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The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.[1] It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet,[2] and it shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic and the traditional Mongolian scripts.

Syriac alphabet
Aramaic alphabet.jpg
Estrangela styled alphabet
Impure Abjad
Languages Aramaic (Classical Syriac, Western Neo-Aramaic, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, Turoyo, Christian Palestinian Aramaic), Arabic (Garshuni), Malayalam (Suriyani Malayalam)
Time period
c. 6 AD – present
Parent systems
Child systems


Old Turkic alphabet
Old Hungarian alphabet
Old Uyghur alphabet
Mongolian script
Manichaean alphabet

Nabataean alphabet

Arabic alphabet
N'Ko alphabet
Direction Right-to-left
ISO 15924 Syrc, 135
  • Syre, 138 (ʾEsṭrangēlā variant)
  • Syrj, 137 (Western variant)
  • Syrn, 136 (Eastern variant)
Unicode alias

Syriac is written from right to left in horizontal lines. It is a cursive script where most, but not all, letters connect within a word. Spaces separate individual words.

All 22 letters are consonants, although there are optional diacritic marks to indicate vowels and other features. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals.

When Arabic began to be the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent, texts were often written in Arabic with the Syriac script as knowledge of the Arabic alphabet was not yet widespread. Malayalam was also written with Syriac script and was called Suriyani Malayalam. Such writings are usually called Karshuni or Garshuni (ܓܪܫܘܢܝ). Garshuni is often used today in Neo-Aramaic writing, such as letters and fliers.


Forms of alphabetEdit

11th century book in Syriac Serṭā.

There are three major variants of the Syriac alphabet: ʾEsṭrangēlā, Maḏnḥāyā, and Serṭā.

Classical ʾEsṭrangēlāEdit

Yəšūʿ or ʾĪšōʿ, the Syriac name of Jesus.

The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is ʾEsṭrangēlā (ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܐ; the name is thought to derive from the Greek adjective στρογγύλη [strongylē, 'rounded'],[3] though it has also been suggested to derive from ܣܪܛܐ ܐܘܢܓܠܝܐ [serṭā ʾewwangēlāyā, 'gospel character'][4]). Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century. It is often used in scholarly publications (such as the Leiden University version of the Peshitta), in titles, and in inscriptions. In some older manuscripts and inscriptions, it is possible for any letter to join to the left, and older Aramaic letter forms (especially of Ḥeth and the lunate Mem) are found. Vowel marks are usually not used with ʾEsṭrangēlā.

East Syriac MaḏnḥāyāEdit

The East Syriac dialect is usually written in the Maḏnḥāyā (ܡܲܕ݂ܢܚܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Eastern') form of the alphabet. Other names for the script include Swāḏāyā (ܣܘܵܕ݂ܵܝܵܐ‬, 'conversational', often translated as 'contemporary', reflecting its use in writing modern Neo-Aramaic), ʾĀṯūrāyā (ܐܵܬ݂ܘܼܪܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Assyrian', not to be confused with the traditional name for the Hebrew alphabet), Kaldāyā (ܟܲܠܕܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Chaldean'), and, inaccurately, "Nestorian" (a term that was originally used to refer to the Church of the East in the Sasanian Empire). The Eastern script resembles ʾEsṭrangēlā somewhat more closely than the Western script.


The Eastern script uses a system of dots above or below letters, based on an older system, to indicate vowel sounds not found in the script:

  • A dot above and a dot below a letter represent [a], transliterated as a or ă (called ܦܬ݂ܵܚܵܐ‬, Pṯāḥā),
  • Two diagonally-placed dots above a letter represent [ɑ], transliterated as ā or â or å (called ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‬, Zqāp̄ā),
  • Two horizontally-placed dots below a letter represent [ɛ], transliterated as e or ĕ (called ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܪܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā ʾărīḵā or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܦܫܝܼܩܵܐ‬, Zlāmā pšīqā; often pronounced [ɪ] and transliterated as i in the East Syriac dialect),
  • Two diagonally-placed dots below a letter represent [e], transliterated as ē (called ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܟܲܪܝܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā karyā or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܩܲܫܝܵܐ‬, Zlāmā qašyā),
  • The letter Waw with a dot below it represents [u], transliterated as ū or u (called ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܠܝܼܨܵܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā ʾălīṣā or ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā),
  • The letter Waw with a dot above it represents [o], transliterated as ō or o (called ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܪܘܝܼܚܵܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā rwīḥā or ܪܘܵܚܵܐ‬, Rwāḥā),
  • The letter Yōḏ with a dot beneath it represents [i], transliterated as ī or i (called ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‬, Ḥḇāṣā),
  • A combination of Rḇāṣā karyā (usually) followed by a letter Yōḏ represents [e] (possibly *[e̝] in Proto-Syriac), transliterated as ē or ê (called ܐܲܣܵܩܵܐ‬, ʾĂsāqā).

It is thought that the Eastern method for representing vowels influenced the development of the niqqud markings used for writing Hebrew.

In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ə, or superscript e (or often nothing at all) to represent an original Aramaic schwa that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac. Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons. Whether because its distribution is mostly predictable (usually inside a syllable-initial two-consonant cluster) or because its pronunciation was lost, both the East and the West variants of the alphabet have no sign to represent the schwa.

The opening words of the Gospel of John written in Serṭā, Maḏnḥāyā and ʾEsṭrangēlā (top to bottom) — brēšiṯ iṯaw[hy]-[h]wā melṯā, 'in the beginning was the word'.

West Syriac SerṭāEdit

The West Syriac dialect is usually written in the Serṭā (ܣܶܪܛܳܐ‬, 'line') form of the alphabet, also known as the Pšīṭā (ܦܫܺܝܛܳܐ‬, 'simple'), 'Maronite', or the 'Jacobite' script (although the term Jacobite is considered derogatory). Most of the letters are clearly derived from ʾEsṭrangēlā, but are simplified, flowing lines. A cursive chancery hand is evidenced in the earliest Syriac manuscripts, but important works were written in ʾEsṭrangēlā. From the 8th century, the simpler Serṭā style came into fashion, perhaps because of its more economical use of parchment. The Nabataean alphabet, which gave rise to the Arabic alphabet, was based on this form of Syriac handwriting.


The Western script is usually vowel-pointed, with miniature Greek vowel letters above or below the letter which they follow:

  • Capital Alpha (Α) represents [a], transliterated as a or ă (ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‬, Pṯāḥā),
  • Lowercase Alpha (α) represents [ɑ], transliterated as ā or â or å (ܙܩܳܦ݂ܳܐ‬, Zqāp̄ā; pronounced as [o] and transliterated as o in the West Syriac dialect),
  • Lowercase Epsilon (ε) represents both [ɛ], transliterated as e or ĕ, and [e], transliterated as ē (ܪܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‬, Rḇāṣā),
  • Capital Eta (H) represents [i], transliterated as ī (ܚܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‬, Ḥḇāṣā),
  • A combined symbol of capital Upsilon (Υ) and lowercase Omicron (ο) represents [u], transliterated as ū or u (ܥܨܳܨܳܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā),
  • Lowercase Omega (ω), used only in the vocative interjection ʾō (ܐܘّ‬, 'O!').

Summary tableEdit

The Syriac alphabet consists of the following letters, shown in their isolated (non-connected) forms. When isolated, the letters Kāp̄, Mīm, and Nūn are usually shown with their initial form connected to their final form (see below). The letters ʾĀlap̄, Dālaṯ, , Waw, Zayn, Ṣāḏē, Rēš, and Taw (and, in early ʾEsṭrangēlā manuscripts, the letter Semkaṯ[5]) do not connect to a following letter within a word. These are marked with an asterisk (*).

Name Letter Sound Value Numerical
Imperial Aramaic
ʾEsṭrangēlā Maḏnḥāyā Serṭā Transliteration IPA
ʾĀlep̄ or ʾĀlap̄* (ܐܠܦ)       ʾ or nothing
mater lectionis: ā
[ʔ] or silent
mater lectionis: [ɑ]
1   𐡀 א
Bēṯ (ܒܝܬ)       hard: b
soft: (also bh, v, β)
hard: [b]
soft: [v] or [w]
2   𐡁 ב
Gāmal (ܓܡܠ)       hard: g
soft: (also , gh, ġ, γ)
hard: [ɡ]
soft: [ɣ]
3   𐡂 ג
Dālaṯ* (ܕܠܬ)       hard: d
soft: (also dh, ð, δ)
hard: [d]
soft: [ð]
4   𐡃 ד
* (ܗܐ)       h [h] 5   𐡄 ה
Waw* (ܘܘ)       consonant: w
mater lectionis: ū or ō
(also u or o)
consonant: [w]
mater lectionis: [u] or [o]
6   𐡅 ו
Zayn* (ܙܝܢ)       z [z] 7   𐡆 ז
Ḥēṯ (ܚܝܬ)       [ħ], [x], or [χ] 8   𐡇 ח
Ṭēṯ (ܛܝܬ)       [] 9   𐡈 ט
Yōḏ (ܝܘܕ)       consonant: y
mater lectionis: ī (also i)
consonant: [j]
mater lectionis: [i] or [e]
10   𐡉 י
Kāp̄ (ܟܦ)       hard: k
soft: (also kh, x)
hard: [k]
soft: [x]
20   𐡊 כ ך
Lāmaḏ (ܠܡܕ)       l [l] 30   𐡋 ל
Mīm (ܡܝܡ)       m [m] 40   𐡌 מ ם
Nūn (ܢܘܢ)       n [n] 50   𐡍 נ ן
Semkaṯ (ܣܡܟܬ)       s [s] 60   𐡎 ס
ʿĒ (ܥܐ)       ʿ [ʕ]1 70   𐡏 ע
(ܦܐ)       hard: p
soft: (also , , ph, f)
hard: [p]
soft: [f]
80   𐡐 פ ף
Ṣāḏē* (ܨܕܐ)       [] 90   𐡑 צ ץ
Qōp̄ (ܩܘܦ)       q [q] 100   𐡒 ק
Rēš* (ܪܝܫ)       r [r] 200   𐡓 ר
Šīn (ܫܝܢ)       š (also sh) [ʃ] 300   𐡔 ש
Taw* (ܬܘ)       hard: t
soft: (also th, θ)
hard: [t]
soft: [θ]
400   𐡕 ת


  1. ^ Among most Assyrian Neo-Aramaic speakers, the pharyngeal sound [ʕ] in ʿĒ is rendered as [ei], [ai] or [e],[citation needed] depending on the dialect.

Contextual forms of lettersEdit

Letter ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Maḏnḥāyā (eastern)
ʾĀlap̄           1  
Semkaṯ           /    

1 In the final position following Dālaṯ or Rēš, ʾĀlap̄ takes the normal form rather than the final form.


Name ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Maḏnḥāyā (eastern) Unicode
Lāmaḏ-ʾĀlap̄             ܠܐ Lāmaḏ and ʾĀlap̄ combined
at the end of a word
Taw-ʾĀlap̄               /   ܬܐ Taw and ʾĀlap̄ combined
at the end of a word
Hē-Yōḏ             ܗܝ and Yōḏ combined
at the end of a word
Taw-Yōḏ             ܬܝ Taw and Yōḏ combined
at the end of a word

Letter alterationsEdit

Transliteration of the Syriac alphabet.

Matres lectionisEdit

Three letters act as matres lectionis: rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. ʾĀlap̄ (ܐ), the first letter, represents a glottal stop, but it can also indicate a vowel, especially at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter Waw (ܘ) is the consonant w, but can also represent the vowels o and u. Likewise, the letter Yōḏ (ܝ) represents the consonant y, but it also stands for the vowels i and e.


In modern usage, some alterations can be made to represent phonemes not represented in classical phonology. A mark similar in appearance to a tilde (~), called majlīyānā (ܡܓ̰ܠܝܢܐ‬), is placed above or below a letter in the Maḏnḥāyā variant of the alphabet to change its phonetic value (see also: Geresh):

Rūkkāḵā and qūššāyāEdit

In addition to foreign sounds, a marking system is used to distinguish qūššāyā (ܩܘܫܝܐ, 'hard' letters) from rūkkāḵā (ܪܘܟܟܐ, 'soft' letters). The letters Bēṯ, Gāmal, Dālaṯ, Kāp̄, , and Taw, all stop consonants ('hard') are able to be 'spirantized' (lenited) into fricative consonants ('soft'). The system involves placing a single dot underneath the letter to give its 'soft' variant and a dot above the letter to give its 'hard' variant (though, in modern usage, no mark at all is usually used to indicate the 'hard' value):

Name Stop Translit. IPA Name Fricative Translit. IPA Notes
Bēṯ (qšīṯā) ܒ݁ b [b] Bēṯ rakkīḵtā ܒ݂ [v] or [w] [v] has become [w] in most modern dialects.
Gāmal (qšīṯā) ܓ݁ g [ɡ] Gāmal rakkīḵtā ܓ݂ [ɣ]
Dālaṯ (qšīṯā) ܕ݁ d [d] Dālaṯ rakkīḵtā ܕ݂ [ð] [d] is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.
Kāp̄ (qšīṯā) ܟ݁ܟ݁

k [k] Kāp̄ rakkīḵtā ܟ݂ܟ݂

Pē (qšīṯā) ܦ݁ p [p] Pē rakkīḵtā ܦ݂‬ or ܦ̮ [f] or [w] [f] is not found in most modern Eastern dialects. Instead, it either is left unspirantized or sometimes appears as [w]. is the only letter in the Eastern variant of the alphabet that is spirantized by the addition of a semicircle instead of a single dot.
Taw (qšīṯā) ܬ݁ t [t] Taw rakkīḵtā ܬ݂ [θ] [t] is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.

The mnemonic bḡaḏkp̄āṯ (ܒܓܕܟܦܬ) is often used to remember the six letters that are able to be spirantized (see also: Begadkefat).

In the East Syriac variant of the alphabet, spirantization marks are usually omitted when they interfere with vowel marks. The degree to which letters can be spirantized varies from dialect to dialect as some dialects have lost the ability for certain letters to be spirantized. For native words, spirantization depends on the letter's position within a word or syllable, location relative to other consonants and vowels, gemination, etymology, and other factors. Foreign words do not always follow the rules for spirantization.


Syriac uses two (usually) horizontal dots above a letter within a word, similar in appearance to diaeresis, called syāmē (ܣܝ̈ܡܐ, literally 'placings'), to indicate that the word is plural. These dots, having no sound value in themselves, arose before both eastern and western vowel systems as it became necessary to mark plural forms of words, which are indistinguishable from their singular counterparts in regularly inflected nouns. For instance, the word malkā (ܡܠܟܐ, 'king') is consonantally identical to its plural malkē ('kings'); the syāmē above the word (ܡܠܟ̈ܐ) clarifies its grammatical number. Irregular plurals also receive syāmē even though their forms are clearly plural: e.g. baytā (ܒܝܬܐ, 'house') and its irregular plural bāttē (ܒ̈ܬܐ, 'houses'). Because of redundancy, some modern usage forgoes syāmē points when vowel markings are present.

There are no firm rules for which letter receives syāmē; the writer has full discretion to place them over any letter. Typically, if a word has at least one Rēš, then syāmē are placed over the Rēš that is nearest the end of a word (and also replace the single dot above it). Other letters that often receive syāmē are low-rising letters—such as Yōḏ and Nūn—or letters that appear near the middle or end of a word.

Besides nouns, syāmē are also placed on:

  • plural adjectives, including participles (except masculine plural adjectives/participles in the absolute state);
  • the cardinal numbers 'two' and the feminine forms of 11-19, though inconsistently;
  • and certain feminine plural verbs.

Latin alphabet and romanizationEdit

The opening words of the Gospel of John transliterated in the Assyrian Latin script.

In the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union, a Latin alphabet for Syriac was developed with some material promulgated.[6] Although it did not supplant the Syriac script, the usage of the Latin script in the Syriac community has still become widespread because most of the Assyrian diaspora is in Europe and the Anglosphere, where the Latin alphabet is predominant. As a result of Westernisation, the Latin alphabet has been used for Syriac writing. Some letters are altered and would feature diacritics and macrons to indicate long vowels, schwas and diphthongs. The letters with diacritics and macrons, though, are mostly upheld in educational or formal writing.[7]

Soviet Latin alphabet[8][9]

The Latin letters below are commonly used when it comes to transliteration from the Syriac script to Latin:[10][11]

Transliterated Syriac-Latin alphabet[12][13]
  • Ā is used to denote a long A sound or [ɑː] as heard in "car"
  • Ḏ is used to represent the voiced "th" sound as heard in "that"
  • Ē is used to denote an "ee" sound or [eː]
  • Ĕ is to represent an "eh" sound or /ˈɛ/, as heard in Ninwĕ or "mare"
  • Ḥ represents a voiceless pharyngeal fricative (/ħ/), which is only upheld by Turoyo and Chaldean speakers
  • Ō represents a long O sound or /ɔː/
  • Š is consanguineous to the digraph "Sh"
  • Ṣ denotes an emphatic "S", or thick S, similar to the "S" heard in "sunk" and "mars"
  • Ṭ is an emphatic "T", as heard in Assyrian word ṭla" (three)
  • Ū is used to represent an "oo" sound or the Close back rounded vowel /uː/

Sometimes additional letters may be used and they tend to be:


The Syriac alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in September, 1999 with the release of version 3.0. Additional letters for Suriyani Malayalam were added in June, 2017 with the release of version 10.0.


The Unicode block for Syriac is U+0700–U+074F:

Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+070x ܀ ܁ ܂ ܃ ܄ ܅ ܆ ܇ ܈ ܉ ܊ ܋ ܌ ܍ ܏
U+071x ܐ ܑ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ
U+072x ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ ܭ ܮ ܯ
U+073x ܰ ܱ ܲ ܳ ܴ ܵ ܶ ܷ ܸ ܹ ܺ ܻ ܼ ܽ ܾ ܿ
U+074x ݀ ݁ ݂ ݃ ݄ ݅ ݆ ݇ ݈ ݉ ݊ ݍ ݎ ݏ
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark (U+070F).

The Unicode block for Suriyani Malayalam specific letters is called the Syriac Supplement block and is U+0860–U+086F:

Syriac Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

HTML code tableEdit

Note: HTML numeric character references can be in decimal format (&#DDDD;) or hexadecimal format (&#xHHHH;). For example, ܕ and ܕ (1813 in decimal) both represent U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH.

ʾĀlap̄ BēṯEdit

ܕ ܓ ܒ ܐ
ܕ ܓ ܒ ܐ
ܚ ܙ ܘ ܗ
ܚ ܙ ܘ ܗ
ܠ ܟܟ ܝ ܛ
ܠ ܟ ܝ ܛ
ܥ ܣ ܢܢ ܡܡ
ܥ ܤ ܢ ܡ
ܪ ܩ ܨ ܦ
ܪ ܩ ܨ ܦ
ܬ ܫ
ܬ ܫ

Vowels and unique charactersEdit

ܲ ܵ
ܲ ܵ
ܸ ܹ
ܸ ܹ
ܼ ܿ
ܼ ܿ
̈ ̰
̈ ̰
݁ ݂
݁ ݂
܀ ܂
܀ ܂
܄ ݇
܄ ݇

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Syriac alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved June 16, 2012. 
  2. ^ P. R. Ackroyd,C. F. Evans (1975). The Cambridge History of the Bible: Volume 1, From the Beginnings to Jerome. p. 26. 
  3. ^ Hatch, William (1946). An album of dated Syriac manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. p. 24. ISBN 1-931956-53-7.
  4. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889. p. 5].
  5. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  6. ^ Moscati, Sabatino, et al. The Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1980.
  7. ^ S. P. Brock, "Three Thousand Years of Aramaic literature", in Aram,1:1 (1989)
  8. ^ Friedrich, Johannes (1959). "Neusyrisches in Lateinschrift aus der Sowjetunion". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (in German) (109): 50–81. 
  9. ^ Polotsky, Hans Jakob (1961). "Studies in Modern Syriac". Journal of Semitic Studies. 6 (1): 1–32. 
  10. ^ Syriac Romanization Table
  11. ^ Hatch, William (1946). An album of dated Syriac manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. p. 24. ISBN 1-931956-53-7
  12. ^ Nicholas Awde; Nineb Lamassu; Nicholas Al-Jeloo (2007). Aramaic (Assyrian/Syriac) Dictionary & Phrasebook: Swadaya-English, Turoyo-English, English-Swadaya-Turoyo. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-7818-1087-6. 
  13. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889. p. 5]


  • Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  • Hatch, William (1946). An Album of Dated Syriac Manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-931956-53-7.
  • Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). Grammatica Syriaca.
  • Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889].
  • Nöldeke, Theodor and Julius Euting (1880). Kurzgefasste syrische Grammatik. Leipzig: T.O. Weigel. [translated to English as Compendious Syriac Grammar, by James A. Crichton. London: Williams & Norgate 1904. 2003 edition: ISBN 1-57506-050-7].
  • Phillips, George (1866). A Syriac Grammar. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, & Co.; London: Bell & Daldy.
  • Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926129-6.
  • Rudder, Joshua. Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical & Modern Scripts. n.p.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2011. 220 pp. ISBN 978-1461021421 Includes the Estrangela (pp. 59–113), Madnhaya (pp. 191–206), and the Western Serto (pp. 173–190) scripts.
  • Thackston, Wheeler M. (1999). Introduction to Syriac. Bethesda, MD: Ibex Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-936347-98-8.

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