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The classical or traditional Mongolian script,[a] also known as the Hudum Mongol bichig,[b] was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet,[1] Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and experimentally, Evenki.

Mongol script
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ
Bosoo mongol bicig.png
Example text
Type
LanguagesMongolian language
Manchu language (obsolete)
Daur language (obsolete)
Evenki language (experimentally)
CreatorTata-tonga
Time period
ca.1204 – today
Parent systems
Child systems
Manchu alphabet
Oirat alphabet (Clear script)
Buryat alphabet
Galik alphabet
Evenki alphabet
Xibe alphabet
Sister systems
Old Uyghur alphabet
DirectionTop-to-bottom
ISO 15924Mong, 145
Unicode alias
Mongolian

Computer operating systems have been slow to adopt support for the Mongolian script, and almost all have incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Banner of Tüden in the Setsen Han Aimag, eastern Mongolia. Writing in Mongolian script

The Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Old Uyghur alphabet for the Mongolian language.[2]:545 From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern, eastern and western dialects. The principal documents of the middle period are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese–Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century [zh], and materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc.; in the western dialect, materials of the Arab–Mongolian and Persian–Mongolian dictionaries, Mongolian texts in Arabic transcription, etc. The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme (in the Chakhar dialect, the Standard Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, they're still distinct); inter-vocal consonants γ/g, b/w had disappeared and the preliminary process of the formation of Mongolian long vowels had begun; the initial h was preserved in many words; grammatical categories were partially absent, etc. The development over this period explains why the Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script (in particular the presence of the dot system).[3]:1–2

Eventually, minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries, smoother and more angular versions of the letter tsadi became associated with [dʒ] and [tʃ] respectively, and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial [j]. Zain was dropped as it was redundant for [s]. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity.[2]:545

Mongolian is written vertically. The Uyghur script and its descendants — Mongolian, Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat — are the only vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters.[4] The reed pen was the writing instrument of choice until the 18th century, when the brush took its place under Chinese influence.[5]:422

Mongols learned their script as a syllabary, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels.[6]

NameEdit

The Traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Due to its shape like Uighur script, it became known as the Uighurjin Mongol script.[c] During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script,[d] in contrast to the New script,[e] referring to Cyrillic. The name Old Mongol script stuck, and it is still known as such among the older generation, who didn't receive education in the new script.

GraphemesEdit

Recurring and/or contrasting graphemes (зурлага)[7][8]:4–5[9]:29–30, 205[10]:20[11]:99[12]:1[13]:20[14]:536[15]:211–212[16][17][18]
Appearance Names
Image Text(?)
  ᠡ‍ 'Crown' Тит(и/э)м tit(i/e)m / ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮ titim
  ᠊ᠡ‍ Ацаг atsag / ᠠᠴᠤᠭ ačuγ or,
'Tooth' Шүд shud / ᠰᠢᠳᠦ sidü
᠊᠊ 'Spine' Нуруу nuruu / ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ niruγu
  ᠵ‍ '... shank/shin' Шулуун шилбэ Shuluun shilbe / ᠰᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ siluγun silbi
  ᠶ‍ '... shank/shin' Э(э)тгэр шилбэ e(e)tger shilbe / ᠡᠭᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ egeteger silbi
  ᠸ‍ '... shank/shin' Матгар шилбэ matgar shilbe / ᠮᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ mataγar silbi
  ᠷ‍ '... shank/shin' Өргөстэй шилбэ örgöstei shilbe / ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠰᠦᠲᠡᠶ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ örgesütey silbi
  ᠳ᠋‍ '... shank/shin' Гогцоотой шилбэ gogtsootoi shilbe / ᠭᠣᠭᠴᠤᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ γoγčuγatai silbi
  ᡁ‍ '... shank/shin' Хөндий шилбэ khöndii shilbe / ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠶ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ köndey silbi
  ᠲ‍ '... shank/shin' Артын шилбэ artyn shilbe
   ‍᠊ᠣ‍ ‍᠊ᠣ 'Belly/Stomach' Гэдэс gedes / ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ gedesü
  ‍᠊ᠰ‍ Зав(и/ь)ж Zav(i)j / ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠵᠢ ǰabaǰi
  ᠎ᠠ Орхиц orkhits / ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠴᠠ orkiča or,
Цацлага tsatslaga / ᠴᠠᠴᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ čačulγ‑a
  ‍᠊ᠠ 'Tail' Сүүл suul / ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ segül
  ‍ᠢ 'Bow' Нум num / ᠨᠤᠮᠤ numu
  ‍᠊ᠯ‍ 'Horn' Эвэр ever / ᠡᠪᠡᠷ eber
  ‍᠊ᠮ‍ Гэзэг gezeg / ᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡ geǰige or,
'Horn' Эвэр ever / ᠡᠪᠡᠷ eber
  ‍ᠵ‍ Жалжгар эвэр zhalzhgar ever or,
Соёо soyoo / ᠰᠣᠶᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ soyuγ‑a
  ‍ᠴ‍ Сэрээ эвэр seree ever or,
Ац ats / ᠠᠴᠠ ača
  Ятгар зартиг yatgar zartig

LettersEdit

See also: SASM/GNC romanization § Mongolian and Sino–Mongolian Transliterations [zh]

The traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum 'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script (Todo 'exact'), is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language. It does not distinguish several vowels (o/u, ö/ü, final a/e) and consonants (syllable-initial t/d and k/g, sometimes ǰ/y) that were not required for Uyghur, which was the source of the Mongol (or Uyghur-Mongol) script.[4] The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence usually indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an exactly identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography.

Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character.

The below rules for writing apply specifically for the Mongolian language, unless stated otherwise.

Sort ordersEdit

  • Traditional: n q/k, (Gamma, ү)/g, b, p, s, š, t, d, l, m, č...[19][12]:7
  • Modern: n, b, p, q/k, ү/g, m, l, s, š, t, d, č...[19][12]:7
  • Other modern orderings that apply to specific dictionaries also exist.[20]

HandwritingEdit

Final letterforms with a right-pointing tail (a, e, n, q, ү, m, l, s, š, and d) may have the notch (or tooth) preceding it in printed form, handwritten in a span between more or less tapered to a fully rounded curve.[8]:62–63[20][15]:211–215

For a visual comparison of how letterforms may differ between styles see § Comparison of writing styles.

Vowel harmonyEdit

Mongolian vowel harmony separates the vowels of words into three groups – two mutually exclusive and one neutral:

  • The back, masculine,[21] hard, or yang[22] vowels a, o, and u.
  • The front, feminine,[21] soft, or yin[22] vowels e, ö, and ü.
  • The neutral vowel i, able to appear in all words.

Any Mongolian word can contain the neutral vowel i, but only vowels from either of the other two groups. The vowel quality of visually separated vowels and suffixes are likewise affected by those of the preceding word stem. Such suffixes are written with front or neutral vowels when preceded by a word stem containing only neutal vowels. Any of these rules might not apply for foreign words however.[3]:11, 39[23]:10[24]:4[20]

Separated final vowelsEdit

A separated final form of vowels a or e is common, and can appear at the end of a word, word stem, or suffix. This form requires a final-shaped preceding consonant and an inter-word gap in between. The vowels themselves appear as ᠎ᠠ  , and with consonants as ‍ᠬ᠎ᠠ     q‑a, ‍ᠷ᠎ᠠ     r‑a/r‑e, etc.(?) This gap can be transliterated with a hyphen . In digital typesetting, these forms are triggered by inserting a U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR (HTML ᠎ · MVS) between the consonant and vowel. The combination of MVS and vowel is highlighted in light blue (᠎ᠠ)(?) in the tables below.[3]:30, 77[25]:42[11]:104[24]:27[14]:534–535

The presence or lack of a separated a or e can also indicate differences in meaning between different words (compare ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ(?) qar‑a 'black' with ᠬᠠᠷᠠ qara 'to look').[26]:3[14]:535

Its form could be confused with that of the identically shaped traditional dative-locative suffix ‑a/‑e exemplified further down. That form however, is more commonly found in older texts, and more commonly takes the forms of ᠲ᠋ᠤᠷ tur/tür or ᠳ᠋ᠤᠷ dur/dür instead.[23]:15[27]

Separated suffixesEdit

 
1925 logo of Buryat–Mongolian newspaper ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠃ Buriyad Mongγol‑un ünen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix  ᠤᠨ(?) ‑un.

Many suffixes (case and plural suffixes in particular) are likewise separated by a preceding and hyphen-transliterated gap. In digital typesetting, this gap is represented by a U+202F NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE (HTML   · NNBSP). The combination of NNBSP and its following glyph is highlighted in light blue in the tables below (as in suffix-initial  ᠨ‍ ‑n).[3]:30[23]:12[27][28][24]:28[14]:534

Single-letter suffixes appear as final-formed a/e, i, or u/ü (as in ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠ γaǰar‑a 'to the country' and ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠡ edür‑e 'on the day',[3]:39 or ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ulus‑i 'the state' etc.).(?)[3]:23 Multi-letter suffixes can start with an initial-, medial-, or variant-shaped glyph (medial/variant-shaped u in the two-letter suffix  ᠤᠨ(?)   ‑un/‑ün being exemplified in the adjacent newspaper logo).[14]:27

Isolate citation formsEdit

Isolate citation forms for syllables containing o, u, ö, and ü may in dictionaries appear without a final tail as in ᠪᠣ bo/bu or ᠮᠣ᠋ mo/mu, and with a vertical tail as in ᠪᠥ᠋ / or ᠮᠥ᠋ / (as well as in transcriptions of Chinese syllables).[20][11]:105

Notes on letter tablesEdit

A dash indicates a non-applicable position for that letter.[3]:15[23]:60[11]:101, 104[26]:2–3[29]:3–4[30]:27, 30[20]

Parentheses enclose glyphs or positions whose corresponding sounds are not found in native Mongolian words.[3]:14–15[23]:9–10[11]:101[26]:3–5[30]:27

Palatalized phonemes have been excluded. These are conditioned by a following i.[25]:178

VowelsEdit

U+1820 AEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
a ‑a ba pa Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[31]
а а ба па Cyrillic transliteration[31]
ᠪᠠ ᠫᠠ Isolate
ᠠ‍ ᠪᠠ‍ ᠫᠠ‍ Initial
‍ᠠ‍ ‍ᠪᠠ‍ ‍ᠫᠠ‍ Medial
‍ᠠ ‍ᠪᠠ ‍ᠫᠠ Final
᠎ᠠ(?)   Separated final
 ᠠ(?)   Separated suffix
 ᠠ‍(?)   Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /ɑ/;[20][32] Khalkha /a/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter, include: ‑a, ‑ača, and ‑ačaγan.[28]
  • ‍ᠠ᠋(?) ⟩ = connected galik final.[3]:26–28[11]:104
  • Medial and final forms may be distinguished from those of other tooth-shaped letters through: vowel harmony (e), the shape of adjacent consonants (see QA-q/k and GA-γ/g below), and position in syllable sequence (n, ng, q, γ, d).[27]
  • The final tail extends to the left after bow-shaped consonants (such as b, p, f, KA-g, and KHA-k), and to the right in all other cases.
  • Derived from Old Uyghur aleph, written twice for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1821 EEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
e ‑e be pe ke, ge Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
э э бэ пэ хэ, гэ Cyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠡ ᠫᠡ ᠬᠡ Isolate
ᠡ‍ ᠪᠡ‍ ᠫᠡ‍ ᠬᠡ‍ Initial
‍ᠡ‍ ‍ᠪᠡ‍ ‍ᠫᠡ‍ ‍ᠬᠡ‍ Medial
‍ᠡ ‍ᠪᠡ ‍ᠫᠡ ‍ᠬᠡ Final
᠎ᠡ(?)   Separated final
 ᠡ(?)   Separated suffix
 ᠡ‍(?)   Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /ə/;[20][32] Khalkha /i/, /e/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter, include: ‑e, ‑eče, and ‑ečegen.[28]
  • Medial and final forms may be distinguished from those of other tooth-shaped letters through: vowel harmony (a) and its effect on the shape of a words consonants (see QA-q/k and GA-γ/g below), or position in syllable sequence (n, ng, d).[27]
  • ᠡ᠋‍ = a traditional initial form.[34]:6
  • The final tail extends to the left after bow-shaped consonants (such as b, p, QA-k, and GA-g), and to the right in all other cases.
  • Derived from Old Uyghur aleph.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1822 IEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
i ‑i bi pi ki, gi Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
и и би пи хи, ги Cyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠢ ᠫᠢ ᠬᠢ Isolate
ᠢ‍ ᠪᠢ‍ ᠫᠢ‍ ᠬᠢ‍ Initial
‍ᠢ‍ ‍ᠪᠢ‍ ‍ᠫᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ‍ Medial
 
‍ᠢ ‍ᠪᠢ ‍ᠫᠢ ‍ᠬᠢ Final
 ᠢ(?)   Separated suffix
 ᠢ‍(?)   Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /i/ or /ɪ/;[20][32] Khalkha /i/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter, include: ‑i, ‑iyan/‑iyen, and ‑iyar/‑iyer.[28]
  • Today often absorbed into a preceding syllable when at the end of a word.
  • Written medially with the single stroke after a consonant, and with two after a vowel (with rare exceptions like ᠨᠠ‍ᠢ‍ᠮᠠ naima 'eight' or ᠨᠠ‍ᠢ‍ᠮᠠᠨ naiman 'eight'/tribal name).[3]:31[23]:9, 39[11]:7–8
  • ‍ᠢ᠋‍ = a handwritten Inner Mongolian variant on the sequence yi (as in ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ / ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ sayin 'good' being written ᠰᠠᠢ᠋ᠨ sain).[23]:58[11]:49[35]:346
  • Derived from Old Uyghur yodh, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1823 OEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
o bo po Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
о бо по Cyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠣ ᠫᠣ Isolate
ᠣ‍ ᠪᠣ‍ ᠫᠣ‍ Initial
‍ᠣ‍ ‍ᠪᠣ‍ ‍ᠫᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠣ ‍ᠪᠣ ‍ᠫᠣ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /ɔ/;[20][32] Khalkha /ɔ/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Written identically to u in native words;[3]:19[23]:9 distinction depending on context.
  • ‍ᠣ᠋ = the final form used in loanwords (as in ᠷᠠᠳᠢᠣ᠋ radio).[11]:98[18]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur waw, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1824 UEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
u u‑a ‑u ‑un uu bu pu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
у уа у ун уу бу пу Cyrillic transliteration
ᠤᠤ(?)   ᠪᠤ ᠫᠤ Isolate
ᠤ‍ ᠪᠤ‍ ᠫᠤ‍ Initial
‍ᠤ‍ ‍ᠪᠤ‍ ‍ᠫᠤ‍ Medial
‍ᠤ ‍ᠤ᠎ᠠ(?)     ‍ᠪᠤ ‍ᠫᠤ Final
 ᠤ(?)    ᠤᠨ(?)   Separated suffix


ᠤ‍
Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /ʊ/;[20][32] Khalkha /ʊ/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Written identically to o in native words;[3]:19[23]:9 distinction depending on context.
  • Derived from Old Uyghur waw, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1825 OEEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
ö , Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ө бө пө хө, гө Cyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠥ᠋ ᠫᠥ᠋ ᠭᠥ(?) (w/o tail) Isolate
ᠭᠥ᠋(?) (w/ tail)
ᠥ‍ ᠪᠥ‍ ᠫᠥ‍ ᠭᠥ‍ Initial
‍ᠥ᠋‍ ‍ᠪᠥ‍ ‍ᠫᠥ‍ ‍ᠭᠥ‍ Medial
‍ᠥ‍
‍ᠥ ‍ᠪᠥ ‍ᠫᠥ ‍ᠭᠥ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /o/;[20][32] Khalkha /o/[ɵ], /ə/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter, include: ‑u, ‑un, ‑ud, and ‑uruγu.[28]
  • Written identically to ü in native words;[3]:20[23]:9 distinction depending on context.
  • ‍ᠥ᠋ = an older final form; also used in loanwords.[11]:105
  • The first medial form is used in the first syllable of native words,[2]:546 and in subsequent medial positions of loanwords.
  • Derived from Old Uyghur waw, followed by a yodh in word-initial syllables, and preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1826 UEEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
ü ‑ü ‑ün üü , Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ү ү үн үү бү пү хү, гү Cyrillic transliteration
ᠦᠦ(?)   ᠪᠦ᠋ ᠫᠦ᠋ ᠭᠦ(?) (w/o tail) Isolate
ᠭᠦ᠋(?) (w/ tail)
ᠦ‍ ᠪᠦ‍ ᠫᠦ‍ ᠭᠦ‍ Initial
‍ᠦ᠋‍ ‍ᠪᠦ‍ ‍ᠫᠦ‍ ‍ᠭᠦ‍ Medial
‍ᠦ‍
‍ᠦ ‍ᠪᠦ ‍ᠫᠦ ‍ᠭᠦ Final
 ᠦ(?)    ᠦᠨ(?)   Separated suffix


ᠦ‍
Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /u/;[20][32] Khalkha /u/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter, include: ‑ü, ‑ün, ‑ügei, and ‑üd.[28]
  • Written identically to ö in native words;[3]:20[23]:9 distinction depending on context.
  • ‍ᠦ᠋ = an older final form; also used in loanwords.[11]:105
  • The first medial form is used in the first syllable of native words,[2]:546 and in subsequent medial positions of loanwords.
  • Derived from Old Uyghur waw, followed by a yodh in word-initial syllables, and preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1827 EEEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
ē Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
е фе ке ке Cyrillic transliteration
ᠹᠧ ᠺᠧ ᠻᠧ Isolate
ᠧ‍ ᠹᠧ‍ ᠺᠧ‍ ᠻᠧ‍ Initial
‍ᠧ‍ ‍ᠹᠧ‍ ‍ᠺᠧ‍ ‍ᠻᠧ‍ Medial
‍ᠧ ‍ᠹᠧ ‍ᠺᠧ ‍ᠻᠧ Final
  • Stands in for e in loanwords,[11]:104, 108[32] as in ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ēüropa / европ yevrop.[18]

ConsonantsEdit

U+1828 NAEdit

Forms
n n‑a, n‑e ‑n ‑nu, ‑nü Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
н на, нэ н ну, нү Cyrillic transliteration
ᠨ‍ Initial
‍ᠨ‍ Medial
‍ᠨ᠋‍
‍ᠨ ‍ᠨ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final
 ᠨ‍  ᠨᠤ‍ Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /n/;[20][32] Khalkha /n/, and /ŋ/.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with the letter, include: ‑nar/‑ner, and ‑nuγud/‑nügüd.[28]
  • Distinction from other tooth-shaped letters by position in syllable sequence.
  • Dotted before a vowel (attached or separated); undotted before a consonant (syllable-final) or a whitespace.[3]:20[2]:546[24]:6[20] Final dotted n is also found in modern Mongolian words.[11]:101 Also fully or inconsistently undotted historically (ᠨ᠋‍ etc.).[3]:2, 20, 25–26[33]:114[11]:97–98
  • Derived from Old Uyghur nun.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 114[11]:98

U+1829 ANGEdit

Forms
ng Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
нг Cyrillic transliteration
Initial
‍ᠩ‍ Medial
‍ᠩ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /ŋ/;[20][32] Khalkha /ŋ/.[25]:40–42
  • Not occurring word-initially.[3]:15
  • Transcribes /ng/ in Tibetan /nga/; Sanskrit /ṅa/.[3]:28
  • Derived from Old Uyghur nun-kaph digraph.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 115[11]:98

U+182A BAEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
b ba, be bi bo, bu , ‑ba, ‑be Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
б ба, бэ би бо, бу бө, бү ба, бэ Cyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠠ ᠪᠢ ᠪᠣ ᠪᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠪ‍ ᠪᠠ‍ ᠪᠢ‍ ᠪᠣ‍ ᠪᠥ‍ Initial
‍ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪᠠ‍ ‍ᠪᠢ‍ ‍ᠪᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠪ ‍ᠪᠠ ‍ᠪᠢ ‍ᠪᠣ Final
 ᠪᠠ‍ Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /b/;[20][32] Khalkha /p/, /w/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with the letter, include: ‑ban/‑ben, and ‑bar/‑ber.[28]
  • For Classical Mongolian, Latin v is used only for transcribing foreign words, so most в (v) in Cyrillic Mongolian correspond to б (b) in Classical Mongolian.
  • ‍ᠪ᠋ = an alternative/older final form.[23]:58[11]:100, 105[31]:4
  • Derived from Old Uyghur pe.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 115[11]:98

U+182B PAEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
p pa, pe pi po, pu , Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
п па, пэ пи по, пу пө, пү Cyrillic transliteration
ᠫᠠ ᠫᠢ ᠫᠣ ᠫᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠫ‍ ᠫᠠ‍ ᠫᠢ‍ ᠫᠣ‍ ᠫᠥ‍ Initial
‍ᠫ‍ ‍ᠫᠠ‍ ‍ᠫᠢ‍ ‍ᠫᠣ‍ Medial
(‍ᠫ) ‍ᠫᠠ ‍ᠫᠢ ‍ᠫᠣ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /p/;[20][32] Khalkha //.[25]:40–42
  • Only at the beginning of Mongolian words (although words with an initial p tend to be foreign).[26]:5[30]:27[20]
  • Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[3]:15[24]:27, 28[20]
  • Transcribes /p/ in Tibetan /pa/.[36]:(ᢒ?) 96, 155, 247[3]:28
  • Galik letter, derived from Mongolian b.[11]:98

U+182C QA (1/2)Edit

Forms
q q‑a Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
х ха Cyrillic transliteration
Initial
‍ᠬ‍ Medial
‍ᠬ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /x/;[20][32] Khalkha /x/.
  • Only in words with back a, o, and u vowels.[3]:15[23]:10
  • Distinction from other tooth-shaped letters by position in syllable sequence. Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[3]:15[24]:27, 28[20]
  • Variously dotted/undotted, or written kaph-shaped as an initial in early orthography.[33]:114
  • Derived from Old Uyghur merged gimel and heth.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113–115[11]:98

U+182C QA (2/2)Edit

Ligatures
ke ki ‑ki ‑kin , Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
хэ хи хи хин хө, хү Cyrillic transliteration
ᠬᠡ ᠬᠢ ᠬᠦ(?) (w/o tail) Isolate
ᠬᠦ᠋(?) (w/ tail)
ᠬᠡ‍ ᠬᠢ‍ ᠬᠦ‍ Initial
‍ᠬᠡ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠦ‍ Medial
‍ᠬᠡ ‍ᠬᠢ ‍ᠬᠦ Final
 ᠬᠢ  ᠬᠢᠨ Separated suffix
  • Transcribes Chakhar /x/;[20][32] Khalkha /x/.
  • Separated suffixes starting with the letter, include: ‑ki, and ‑kin.[28]
  • Only in words with neutral i and front e, ö, and ü vowels.[3]:15[23]:10
  • Undistinguished from GA-g.[3]:15, 24[23]:9
  • Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[3]:15[24]:27, 28[20]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur kaph.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113, 115[11]:98

U+182D GA (1/2)Edit

Forms
γ γ‑a Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
г га Cyrillic transliteration
Initial
‍ᠭ‍ Medial
‍ᠭ᠋‍
‍ᠭ ‍ᠭ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /ɣ/;[20] Khalkha /ɢ/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Only in words with back a, o, and u vowels.[3]:15[23]:10
  • Dotted before a vowel (attached or separated); undotted before a consonant (syllable-final) or a whitespace.[3]:21[2]:546[24]:5[20]
  • May turn silent between two adjacent vowels, and merge these into a long vowel or diphthong.[3]:36–37[23][11]:49 Qaγan (ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ) 'Khagan' for instance, is read as Qaan unless reading classical literary Mongolian. Some exceptions like tsa-g-aan 'white' exist.
  • Also fully or inconsistently undotted historically,.[3]:2, 21, 25–26[33]:114[11]:97–98
  • Also transliterated scholarly with Latin ɣ.[31]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur merged gimel and heth.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113–115[11]:98

U+182D GA (2/2)Edit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
g ge gi , Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
г гэ ги гө, гү Cyrillic transliteration
ᠭᠡ ᠭᠢ ᠭᠦ(?) (w/o tail) Isolate
ᠭᠦ᠋ (w/ tail)
(⟨ ⟩) ᠭᠡ‍ ᠭᠢ‍ ᠭᠦ‍ Initial
‍ᠭ᠍‍(?)   ‍ᠭᠡ‍ ‍ᠭᠢ‍ ‍ᠭᠦ‍ Medial
‍ᠭ᠋(?)   ‍ᠭᠡ ‍ᠬᠢ ‍ᠭᠦ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /g/;[20][32] Khalkha /g/.
  • Only in words with neutral i and front e, ö, and ü vowels.[3]:15[23]:10
  • Undistinguished from QA-k.[3]:15, 24[23]:9 When it must be distinguished from k medially, it can be written twice (as in ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ öggügsen 'given', compared with ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ükügsen 'dead').[23]:59[18]
  • Not occurring word-initially with a consonant following it, except in loanwords such as ᠭᠱᠠᠨ(?) gšan 'moment', or ᠭᠷᠠᠮᠮ(?) gramm 'gram'.[3]:15, 32, 34[18] The final form is also found written like Manchu final ‍ᡴ᠋ k.[37][11]:104
  • May turn silent between two adjacent vowels, and merge these into a long vowel or diphthong.[3]:36–37[23][11]:49 Deger for instance, is read as deer. Some exceptions like ügüi 'no' exist.
  • Derived from Old Uyghur kaph.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113, 115[11]:98

U+182E MAEdit

Forms
m m‑a, m‑e Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
м ма, мэ Cyrillic transliteration
ᠮ‍ Initial
‍ᠮ‍ Medial
‍ᠮ ‍ᠮ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final

U+182F LAEdit

Forms
l l‑a, l‑e ‑l Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
л ла, лэ л Cyrillic transliteration
(ᠯ‍) Initial
‍ᠯ‍ Medial
‍ᠯ ‍ᠯ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final
 ᠯ‍ Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /l/;[20][32] Khalkha /ɮ/.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with the letter, include: ‑luγ‑a/‑lüge.[28]
  • Not occurring word-initially in native words.[23]:10
  • Forms a ligature with a preceding "bow"-shaped consonant in loanwords such as ᠪᠯᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ(?) blam-a 'lama' from Tibetan བླ་མ་ Wylie: bla-ma.[3]:15, 32[11]:100
  •   = ml (‍ᠮᠯ‍) written as a medial ligature.[38]:029[3]:24, 36[23]:58[2]:546[11]:100
  • Derived from Old Uyghur hooked resh.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1830 SAEdit

Forms
s s‑a, s‑e Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
с са, сэ Cyrillic transliteration
ᠰ‍ Initial
‍ᠰ‍ Medial
‍ᠰ ‍ᠰ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /s/, or /ʃ/ before i;[23]:58[20] Khalkha /s/, or /ʃ/ before i. Before a morpheme boundary however, there is no change of s to /ʃ/ before an i.[23]:84
  • ‍ᠰ᠋ = an older final variant form for /s/ derived from Old Uyghur zayin (as found on the Stele of Yisüngge [ru]: ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠋ Činggis 'Genghis').[3]:23[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113–114[11]:98
  • Derived from Old Uyghur merged samekh and shin.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

U+1831 SHAEdit

Forms
š Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ш Cyrillic transliteration
ᠱ‍ Initial
‍ᠱ‍ Medial
(‍ᠱ) Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /ʃ/;[20][32] Khalkha /ʃ/.
  • Also fully or inconsistently undotted historically.[3]:2, 25–26[33]:114[11]:97–98
  • Final š is only found in modern Mongolian words.[3]:15[11]:101
  • Derived from Old Uyghur merged samekh and shin.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113–114[11]:98

U+1832 TAEdit

Forms
t ‑t Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
т т Cyrillic transliteration
ᠲ‍ Initial
‍ᠲ‍ Medial
 ᠲ‍ Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /t/;[20][32] Khalkha /t/.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with the letter, include: ‑tai/‑tei, ‑taγan/‑tegen, ‑tayiγan/‑teyigen, and ‑tu(r)/‑tü(r).[28]
  • Syllable-initially undistinguished from d in native words.[3]:23[23]:9[20]
  • Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[3]:15[24]:27, 28[20]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur taw (initial) and lamedh (medial).[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98
  • Positional variants on tawᠲ‍/‍ᠲ᠋‍/‍ᠲ⟩ are used consistently for t in foreign words.[3]:23[11]:101, 104
  • The lamedh glyph may appear with a diagonal oval shape in handwriting, similar in form to galik TA ,[38]:096[39][40] or more angular and closer in shape to galik DA in older texts.[38]

U+1833 DAEdit

Forms
d ‑d Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
д д Cyrillic transliteration
ᠳ‍ Initial
‍ᠳ‍ Medial
‍ᠳ᠋‍
‍ᠳ Final
 ᠳ‍(?)   Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /d/;[20][32] Khalkha /t/, and //.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with the letter, include: ‑daki/‑deki, ‑daγ/‑deg, ‑daγan/‑degen, ‑duγar/‑düger, and ‑du(r)/‑dü(r).[28]
  • Syllable-initially undistinguished from t in native words.[3]:23[23]:9[20] When it must be distinguished from t medially, it can be written twice, and with both medial forms (as in ᠬᠤᠳᠳᠤᠭ qudduγ 'well', compared with ᠬᠤᠲᠤᠭ qutuγ 'holy').[23]:59[18]
  • The belly-tooth-shaped form is used before consonants (syllable-final), the other before vowels.[23]:58[24]:5
  • Derived from Old Uyghur taw (initial, belly-tooth-shaped medial, and final) and lamedh (other medial form).[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98
  • Positional variants on lamedhᠳ᠋‍/‍ᠲ‍/‍ᠳ᠋⟩ are used consistently for d in foreign words.[3]:23
  • The lamedh glyph may appear with a diagonal oval shape in handwriting, similar in form to galik TA ,[38]:096[39][40][41] or more angular and closer in shape to galik DA in older texts.[38]

U+1834 CHAEdit

Forms
č Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ч Cyrillic transliteration
ᠴ‍ Initial
‍ᠴ‍ Medial
(‍ᠴ) Final

U+1835 JAEdit

Forms
ǰ ǰ‑a ‑ǰ‑a Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ж жа жа Cyrillic transliteration
ᠵ᠎ᠠ(?)     Isolate
ᠵ‍ Initial
‍ᠵ‍ Medial
(‍ᠵ‌) Final
 ᠵ᠎ᠠ(?)     Separated final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /d͡ʒ/;[20][32] Khalkha /d͡ʒ/, or d͡z (corresponds to Cyrillic з).[20]:§ 1.2[26]:2 Distinction by context between /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡z/ in Khalkha Mongolian.
  • Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[3]:15[24]:27, 28[20]
  • Also transliterated scholarly with Latin j.[31]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur yodh (initial) and tsade (medial), and in the 17th–18th century Classical Mongolian language distinguished from medial č through its less angular form.[23]:59[2]:545[11]:98

U+1836 YAEdit

Forms
y y‑a, y‑e ‑y Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
й йа, йэ й Cyrillic transliteration
ᠶ‍(?)   Initial
ᠶ᠋‍(?)  
‍ᠶ‍(?)   Medial
‍ᠶ᠋‍(?)  
‍ᠶ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final
 ᠶ‍(?)   Separated suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar /j/;[20][32] Khalkha /j/.[25]:40–42
  • Separated suffixes starting with the letter, include: ‑yi, ‑yin, and ‑yuγan/‑yügen.[28]
  • The second unhooked initial and medial forms are older ones.[2]:545, 546[11]:108
  • Derived from Old Uyghur yodh, and in the 19th century distinguished from initial ǰ by the borrowing of Manchu hooked yodh.[2]:545[23]:59

U+1837 RAEdit

Forms
r r‑a, r‑e Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
р ра, рэ Cyrillic transliteration
(ᠷ‍) Initial
‍ᠷ‍ Medial
‍ᠷ ‍ᠷ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /r/;[20][32] Khalkha /r/.[25]:40–42
  • Not occurring word-initially except in loanwords.[3]:14 Transcribed foreign words usually get a vowel prepended; transcribing Русь (Russia) results in ᠣᠷᠤᠰ Oros.
  • Derived from Old Uyghur resh.[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:98

Consonants for foreign wordsEdit

 
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongolia, China, with a trilingual sign in Chinese, Mongolian and English
 
From left to right : Phagspa, Lantsa, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese and Cyrillic

U+1838 WAEdit

Forms
w w‑a, w‑e Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
в ва, вэ Cyrillic transliteration
ᠸ‍ Initial
‍ᠸ‍ Medial
‍ᠸ(?) ‍ᠧ ‍ᠸ᠎ᠠ(?)     Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /w/;[20][32]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for v in Sanskrit /va/). Transcribes /w/ in Tibetan ཝ /wa/;[36]:254[3]:28[33]:113 Old Uyghur and Chinese loanwords.[11]:113[11]:104
  • Also transliterated scholarly with Latin v.[31]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur bet,[2]:539–540, 545–546[33]:111, 113[11]:97 and "waw" (before a separated vowel).

U+1839 FAEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
f fa fi fo Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ф фа фе фи фо фү Cyrillic transliteration
ᠹᠠ ᠹᠧ ᠹᠢ ᠹᠣ ᠹᠦ᠋ Isolate
ᠹ‍ ᠹᠠ‍ ᠹᠧ‍ ᠹᠢ‍ ᠹᠣ‍ ᠹᠦ‍ Initial
‍ᠹ‍ ‍ᠹᠠ‍ ‍ᠹᠧ‍ ‍ᠹᠢ‍ ‍ᠹᠣ‍ ‍ᠹᠦ᠋‍ Medial
‍ᠹ ‍ᠹᠠ ‍ᠹᠧ ‍ᠹᠢ ‍ᠹᠣ ‍ᠹᠦ᠋ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /f/;[20][32]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words.
  • Transcribes /pʰ/ in Tibetan /pʰa/.[36]:96, 247[3]:28
  • Galik letter, derived from Mongolian b.[11]:98

U+183A KAEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
g ga gi go Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
к ка ке ки ко кү Cyrillic transliteration
ᠺᠠ ᠺᠧ ᠺᠢ ᠺᠣ ᠺᠦ᠋(?) (w/ tail) Isolate
ᠺ‍ ᠺᠠ‍ ᠺᠧ‍ ᠺᠢ‍ ᠺᠣ‍ ᠺᠦ‍ Initial
‍ᠺ‍ ‍ᠺᠠ‍ ‍ᠺᠧ‍ ‍ᠺᠢ‍ ‍ᠺᠣ‍ ‍ᠺᠦ᠋‍(?) (w/ yodh) Medial
‍ᠺ ‍ᠺᠠ ‍ᠺᠧ ‍ᠺᠢ ‍ᠺᠣ ‍ᠺᠦ᠋(?) (w/ tail) Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /k/;[20][32]
  • Also transliterated scholarly with Latin k.[31]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for g in Tibetan /ga/; Sanskrit /ga/).[36]:87, 244, 251[3]:28
  • Galik letter.[23]:59–60

U+183B KHAEdit

Non‑​ligating forms Ligatures
k ka ki ko Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
к ка ке ки ко кү Cyrillic transliteration
ᠻᠠ ᠻᠧ ᠻᠢ ᠻᠣ ᠻᠦ᠋ Isolate
ᠻ‍ ᠻᠠ‍ ᠻᠧ‍ ᠻᠢ‍ ᠻᠣ‍ ᠻᠦ‍ Initial
‍ᠻ‍ ‍ᠻᠠ‍ ‍ᠻᠧ‍ ‍ᠻᠢ‍ ‍ᠻᠣ‍ ‍ᠻᠦ᠋‍ Medial
‍ᠻ ‍ᠻᠠ ‍ᠻᠧ ‍ᠻᠢ ‍ᠻᠣ ‍ᠻᠦ᠋ Final
  • Also transliterated scholarly with Latin kh.[31]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for in Tibetan /kʰa/; Sanskrit /kha/).[36]:86, 244, 251[3]:28

U+183C TSAEdit

Forms
c Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ц Cyrillic transliteration
ᠼ‍ Initial
‍ᠼ‍ Medial
‍ᠼ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /t͡s/;[20][32]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for tsʰ in Tibetan /tsʰa/; Sanskrit /cha/).[36]:89, 144, 245, 254[3]:28
  • Galik letter, derived from Preclassical Mongolian tsade č/ǰ‍ᠴ‍~‍ᠵ‍.[11]:98

U+183D ZAEdit

Forms
z Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
з Cyrillic transliteration
ᠽ‍ Initial
‍ᠽ‍ Medial
‍ᠽ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /d͡z/;[20][32]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for dz in Tibetan /dza/; Sanskrit /ja/).[36]:89, 144, 245, 254[3]:28
  • Galik letter, derived from Preclassical Mongolian tsade č/ǰ‍ᠴ‍~‍ᠵ‍.[11]:98

U+183E HAAEdit

Forms
h Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
х Cyrillic transliteration
ᠾ‍ Initial
‍ᠾ‍ Medial
‍ᠾ‌ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /h/[x];[20][32]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for h in Tibetan /ha/, /-ha/; Sanskrit /ha/).[36]:69, 102, 194, 244–249, 255[3]:27–28[23]:59
  • Galik letter, borrowed from the Tibetan alphabet, and preceded by an aleph for initial form.[23]:59–60[2]:545–546[11]:98, 105

U+183F ZRAEdit

Forms
ž Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ж Cyrillic transliteration
ᠿ‍ Initial
Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar /ʐ/;[20][32]
  • Transcribes Chinese r /ɻ/ ([ɻ ~ ʐ];[f] as in Ri), and used in Inner Mongolia. Always followed by an i.[32]
  • Transliterates /ʒ/ in Tibetan /ʒa/.[36]:254 (紗)

U+1840 LHAEdit

Forms
lh Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
лх Cyrillic transliteration
ᡀ‍ Initial
‍ᡀ‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Tibetan lh (as in ᡀᠠᠰᠠ Lhasa).[32][43]
  • Digraph composed of l and h.[30]:30 Transcribes /lh/ in Tibetan ལྷ /lha/.[36]:220[3]:27

U+1841 ZHIEdit

Forms
zh Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
з Cyrillic transliteration
ᡁ‍ Initial
Medial
Final
  • Transcribes zh in the Chinese syllable zhi only, and used in Inner Mongolia.[11]:105[32]
  • Galik letter, borrowed from the Tibetan alphabet.[11]:98, 105

U+1842 CHIEdit

Forms
ch Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
ч Cyrillic transliteration
ᡂ‍ Initial
Medial
Final
  • Transcribes ch in the Chinese syllable chi (as in Chī), and used in Inner Mongolia.[36]:91, 145, 153, 246[3]:28[32]

PunctuationEdit

Punctuation[3]:28[9]:30[31]:3[14]:535–536[18]
Form(s) Name Function(s) Unicode
бярга byarga /
ᠪᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ(?) birγ-a
Marks start of a book, chapter, passage, or first line U+1800
᠀᠋
᠀᠌
᠀᠍
[...]
Цуваа цэг tsuvaa tseg /
ᠴᠤᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠡᠭ(?) čubaγ-a čeg
Ellipsis U+1801
Цэг tseg /
ᠴᠡᠭ čeg
Comma U+1802
Давхар цэг davkhar tseg /
ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ dabqur čeg
Period / full stop U+1803
Хос цэг Colon U+1804
Дөрвөлжин цэг dörvöljin tseg /
ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ dörbelǰin čeg
Marks end of a passage, paragraph, or chapter U+1805
Нуруу nuruu /
ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ niruγu
(Non-breaking) hyphen, or stem extender U+180A
U+2048
U+2049

NumeralsEdit

ExamplesEdit

Comparison of writing stylesEdit

Trans­lit­er­a­tions Block‑printed​ forms Brush‑written​ forms Browser‑​rendered​ forms(?) Morphemes
‑a/‑e          ᠠ Separated vowel/suffix
‑i          ᠢ Separated suffixes
‑u/‑ü          ᠦ
‑ača/‑eče        ᠠᠴᠠ
‑un/‑ün          ᠤᠨ
‑dur/‑dür      ᠳᠦᠷ
‑yin          ᠶᠢᠨ
nom     ᠨᠣᠮ Words
ba/be     ᠪᠠ
γobi     ᠭᠣᠪᠢ
/     ᠬᠦ Particle
Manuscript Type Unicode Transliteration
(first word)
    ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ᠂ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠠᠢ᠃ ᠸᠢ‍ wi/vi
‍ᠺᠢ‍ gi/ki
‍ᠫᠧ‍ /
‍ᠲ‍ᠢ‍ di
‍‍ᠶᠠ ya
  • Transliteration: Wikipēdiya čilügetü nebterkei toli bičig bolai.
  • Cyrillic: Википедиа чөлөөт нэвтэрхий толь бичиг болой.
  • Transcription: Vikipedia chölööt nevterkhii toli bichig boloi.
  • Gloss: Wikipedia free omni-profound mirror scripture is.
  • Translation: Wikipedia is the free encyclopedia.
 
Mongolian Wikipedia preview. A representation of what mn.wiki would look like if Mongolian script support was properly implemented. Mn.wiki already exists, but support has not been implemented. Not all text is "real Mongolian" — only the text and name of the article are, the rest of the text being English written in Mongolian script.

GalleryEdit

Child systemsEdit

The Mongol script has been the basis of alphabets for several languages. First, after overcoming the Uyghur script ductus, it was used for Mongolian itself.

Clear script (Oirat alphabet)Edit

In 1648, the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya-pandita Namkhaijamco created this variation with the goals of bringing the written language closer to the actual pronunciation of Oirat and making it easier to transcribe Tibetan and Sanskrit. The script was used by the Kalmyks of Russia until 1924, when it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. In Xinjiang, China, the Oirat people still use it.

Manchu alphabetEdit

The Manchu alphabet was developed from the Mongolian script in the early 17th century to write the Manchu language. A variant is still used to write Xibe. It is also used for Daur. Its folded variant may for example be found on Chinese Qing seals.

Vagindra alphabetEdit

Another alphabet, sometimes called Vagindra or Vaghintara, was created in 1905 by the Buryat monk Agvan Dorjiev (1854–1938). It was also meant to reduce ambiguity, and to support the Russian language in addition to Mongolian. The most significant change, however, was the elimination of the positional shape variations. All letters were based on the medial variant of the original Mongol alphabet. Fewer than a dozen books were printed using it.[citation needed]

Evenki alphabetEdit

The Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor erroneously identified the Khitan people and their language with the Solons, leading him to use the Solon language (Evenki) to "correct" Chinese character transcriptions of Khitan names in the History of Liao in his "Imperial Liao Jin Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation" (欽定遼金元三史國語解/钦定辽金元三史国语解 Qīndìng Liáo Jīn Yuán Sānshǐ Guóyǔjiě) project. The Evenki words were written in the Manchu script in this work.

In the 1980s, an experimental alphabet for Evenki was created.

Additional charactersEdit

Galik charactersEdit

In 1587, the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh (Аюуш гүүш) created the Galik alphabet (Али-гали), inspired by the third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. It primarily added extra characters for transcribing Tibetan and Sanskrit terms when translating religious texts, and later also from Chinese. Some of those characters are still in use today for writing foreign names (compare table above).[44]

UnicodeEdit

Mongolian script was added to the Unicode Standard in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0.

BlocksEdit

The Unicode block for Mongolian is U+1800–U+18AF. It includes letters, digits and various punctuation marks for Hudum Mongolian, Todo Mongolian, Xibe (Manchu), Manchu proper, and Ali Gali, as well as extensions for transcribing Sanskrit and Tibetan.

Mongolian[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+180x FV
 S1 
FV
 S2 
FV
 S3 
 MV 
S
U+181x
U+182x
U+183x
U+184x
U+185x
U+186x
U+187x
U+188x
U+189x
U+18Ax
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Mongolian Supplement block (U+11660–U+1167F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2016 with the release of version 9.0:

Mongolian Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1166x 𑙠 𑙡 𑙢 𑙣 𑙤 𑙥 𑙦 𑙧 𑙨 𑙩 𑙪 𑙫 𑙬
U+1167x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Font issuesEdit

Although the Mongolian script has been defined in Unicode since 1999, there was no native support for Unicode Mongolian from the major vendors until the release of the Windows Vista operating system in 2007 and fonts need to be installed in Windows XP and Windows 2000 to show properly, and so Unicode Mongolian is not yet widely used. In China, legacy encodings such as the Private Use Areas (PUA) Unicode mappings and GB18030 mappings of the Menksoft IMEs (espc. Menksoft Mongolian IME) are more commonly used than Unicode for writing web pages and electronic documents in Mongolian.

The inclusion of a Unicode Mongolian font and keyboard layout in Windows Vista has meant that Unicode Mongolian is now gradually becoming more popular,[citation needed] but the complexity of the Unicode Mongolian encoding model and the lack of a clear definition for the use variation selectors are still barriers to its widespread adoption, as is the lack of support for inline vertical display. As of 2015 there are no fonts that successfully display all of Mongolian correctly when written in Unicode. A report published in 2011 revealed many shortcomings with automatic rendering in all three Unicode Mongolian fonts the authors surveyed, including Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti.[45]

Furthermore, Mongolian language support has suffered from buggy implementations: the initial version of Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti font (version 5.00) was, in the supplier's own words, "almost unusable",[46] and as of 2011 there remain some minor bugs with the rendering of suffixes in Firefox.[47] Other fonts, such as Monotype's Mongol Usug and Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript, suffer even more serious bugs.[45]

In January 2013, Menksoft released several OpenType Mongolian fonts, delivered with its Menksoft Mongolian IME 2012. These fonts strictly follow Unicode standard, i.e. bichig is no longer realized as "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2" (incorrect) but "B+I+CH+I+G" (correct), which is not done by Microsoft and Founder's Mongolian Baiti, Monotype's Mongol Usug, or Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript.[48] However, due to the impact of Mongolian Baiti, many still use the Microsoft defined incorrect realization "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2", which results in an incorrect rendering in correctly-designed fonts like Menk Qagan Tig.

Mongolian script can be represented in LaTeX with the MonTeX package.[49]

Sometimes even if a font is installed the script may display as horizontal rather than vertical depending on the operating system or font.

SampleEdit

In text sample below, the appearance of the scripts should match. The more specific shapes include the final shapes on lines 1 (yin suffix), 3 (separated a), and 4/6 (vowel harmony dependent g) in the middle column, and the interrogative particle uu/üü in the rightmost column. Note that in some browsers, letters are rotated 90° counterclockwise. If the isolate letter a () resembles a 'W' and not a 'Σ', rotate the letters 90° clockwise.

Reference text    
Browser-rendered text ᠴᠣᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠄ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠦ

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In Mongolian script: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ   Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig
  2. ^ In Mongolian script: ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Khalkha: Худам Монгол бичиг, Khudam Mongol bichig, Buryat: Худам Монгол бэшэг, Khudam Mongol besheg, Kalmyk: Хуудм Моңһл бичг, Xuudm Moñhl biçg
  3. ^ Mongolian: Уйгуржин монгол бичиг
  4. ^ Mongolian: Хуучин монгол бичиг
  5. ^ Mongolian: Шинэ үсэг
  6. ^ Lee & Zee (2003) and Lin (2007) transcribe these as approximants, while Duanmu (2007) transcribes these as voiced fricatives. The actual pronunciation has been acoustically measured to be more approximant-like.[42]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Campbell, George L. (1997). Handbook of Scripts and Alphabets. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-18344-4.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Daniels, Peter T. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be Poppe, Nicholas (1974). Grammar of Written Mongolian. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-00684-2.
  4. ^ a b György Kara, "Aramaic Scripts for Altaic Languages", in Daniels & Bright The World's Writing Systems, 1994.
  5. ^ Shepherd, Margaret (2013-07-03). Learn World Calligraphy: Discover African, Arabic, Chinese, Ethiopic, Greek, Hebrew, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Russian, Thai, Tibetan Calligraphy, and Beyond. Potter/Ten Speed/Harmony/Rodale. ISBN 978-0-8230-8230-8.
  6. ^ Chinggeltei. (1963) A Grammar of the Mongol Language. New York, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. p. 15.
  7. ^ UNU/IIST Report No. 170 (1999)
  8. ^ a b Скородумова, Лидия Григорьевна (2000). Введение в старописьменный монгольский язык: учебное пособие (PDF) (in Russian). Изд-во Дом "Муравей-Гайд". ISBN 9785846300156.
  9. ^ a b Shagdarsürüng, Tseveliin (2001). ""Study of Mongolian Scripts (Graphic Study or Grammatology). Enl."". Bibliotheca Mongolica: Monograph 1.
  10. ^ Unicode MD020 (2004)
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Janhunen, Juha (2006-01-27). The Mongolic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-79689-1.
  12. ^ a b c Jugder, Luvsandorj. "Luvsandorj, Jugder (2008): Diacritic marks in the Mongolian script and the 'darkness of confusion of letters'". MONGOLO-TIBETICA PRAGENSIA ’08, Linguistics, Ethnolinguistics, Religion and Culture. Vol. 1/1. Edited by J. Vacek and A. Oberfalzerová. Charles University and Triton, Praha 2008, pp. 45–98. ISSN 1803-5647.
  13. ^ Mongol Times (2012). "Monggul bichig un job bichihu jui-yin toli".
  14. ^ a b c d e f "The Unicode® Standard Version 10.0 – Core Specification: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  15. ^ a b Bat-Ireedui, Jantsangiyn; Sanders, Alan J. K. (2015-08-14). Colloquial Mongolian: The Complete Course for Beginners. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-30598-9.
  16. ^ Gehrke, Munkho. "Монгол бичгийн зурлага :|: Монгол бичиг". mongol-bichig.dusal.net (in Mongolian). Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  17. ^ "ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠢᠳᠦᠯ - ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ". www.mongolfont.com. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g "Mongolian State Dictionary". mongoltoli.mn. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  19. ^ a b "Unicode Technical Report #2". ftp.tc.edu.tw. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax "Mongolian Traditional Script". cjvlang.com. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  21. ^ a b by Manchu convention
  22. ^ a b in Inner Mongolia.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Grønbech, Kaare; Krueger, John Richard (1993). An Introduction to Classical (literary) Mongolian: Introduction, Grammar, Reader, Glossary. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-03298-8.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts" (PDF). w.colips.org. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Svantesson, Jan-Olof (2005). The Phonology of Mongolian. https://media.turuz.com/Language/2012/0122-(5)moghol_(monqol)_dilinin_ses_bilimi-fonoloji(18.163KB).pdf#page=61: Oxford University Press. pp. 40–42. ISBN 0-19-926017-6.
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Mongolian / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ Moŋġol" (PDF). www.eki.ee. Retrieved 2017-11-18.
  27. ^ a b c d http://andreasviklund.com/, Original design: Andreas Viklund -. "Lingua Mongolia – Mongolian Grammar". www.linguamongolia.com. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "PROPOSAL Encode Mongolian Suffix Connector (U+180F) To Replace Narrow Non-Breaking Space (U+202F)" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  29. ^ "The Mongolian Script" (PDF). Lingua Mongolia.
  30. ^ a b c d Janhunen, Juha A. (2012). Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9027238200.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Mongolian transliterations" (PDF). Institute of the Estonian Language.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Writing | Study Mongolian". www.studymongolian.net. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Clauson, Gerard (2005-11-04). Studies in Turkic and Mongolic Linguistics. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-43012-3.
  34. ^ "Retrieval in Texts with Traditional Mongolian Script Realizing Unicoded Traditional Mongolian Digital Library (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-12-01.
  35. ^ Baumann, Brian Gregory (2008). Divine Knowledge: Buddhist Mathematics According to the Anonymous Manual of Mongolian Astrology and Divination. BRILL. ISBN 9004155759.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "BabelStone : Mongolian and Manchu Resources". babelstone.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-17.
  37. ^ Inner Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party emblem
  38. ^ a b c d e f "Digitales Turfanarchiv". turfan.bbaw.de. Retrieved 2017-12-18.
  39. ^ a b Arghun Letter To Philippe Le Bel, in Mongolian language and script, Extract, 1289 ink on parchment 185 × 25 cm (72.8 × 9.8 in)
  40. ^ a b Letter from Arghun, Khan of the Mongol Ilkhanate, to Pope Nicholas IV, 1290.
  41. ^ Letter from Oljeitu to Philippe le Bel, 1305.
  42. ^ Lee-Kim, Sang-Im (2014), "Revisiting Mandarin 'apical vowels': An articulatory and acoustic study", Journal of the International Phonetic Association (3): 261–282, doi:10.1017/s0025100314000267
  43. ^ "ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ - ᠮᠤᠩᠭ᠋ᠤᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌". www.mongolfont.com. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
  44. ^ Otgonbayar Chuluunbaatar (2008). Einführung in die Mongolischen Schriften (in German). Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-500-4.
  45. ^ a b Biligsaikhan Batjargal; et al. (2011). "A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts" (PDF). International Journal of Asian Language Processing. 21 (1): 23–43. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
  46. ^ Version 5.00 of the Mongolian Baiti font may be displayed incorrectly in Windows Vista
  47. ^ Bug 490534 – ZWJ and NNBSP rendered incorrectly in scripts like Mongolian
  48. ^ Menk Qagan Tig, Menk Hawang Tig, Menk Garqag Tig, Menk Har_a Tig, and Menk Scnin Tig.
  49. ^ "CTAN: Package montex". ctan.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.

External linksEdit