Tupi–Guarani languages

Tupi–Guarani (About this soundpronunciation ) is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America. It includes fifty languages, including the best-known languages of the family, Guarani and Old Tupi.

Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru
Linguistic classificationTupian
  • Tupi–Guarani
Tupi languages.png
Tupi–Guarani (medium pink), other Tupian (violet), and probable range c. 1500 (pink-grey)

The words petunia, jaguar, piranha, ipecac, tapioca, jacaranda, anhinga, carioca, and capoeira are of Tupi–Guarani origin.[citation needed]


Rodrigues & Cabral (2012)Edit

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012) propose eight branches of Tupí–Guaraní:

*Cabral argues that Kokama/Omagua is a mixed language, and so not directly classifiable, though most of its basic vocabulary is Tupi–Guarani.

**Not listed in Rodrigues & Cabral

Karipuna language (Amapá) may be spurious.

Michael, et al. (2015)Edit

Michael, et al. (2015) propose the following classification for the Tupi-Guarani languages.


O'Hagan (2014)[2] proposes that Proto-Tupi-Guarani was spoken in the region of the lower Tocantins and Xingu Rivers. Proto-Omagua-Kokama then expanded up the Amazon River, Proto-Tupinamba expanded south along the Atlantic coast, and the Southern branch expanded up along the Tocantins/Araguaia River towards the Paraná River basin.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tupi–Guarani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ O'Hagan, Zachary (with Keith Bartolomei, Natalia Chousou-Polydouri, Emily Clem, Erin Donnelly and Lev Michael). 2014. A Computational-phylogenetic Classification of Tupí-Guaraní and its Geographical Spread. Language Variation and Change, October 20, Chicago.

External linksEdit