex layout feature of glyph composition.

Only stressed nasal vowels are written as nasal. If an oral vowel is stressed, and it is not the final syllable, it is marked with an acute accent: á, é, í, ó, ú, ý. That is, stress falls on the vowel marked as nasalized, if any, else on the accent-marked syllable, and if neither appears, then on the final syllable.

For blind people there is also a Guarani Braille.

Phonology edit

Guarani syllables consist of a consonant plus a vowel or a vowel alone; syllables ending in a consonant or two or more consonants together do not occur. This is represented as (C)V.

In the below table, the IPA value is shown. The orthography is shown in angle brackets below, if different.

Consonants edit

Guarani consonants[19]
Labial Alveolar Alveolo-
Velar Glottal
plain lab.
Nasal ᵐb~m
Stop voiced
voiceless p t k ⟨ku⟩ ʔ ⟨ʼ⟩
Fricative s ɕ ⟨ch⟩ x ~ h ⟨h⟩
Approximant ʋ ⟨v⟩ ɰ ~ ɰ̃
⟨g⟩ ~ ⟨g̃⟩
w ~
⟨gu⟩ ~ ⟨g̃u⟩
Flap ɾ ⟨r⟩

The voiced consonants have oral allophones (left) before oral vowels, and nasal allophones (right) before nasal vowels. The oral allophones of the voiced stops are prenasalized.

There is also a sequence /ⁿt/ (written ⟨nt⟩). A trill /r/ (written ⟨rr⟩), and the consonants /l/, /f/, and /j/ (written ⟨ll⟩) are not native to Guarani, but come from Spanish.

Oral /ᵈj/ is often pronounced [], [ɟ], [ʒ], [j], depending on the dialect, but the nasal allophone is always [ɲ].

The dorsal fricative is in free variation between [x] and [h].

⟨g⟩, ⟨gu⟩ are approximants, not fricatives, but are sometimes transcribed [ɣ], [ɣʷ], as is conventional for Spanish. ⟨gu⟩ is also transcribed [ɰʷ], which is essentially identical to [w].

All syllables are open, viz. CV or V, ending in a vowel.

Glottal stop edit

The glottal stop, called puso in Guarani, is only written between vowels, but occurs phonetically before vowel-initial words. Because of this, some words have several glottal stops near each other that consequently undergo a number of different dissimilation techniques. For example, "I drink water" 'a'y'u is pronounced hay'u. This suggests that irregularity in verb forms derives from regular sound change processes in the history of Guarani. There also seems to be some degree of variation between how much the glottal stop is dropped (for example aru'uka > aruuka > aruka for "I bring"). It is possible that word-internal glottal stops may have been retained from fossilized compounds where the second component was a vowel-initial (and therefore glottal stop–initial) root.[20]

Vowels edit

/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/ correspond more or less to the Spanish and IPA equivalents, although sometimes the open-mid allophones [ɛ], [ɔ] are used more frequently. The grapheme ⟨y⟩ represents the vowel /ɨ/ (as in Polish). Considering nasality, the vowel system is perfectly symmetrical, each oral vowel having its nasal counterpart (most systems with nasals have fewer nasals than orals).

Oral and nasal vowels
Front Central Back
Close oral i ⟨i⟩ ɨ ⟨y⟩ u ⟨u⟩
nasal ĩ ⟨ĩ⟩ ɨ̃ ⟨ỹ⟩ ũ ⟨ũ⟩
Open oral e ⟨e⟩ a ⟨a⟩ o ⟨o⟩
nasal ⟨ẽ⟩ ã ⟨ã⟩ õ ⟨õ⟩

Nasal harmony edit

Guarani displays an unusual degree of nasal harmony. A nasal syllable consists of a nasal vowel, and if the consonant is voiced, it takes its nasal allophone. If a stressed syllable is nasal, the nasality spreads in both directions until it bumps up against a stressed syllable that is oral. This includes affixes, postpositions, and compounding. Voiceless consonants do not have nasal allophones, but they do not interrupt the spread of nasality.

For example,


However, a second stressed syllable, with an oral vowel, will not become nasalized:


That is, for a word with a single stressed vowel, all voiced segments will be either oral or nasal, while voiceless consonants are unaffected, as in oral /ᵐbotɨ/ vs nasal /mõtɨ̃/.

Grammar edit

Guarani is a highly agglutinative language, often classified as polysynthetic. It is a fluid-S type active language, and it has been classified as a 6th class language in Milewski's typology. It uses subject–verb–object (SVO) word order usually, but object–verb when the subject is not specified.[22]

The language lacks gender and has no native definite article but, due to influence from Spanish, la is used as a definite article for singular reference and lo for plural reference. These are not found in Classical Guarani (Guaraniete).

Nouns edit

Guarani exhibits nominal tense: past, expressed with -kue, and future, expressed with -rã. For example, tetã ruvichakue translates to "ex-president" while tetã ruvicharã translates to "president-elect." The past morpheme -kue is often translated as "ex-", "former", "abandoned", "what was once", or "one-time". These morphemes can even be combined to express the idea of something that was going to be but did not end up happening. So for example, pa'irãgue is "a person who studied to be a priest but didn't actually finish", or rather, "the ex-future priest". Some nouns use -re instead of -kue and others use -guã instead of -rã.[23]

Pronouns edit

Guarani distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive pronouns of the first person plural.

singular plural
1st person inclusive che ñande
exclusive ore
2nd person nde peẽ
3rd person ha'e ha'ekuéra/ hikuái[i]
  1. ^ hikuái is a post-verbal pronoun (oHecha hikuái 'they see')

Reflexive pronoun: je: ahecha ("I look"), ajehecha ("I look at myself")

Conjugation edit

Guarani stems can be divided into a number of conjugation classes, which are called areal (with the subclass aireal) and chendal. The names for these classes stem from the names of the prefixes for 1st and 2nd person singular.

The areal conjugation is used to convey that the participant is actively involved, whereas the chendal conjugation is used to convey that the participant is the undergoer. However, the areal conjugation is also used if an intransitive verb expresses an event as opposed to a state, for example manó 'die', and even with a verb such as 'sleep'. In addition, all borrowed Spanish verbs are adopted as areal as opposed to borrowed adjectives, which take chendal.[24] Intransitive verbs can take either conjugation, transitive verbs normally take areal, but can take chendal for habitual readings. Nouns can also be conjugated, but only as chendal. This conveys a predicative possessive reading.[25]

Furthermore, the conjugations vary slightly according to the stem being oral or nasal.

pronoun areal aireal chendal
oral nasal
guata 'to walk' ñe' 'to speak' puru 'to use' tuicha 'to be big'
che a-guata a-ñe' ai-puru che-tuicha
ñande ja-guata ña-ñe' jai-puru ñande-tuicha
ore ro-guata ro-ñe' roi-puru ore-tuicha
nde re-guata re-ñe' rei-puru nde-tuicha
peẽ pe-guata pe-ñe' pei-puru pende-tuicha
ha'e(kuéra) o-guata o-ñe' oi-puru i-tuicha

Negation edit

Negation is indicated by a circumfix n(d)(V)-...-(r)i in Guarani. The preverbal portion of the circumfix is nd- for oral bases and n- for nasal bases. For 2nd person singular, an epenthetic -e- is inserted before the base, for 1st person plural inclusive, an epenthetic -a- is inserted.

The postverbal portion is -ri for bases ending in -i, and -i for all others. However, in spoken Guarani, the -ri portion of the circumfix is frequently omitted for bases ending in -i.

Oral verb Nasal verb With ending in "i"
japo 'do, make' kororõ 'roar, snore' jupi 'go up, rise'
nd-ajapó-i n-akororõ-i nd-ajupí-ri
nde-rejapó-i ne-rekororõ-i nde-rejupí-ri
nd-ojapó-i n-okororõ-i nd-ojupí-ri
nda-jajapó-i na-ñakororõ-i nda-jajupí-ri
nd-orojapó-i n-orokororõ-i nd-orojupí-ri
nda-pejapó-i na-pekororõ-i nda-pejupí-ri
nd-ojapó-i n-okororõ-i nd-ojupí-ri

The negation can be used in all tenses, but for future or irrealis reference, the normal tense marking is replaced by mo'ã, resulting in n(d)(V)-base-mo'ã-i as in Ndajapomo'ãi, "I won't do it".

There are also other negatives, such as: ani, ỹhỹ, nahániri, naumbre, na'anga.

Tense and aspect morphemes edit

  • -ramo: marks extreme proximity of the action, often translating to "just barely": Oguahẽramo, "He just barely arrived".[26]: 198 
  • -kuri: marks proximity of the action. Ha'ukuri, "I just ate" (ha'u irregular first person singular form of u, "to eat"). It can also be used after a pronoun, as in ha che kuri, che po'a, "and about what happened to me, I was lucky".
  • -va'ekue: indicates a fact that occurred long ago and asserts that it's really truth. Okañyva'ekue, "he/she went missing a long time ago".
  • -ra'e: tells that the speaker was doubtful before but he's sure at the moment he speaks. Nde rejoguara'e peteĩ ta'angambyry pyahu, "so then you bought a new television after all".
  • -raka'e: expresses the uncertainty of a perfect-aspect fact. Peẽ peikoraka'e Asunción-pe, "I think you lived in Asunción for a while". Nevertheless, nowadays this morpheme has lost some of its meaning, having a correspondence with ra'e and va'ekue.

The verb form without suffixes at all is a present somewhat aorist: Upe ára resẽ reho mombyry, "that day you got out and you went far".

  • -ta: is a future of immediate happening, it's also used as authoritarian imperative. Oujeýta ag̃aite, "he/she'll come back soon".
  • -ma: has the meaning of "already". Ajapóma, "I already did it".

These two suffixes can be added together: ahátama, "I'm already going".

  • -va'erã: indicates something not imminent or something that must be done for social or moral reasons, in this case corresponding to the German modal verb sollen. Péa ojejapova'erã, "that must be done".
  • -ne: indicates something that probably will happen or something the speaker imagines that is happening. It correlates in a certain way with the subjunctive of Spanish. Mitãnguéra ág̃a og̃uahéne hógape, "the children are probably coming home now".
  • -hína, -ína after nasal words: continual action at the moment of speaking, present and pluperfect continuous or emphatic. Rojatapyhína, "we're making fire"; che ha'ehína, "it's ME!".
  • -vo: it has a subtle difference with -hína in which -vo indicates not necessarily what's being done at the moment of speaking. amba'apóvo, "I'm working (not necessarily now)".
  • -pota: indicates proximity immediately before the start of the process. Ajukapota, "I'm near the point at which I will start to kill" or "I'm just about to kill". (A particular sandhi rule is applied here: if the verbs ends in -po, the suffix changes to -mbota; ajapombota, "I'll do it right now").
  • -pa: indicates emphatically that a process has all finished. Amboparapa pe ogyke, "I painted the wall completely".

This suffix can be joined with -ma, making up -páma: ñande jaikuaapáma nde remimo'ã, "now we came to know all your thought".

  • -mi: customary action in the past: Oumi, "He used to come a lot".

These are unstressed suffixes: -ta, -ma, -ne, -vo, -mi; so the stress goes upon the last syllable of the verb or the last stressed syllable.

Other verbal morphemes edit

  • -se: desiderative suffix: (Che) añemoaranduse, "I want to study".[27]
  • te-: desiderative prefix: Ahasa, "I pass", Tahasa, "I would like to pass." te- is the underlying form. It is similar to the negative in that it has the same vowel alternations and deletions, depending on the person marker on the verb.[26]: 108 

Determiners edit

Guarani English Spanish
1 – Demonstratives:
(a) With near objects and entities (you see it)
ko this este, esta
upe/pe that ese, esa
amo that/yonder aquel, aquella
peteĩ-teĩ (+/- va) each cada uno
ko'ã, ã, áã these estos, estas
umi those esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas
(b) Indefinite, with far objects and entities (you do not see it -remembering demonstratives):
ku that (singular) aquel, aquella
akói those (plural) aquellos, aquellas
(c) Other usual demonstratives determiners:
opa all todo, toda, todos, todas (with all entities)
mayma all todos, todas (with people)
mbovy- some, a few, determinate unos, unas
heta a lot of, very much muchos, muchas
ambue (+/- kuéra) other otros, otras
ambue another otro, otra
ambueve: The other el otro, la otra
ambueve other, another otro, otros, (enfático) –
oimeraẽ either cualquiera
mokoĩve both ambos, ambas
ni peteĩ (+/- ve) neither ni el uno ni el otro

Spanish loans in Guarani edit

The close and prolonged contact Spanish and Guarani have experienced has resulted in many Guarani words of Spanish origin. Many of these loans were for things or concepts unknown to the New World prior to Spanish colonization. Examples are seen below:[28]

Semantic category Spanish Guarani English
Orthography IPA Orthography IPA
animals vaca /baka/ vaka /ʋaka/ cow
caballo /kabaʝo/ kavaju /kaʋaᵈju/ horse
cabra /kabɾa/ kavara /kaʋaɾa/ goat
religion cruz /kɾuθ/ kurusu /kuɾusu/ cross
Jesucristo /xesukɾisto/ Hesukrísto /xesuˈkɾisto/ Jesus Christ
Pablo /pablo/ Pavlo /paʋlo/ Paul (saint)
place names Australia /austɾalia/ Autaralia /autaɾalia/ Australia
Islandia /islandia/ Iylanda /iɨlaⁿda/ Iceland
Portugal /poɾtugal/ Poytuga /poɨtuɰa/ Portugal
foods queso /keso/ kesu /kesu/ cheese
azúcar /aθukaɾ/ asuka /asuka/ sugar
morcilla /moɾθiʝa/ mbusia /ᵐbusia/ blood sausage
herbs/spices canela /kanela/ kanéla /kaˈnela/ cinnamon
culantro /kulantɾo/ kuratũ /kũɾ̃ãtũ/ cilantro (US), coriander (UK)
anís /aˈnis/ ani /ani/ anise

Guarani loans in English edit

English has adopted a small number of words from Guarani (or perhaps the related Tupi) via Portuguese, mostly the names of animals or plants. "Jaguar" comes from jaguarete and "piraña" comes from pira aña ("tooth fish" Tupi: pirá 'fish', aña 'tooth'). Other words are: "agouti" from akuti, "tapir" from tapira, "açaí" from ĩwasa'i ("[fruit that] cries or expels water"), "warrah" from aguará meaning "fox", "margay" from mbarakaja'y meaning "small cat" and "common water boa" from mbói meaning "snake".[citation needed] Jacaranda, guarana and mandioca are words of Guarani or Tupi–Guarani origin.[29] Ipecacuanha (the name of a medicinal drug) comes from a homonymous Tupi–Guarani name that can be rendered as ipe-ka'a-guene, meaning a creeping plant that makes one vomit.[30][failed verification]

The name of Paraguay is itself a Guarani word, as is the name of Uruguay. However, the exact meaning of either placename is up to varied interpretations. (See: List of country-name etymologies.)[citation needed]

"Cougar" is borrowed from the archaic Portuguese çuçuarana; the term was either originally derived from the Tupi language susua'rana, meaning "similar to deer (in hair color)" or from the Guarani language term guasu ara.[citation needed] Puma instead comes from the Peruvian Quechua language.[citation needed]

Example text edit

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Guarani:

Mayma yvypóra ou ko yvy ári iñapyty'yre ha eteĩcha tekoruvicharenda ha akatúape jeguerekópe; ha ikatu rupi oikuaa añetéva ha añete'yva, iporãva ha ivaíva, tekotevẽ pehenguéicha oiko oñondivekuéra.[31]
[maɨˈma ɨʋɨˈpoɾa oˈu ko ɨʋˈɨ ˈaɾi iɲapɨtɨʔɨˈɾe xa ẽtẽˈĩɕã tekoɾuʋiɕaɾeˈⁿda xa akaˈtuape ᵈjeweɾeˈkope; xa ikaˈtu ɾupi oikuaˈa aɲeˈteʋa xa aɲeteʔɨˈʋa, ĩpõɾ̃ˈãʋã xa iʋaˈiʋa tẽkõtẽˈʋẽ pexeˈᵑgʷeiɕa oiˈko oɲoⁿdiʋeˈkʷeɾa]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in English:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.[32]

Literature edit

The New Testament was translated from Greek into Guarani by Dr John William Lindsay (1875–1946), who was a Scottish medical missionary based in Belén, Paraguay. The New Testament was printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1913. It is believed to be the first New Testament translated into any South American indigenous language.

A more modern translation of the whole Bible into Guarani is known as Ñandejara Ñe'.[33]

In 2019, Jehovah's Witnesses released the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in Guarani,[34][35] both in print and online.[36]

Recently a series of novels in Guarani have been published:

Institutions edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ The Spanish word tesoro means both "treasure" and "thesaurus", and makes this title a double entendre. The English word "treasure" is cognate with "thesaurus" and is also cognate with the Spanish word tesoro. These words all descend from the Ancient Greek word thēsaurós.

Bibliography edit

  • Verón, Miguel Ángel (2020). "The Guaraní language in the Digital Era: Perspectives and Challenges". Arandu UTIC (in Spanish). VII (1). ISSN 2311-7559. Retrieved 20 December 2021.

Sources edit

  1. ^ Guarani at Ethnologue (24th ed., 2021)  
  2. ^ Muturzikin (2008). "Paraguai".
  3. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  4. ^ Britton, A. Scott (2004). Guaraní-English/English-Guaraní Concise Dictionary. New York: Hippocrene Books.
  5. ^ Mortimer, K (2006). "Guaraní Académico or Jopará? Educator Perspectives and Ideological Debate in Paraguayan Bilingual Education". Working Papers in Educational Linguistics. 21 (2): 45–71.
  6. ^ a b Romero, Simon (12 March 2012). "In Paraguay, Indigenous Language With Unique Staying Power". The New York Times. Asunción. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012.
  7. ^ "Ley Provincial Nº 5.598, que establece el guaraní como 'idioma oficial alternativo' de Corrientes" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
  8. ^ "Antecedentes sobre la población nativa de las Américas". Centro de Documentación Mapuche (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 October 2005.
  9. ^ "Incorporación del Guaraní como Idioma del Mercosur". MERCOSUR official page (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 25 December 2013.
  10. ^ Montoya, Antonio Ruiz de. Tesoro de la lengua guaraní. A LOS PADRES RELIGIOSOS "Dió finalmente fin a eſte trabajo el tiempo de treinta años que he gaſtado entre Gentiles, y con eficaz eſtudio raſtreado lengua tan copioſa, y elegante, que con razon puede competir con las de fama."
  11. ^ Wilde, Guillermo (2001). "Los guaraníes después de la expulsión de los jesuitas: dinámicas políticas y transacciones simbólicas" [The Guaraní after the expulsion of the Jesuits: political dynamics and symbolic transactions]. Revista Complutense de Historia de América (in Spanish). 27: 69–106.
  12. ^ Telesca, Ignacio (2009). Tras los expulsos: cambios demográficos y territoriales en el paraguay después de la expulsión de los jesuitas. Asunción: Universidad Católica "Nuestra Señora De La Asunción".
  13. ^ Thun, Harald (2008). "La hispanización del guaraní jesuítico en 'lo espiritual' y en 'lo temporal'. Segunda parte: Los procedimientos". In Dietrich, Wolf; Symeonidis, Haralambos (eds.). Geschichte und Aktualität der deutschprachigen Guaraní-Philologie. Berlin: Lit Verlag. pp. 141–169.
  14. ^ Restivo, Paulo (1724). Vocabulario de la lengua guaraní (in Spanish). Madrid.
  15. ^ Guarania, Félix (2008). Ñande Ayvu Tenonde Porãngue'i: Nuevo diccionario guaraní́-castellano, castellano-guaraní́: Avañe'ẽ-karaiñe'ẽ, Karaiñe'ẽ-avañe'ẽ. Asunción: Servilibro.
  16. ^ Melia, Bartomeu (2003). La lengua guaraní́ en el Paraguay colonial (in Spanish). Asunción: CEPAG. ISBN 9789992584958.
  17. ^ Nickson, Robert Andrew (2009). "Governance and the Revitalization of the Guaraní Language in Paraguay". Latin American Research Review. 44 (3): 3–26. doi:10.1353/lar.0.0115. JSTOR 40783668. S2CID 144250960.
  18. ^ Page, Nathan (6 September 1999). "Guaraní: The Language and People". Brigham Young University Department of Linguistics. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
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  20. ^ Ayala, José Valentín (2000). Gramática Guaraní. Asunción: Centro Editorial Paraguayo S.R.L. p. 19. OCLC 50608420.
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  22. ^ Tonhauser, Judith; Colijn, Erika (2010). "Word Order in Paraguayan Guarani". International Journal of American Linguistics. 76 (2): 255–288. doi:10.1086/652267. S2CID 73554080.
  23. ^ Guasch, P. Antonio (1956). El Idioma Guarnai: Gramática e Antología de Prosa y Verso. Asunción: Casa América. p. 53.
  24. ^ Andréasson, Daniel (2001). Active languages (PDF) (BA thesis). Stockholm University. pp. 18–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2008.
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  26. ^ a b Graham, Charles R. (1969). Guarani Intermediate Course. Provo: Brigham Young University.
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  28. ^ Pinta, J. (2013). "Lexical strata in loanword phonology: Spanish loans in Guarani". Master's thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (See also Lexical stratum.)
  29. ^ Rodríguez, Yliana (11–12 June 2015). Vestiges of an Amerindian-European language contact: Guarani loanwords in Uruguayan Spanish. 18e Rencontres Jeunes Chercheurs en Sciences du Langage. Paris. p. 13. hal-01495095.
  30. ^ "ipecacuanha". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  31. ^ "Guarani language, alphabet and pronunciation". Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  32. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations.
  33. ^ "Biblia en guaraní es incluida oficialmente en el Vaticano" [Guarani Bible officially included in the Vatican]. Última Hora (in Spanish). 23 October 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012.
  34. ^ "Jehovah's Witnesses Release New World Translation in Guarani". Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 20 August 2019.
  35. ^ "¿Orekópa umi testígo de Jehová ibíblia tee?" [Do Jehovah's Witnesses have their own Bible?]. (in Guarani). Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.
  36. ^ "Ñandejára Ñeʼẽ La Biblia". Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.

Further reading edit

  • de Carvalho, Fernando O. (2022). "A new sound change for Guarani(an): glottal prothesis, internal classification, and the explanation of synchronic irregularities". Folia Linguistica. 56 (43–s1): 263–288. doi:10.1515/flin-2022-2026. S2CID 249549872.

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