Ja (Indic)

Ja is the eighth consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, ja is derived from the early "Ashoka" Brahmi letter ng after having gone through the Gupta letter Gupta allahabad j.svg.

Ja
Devanagari Ashoka Brahmi Tibetan Bengali Tamil
Ja
091C
Ja
1101A
Ja/ ཛ
0F47 / 0F5B
Ja
099C

0B9C
Gurmukhi Thai Baybayin Malayalam Sinhala

0A1C
ช / ซ
0E0A / 0E0B
-
--

0D1C
ජ / 𑋃
0DA2 / 112C3
Ancient scripts
Ashoka
Brahmi
Kushana
Brahmi
Gupta
Brahmi
Tocharian
Ja
1101A
𑀚
1101A
Ja
1101A
Ja
--
Kharoṣṭhī Siddhaṃ Sharada Grantha
𐨗
10A17
Siddhaṃ 'Ja'
11595
𑆘
11198
𑌜
1131C
Bangla and Tibetan scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Gupta Brahmi Tibetan Bengali
Ja
1101A
Ja
1101A
Ja/ ཛ
0F47 / 0F5B
Ja
099C
'Phags-pa Oriya Limbu Lepcha Marchen
ꡆ / ꡒ
A846 / A852

0B1C

1908

1C08
𑱸
11C78
Siddhaṃ Pracalit Tirhuta Zanabazar Square
Siddhaṃ 'Ja'
11595
𑐖
11416
𑒖
11496
𑨒
11A12
Note: Korean Hangul is an alphabet, not an Indic abugida, but
appears to ultimately have some derivation from 'Phags-pa.
Sharada-based scripts
Sharada Ashoka Brahmi Gupta Brahmi Takri Dogra
𑆘
11198
Ja
1101A
Ja
1101A
𑚑
11691
𑠑
11811
Gurmukhi Khudawadi Mahajani Khojki Multani

0A1C
𑋂
112C2
𑅛
1115B
𑈐 / 𑈑
11210 / 11211
𑊌
1128C
Nagaris and other Gupta-based scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Gupta Brahmi Devanagari
Ja
1101A
Ja
1101A
Ja
091C
Gujarati Kaithi Syloti Nagari Modi

0A9C
𑂔
11094

A80E
𑘕
11615
Nandinagari Gunjala Gondi Soyombo Bhaiksuki
𑦵
119B5
𑩣
11A63
𑶀
11D80
𑰕
11C15
Kawi scripts
Grantha Baybayin Tagbanwa Hanunó'o Buhid
𑌜
1131C
-
--
-
--
-
--
-
--
Balinese Javanese Batak Lontara Rejang

1B1A

A997

1BD0

1A0D

A93A
Ashoka Brahmi Sundanese Makasar Chakma
Ja
1101A

1B8F
𑻪
11EEA
𑻪
11EEA
Tai and Khmer scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Grantha Khmer Lao
Ja
1101A
𑌜
1131C

1787

0E8A
Thai Tai Tham Tai Viet Tai Le New Tai Lü
ช / ซ
0E0A / 0E0B
ᨩ / ᨪ
1A29 / 1A2A
-
--

1957
ᦋ / ᦌ
198B / 198C
Other Grantha-based scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Grantha Ahom Dives Akuru
Ja
1101A
𑌜
1131C
𑜊
1170A
𑤓
11913
Malayalam Saurashtra Cham Burmese Kayah Li

0D1C

A899

AA0E

1007
-
--
Other Brahmic scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Masaram Gondi Meetei Mayek
Ja
1101A
𑴓
11D13

ABD6
Tamil Kannada Sinhala Telugu

0B9C

0DA2
జ / 𑋃
0C1C / 112C3

0C9C
Canadian Syllabics
Devanagari Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics
Ja
091C

1489

148b

148d
ᒐ / ᒡ
1490 / 14a1
Other Canadian Syllabic codepoints: U+1489..U+14a2, U+150f, U+158e..U+1594, U+1670..U+1676, U+18d7
Phonemic representation: /d͡ʒ/
IAST transliteration: ja Ja
ISCII code point: BA (186)

Āryabhaṭa numerationEdit

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of ज are:[1]

Historic JaEdit

There are three different general early historic scripts - Brahmi and its variants, Kharoṣṭhī, and Tocharian, the so-called slanting Brahmi. Ja as found in standard Brahmi,   was a simple geometric shape, with variations toward more flowing forms by the Gupta  . The Tocharian Ja   did not have an alterante Fremdzeichen form. The third form of ja, in Kharoshthi ( ) was probably derived from Aramaic separately from the Brahmi letter.

Brahmi JaEdit

The Brahmi letter  , Ja, is probably derived from the Aramaic Zayin  , and is thus related to the modern Latin Z and Greek Zeta. Several identifiable styles of writing the Brahmi Ja can be found, most associated with a specific set of inscriptions from an artifact or diverse records from an historic period.[2] As the earliest and most geometric style of Brahmi, the letters found on the Edicts of Ashoka and other records from around that time are normally the reference form for Brahmi letters, with vowel marks not attested until later forms of Brahmi back-formed to match the geometric writing style.

Brahmi Ja historic forms
Ashoka
(3rd-1st c. BCE)
Girnar
(~150 BCE)
Kushana
(~150-250 CE)
Gujarat
(~250 CE)
Gupta
(~350 CE)
         

Tocharian JaEdit

The Tocharian letter   is derived from the Brahmi  , but does not have an alternate Fremdzeichen form.

Tocharian Ja with vowel marks
Ja Ji Ju Jr Jr̄ Je Jai Jo Jau
                   

Kharoṣṭhī JaEdit

The Kharoṣṭhī letter   is generally accepted as being derived from the Aramaic Zayin  , and is thus related to Z and Zeta, in addition to the Brahmi Ja.

Devanagari scriptEdit

Ja () is the eighth consonant of the Devanagari abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , after having gone through the Gupta letter  . Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter જ and Modi letter 𑘕.

Devanagari JjaEdit

Jja () is the character ज with an underbar to represent the voiced palatal implosive [ʄ] that occurs in Sindhi. This underbar is distinct from the Devanagari stress sign anudātta. The underbar is fused to the stem of the letter while the anudātta is a stress accent applied to the entire syllable. This underbar used for Sindhi implosives does not exist as a separate character in Unicode. When the ु or ू vowel sign is applied to jja (ॼ), the ु and ू vowel signs are drawn beneath jja. When the उ ( ु) vowel sign or ऊ ( ू) vowel sign is applied to ja with an anudātta (ज॒), the उ ( ु) vowel sign or ऊ ( ू) vowel sign is first placed under ja (ज) and then the anudātta is placed underneath the उ ( ु) vowel sign or ऊ ( ू) vowel sign.[3]

Character Name उ ( ु) vowel sign ऊ ( ू) vowel sign
ॼ (Implosive ja) ॼु ॼू
ज॒ (Ja with anudātta) जु॒ जू॒

An example of a Sindhi word that uses jja (ॼ) is ॼाण (ڄاڻَ), which is of the feminine grammatical gender and means information or knowledge.[4]

Devanagari ZaEdit

Za (ज़) is the character ज with a single dot underneath. It is used in Devanagari transcriptions of Urdu, English, and other languages to denote the voiced alveolar sibilant [z]. Za (ज़) should not be confused with ža (झ़), which is the character jha (झ) combined with a nuqta, and is used to transcribe the voiced post-alveolar fricative [ʒ] from Urdu (ژ) and English. Za (ज़) should also not be confused zha (ॹ), which is used in Devanagari transcriptions of the Avestan letter zhe (𐬲) to denote the voiced post-alveolar fricative [ʒ].

Devanagari ZhaEdit

Zha () is the character ज with three dots underneath. It is used in Devanagari transcriptions of the Avestan letter zhe (𐬲) to denote the voiced palatal fricative [ʒ]. An example of its usage is in Kavasji Edulji Kanga's Avesta, yazna 41.3 to write ईॹीम्.[5] Zha (ॹ) should not be confused with za (ज़), which is used to denote the voiced alveolar sibilant [z] from Urdu, English, and other languages. Zha (ॹ) should also not be confused with ža (झ़), which is the character jha (झ) combined with a nuqta, and is used to transcribe the voiced post-alveolar fricative [ʒ] from Urdu (ژ) and English.

Devanagari-using LanguagesEdit

In many languages, ज is pronounced as [d͡ʒə] or [d͡ʒ] when appropriate. In Marathi, ज is sometimes pronounced as [d͡zə] or [d͡z] in addition to [d͡ʒə] or [d͡ʒ]. Like all Indic scripts, Devanagari uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Devanagari ज with vowel marks
Ja Ji Ju Jr Jr̄ Jl Jl̄ Je Jai Jo Jau J
जा जि जी जु जू जृ जॄ जॢ जॣ जे जै जो जौ ज्


Conjuncts with जEdit

 
Half form of Ja.

Devanagari exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts. In modern Devanagari texts, most conjuncts are formed by reducing the letter shape to fit tightly to the following letter, usually by dropping a character's vertical stem, sometimes referred to as a "half form". Some conjunct clusters are always represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters. Vertically stacked conjuncts are ubiquitous in older texts, while only a few are still used routinely in modern Devanagari texts. The use of ligatures and vertical conjuncts may vary across languages using the Devanagari script, with Marathi in particular preferring the use of half forms where texts in other languages would show ligatures and vertical stacks.[6]

Ligature conjuncts of जEdit

 
Jja half form

True ligatures are quite rare in Indic scripts. The most common ligated conjuncts in Devanagari are in the form of a slight mutation to fit in context or as a consistent variant form appended to the adjacent characters. Those variants include Na and the Repha and Rakar forms of Ra. Nepali and Marathi texts use the "eyelash" Ra half form   for an initial "R" instead of repha. The conjunct jja also has a unique half form that differs from the regular conjunct.

  • Repha र্ (r) + ज (ja) gives the ligature rja: note

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ज (ja) gives the ligature rja:

 

  • ज্ (j) + rakar र (ra) gives the ligature jra:

 

  • ज্ (j) + न (na) gives the ligature jna:

 

  • ज্ (j) + ज (ja) gives the ligature jja:

 

  • ज্ (j) + ज্ (j) + व (va) gives the ligature jjva:

 

  • ज্ (j) + ज্ (j) + य (ya) gives the ligature jjya:

 

Devanagari JñaEdit

 
Jña half form

One of the most common true ligatures in Devanagari is the conjunct jña ज्ञ. This ligature is a required form for most Devanagari languages, and the conjunct even has its own half form that freely joins other letters in horizontal conjuncts.

  • ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature jña:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rjña:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rjña:

 

  • भ্ (bh) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature bhjña:

 

  • ब্ (b) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature bjña:

 

  • छ্ (ch) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature chjña:

 

  • च্ (c) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature cjña:

 

  • ढ্ (ḍʱ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ḍʱjña:

 

  • ड্ (ḍ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ḍjña:

 

  • द্ (d) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature djña:

 

  • घ্ (ɡʱ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ɡʱjña:

 

  • ग্ (g) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature gjña:

 

  • ह্ (h) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature hjña:

 

  • ज্ (j) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature jjña:

 

  • झ্ (jh) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature jhjña:

 

  • ख্ (kh) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature khjña:

 

  • क্ (k) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature kjña:

 

  • ल্ (l) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ljña:

 

  • म্ (m) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature mjña:

 

  • न্ (n) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature njña:

 

  • ञ্ (ñ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ñjña:

 

  • ङ্ (ŋ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ŋjña:

 

  • फ্ (ph) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature phjña:

 

  • प্ (p) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature pjña:

 

  • श্ (ʃ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ʃjña:

 

  • स্ (s) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature sjña:

 

  • ष্ (ṣ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ṣjña:

 

  • थ্ (th) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature thjña:

 

  • त্ (t) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature tjña:

 

  • ठ্ (ṭh) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ṭhjña:

 

  • ट্ (ṭ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature ṭjña:

 

  • व্ (v) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature vjña:

 

  • य্ (y) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature yjña:

 

Stacked conjuncts of जEdit

Vertically stacked ligatures are the most common conjunct forms found in Devanagari text. Although the constituent characters may need to be stretched and moved slightly in order to stack neatly, stacked conjuncts can be broken down into recognizable base letters, or a letter and an otherwise standard ligature.

  • भ্ (bh) + ज (ja) gives the ligature bhja:

 

  • ब্ (b) + ज (ja) gives the ligature bja:

 

  • छ্ (ch) + ज (ja) gives the ligature chja:

 

  • च্ (c) + ज (ja) gives the ligature cja:

 

  • ढ্ (ḍʱ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ḍʱja:

 

  • ड্ (ḍ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ḍja:

 

  • ध্ (dʱ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature dʱja:

 

  • द্ (d) + ज (ja) gives the ligature dja:

 

  • घ্ (ɡʱ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ɡʱja:

 

  • ग্ (g) + ज (ja) gives the ligature gja:

 

  • ह্ (h) + ज (ja) gives the ligature hja:

 

  • ज্ (j) + च (ca) gives the ligature jca:

 

  • ज্ (j) + ड (ḍa) gives the ligature jḍa:

 

  • झ্ (jh) + ज (ja) gives the ligature jhja:

 

  • ज্ (j) + ल (la) gives the ligature jla:

 

  • ज্ (j) + ङ (ŋa) gives the ligature jŋa:

 

  • ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature jña:

 

  • ज্ (j) + श (ʃa) gives the ligature jʃa:

 

  • ख্ (kh) + ज (ja) gives the ligature khja:

 

  • क্ (k) + ज (ja) gives the ligature kja:

 

  • ल্ (l) + ज (ja) gives the ligature lja:

 

  • ळ্ (ḷ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ḷja:

 

  • म্ (m) + ज (ja) gives the ligature mja:

 

  • ङ্ (ŋ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ŋja:

 

  • न্ (n) + ज (ja) gives the ligature nja:

 

  • ञ্ (ñ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ñja:

 

  • फ্ (ph) + ज (ja) gives the ligature phja:

 

  • प্ (p) + ज (ja) gives the ligature pja:

 

  • श্ (ʃ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ʃja:

 

  • स্ (s) + ज (ja) gives the ligature sja:

 

  • ष্ (ṣ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ṣja:

 

  • त্ (t) + ज (ja) gives the ligature tja:

 

  • ठ্ (ṭh) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ṭhja:

 

  • ट্ (ṭ) + ज (ja) gives the ligature ṭja:

 

  • व্ (v) + ज (ja) gives the ligature vja:

 

  • य্ (y) + ज (ja) gives the ligature yja:

 

Bengali scriptEdit

The Bengali script জ is derived from the Siddhaṃ  , and is marked by a similar horizontal head line, but less geometric shape, than its Devanagari counterpart, ज. The inherent vowel of Bengali consonant letters is /ɔ/, so the bare letter জ will sometimes be transliterated as "jo" instead of "ja". Adding okar, the "o" vowel mark, gives a reading of /d͡ʒo/.

Like all Indic consonants, জ can be modified by marks to indicate another (or no) vowel than its inherent "a".

Bengali জ with vowel marks
ja ji ju jr jr̄ je jai jo jau j
জা জি জী জু জূ জৃ জৄ জে জৈ জো জৌ জ্

জ in Bengali-using languagesEdit

জ is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

Conjuncts with জEdit

Bengali জ exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts, with a tendency towards stacked ligatures.[7]

  • ব্ (b) + জ (ja) gives the ligature bja:

 

  • জ্ (j) + জ (ja) gives the ligature jja:

 

  • জ্ (j) + ঝ (jha) gives the ligature jjha:

 

  • জ্ (j) + জ্ (j) + ব (va) gives the ligature jjva, with the va phala suffix:

 

  • জ্ (j) + ঞ (ña) gives the ligature jña:

 

  • জ্ (j) + র (ra) gives the ligature jra, with the ra phala suffix:

 

  • জ্ (j) + ব (va) gives the ligature jva, with the va phala suffix:

 

  • জ্ (j) + য (ya) gives the ligature jya, with the ya phala suffix:

 

  • ঞ (ñ) + জ (ja) gives the ligature ñja:

 

  • র্ (r) + জ (ja) gives the ligature rja, with the repha prefix:

 

  • র্ (r) + জ্ (j) + য (ya) gives the ligature rjya, with the repha prefix and ya phala suffix:

 

Gujarati JaEdit

 
Gujarati Ja.

Ja () is the eighth consonant of the Gujarati abugida. It is possibly derived from a variant of 16th century Devanagari Ja   with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed, and ultimately the Brahmi letter  . When combined with certain vowels, the Gujarati Ja may assume unique forms, such as જા, જી, and જો.

Gujarati-using LanguagesEdit

The Gujarati script is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. In both languages, જ is pronounced as [jə] or [j] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Gujarati uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Ja Ji Ju Jr Jl Jr̄ Jl̄ Je Jai Jo Jau J
 
Gujarati Ja syllables, with vowel marks in red.

Related lettersEdit

Za (જ઼) is the character Ja (જ) with a single dot underneath. It corresponds to the Devanagari character Za (ज़). It is also used in Gujarati transcriptions of Avestan (𐬰),[8][9][10] Urdu (ژ), English, and other languages to denote the voiced alveolar sibilant [z].

Zha (ૹ) is the character Ja (જ) with three dots underneath. It is used in Gujarati transcriptions of the Avestan letter zhe (𐬲) to denote the voiced palatal fricative [ʒ] and is analogous to the Devanagari character zha (ॹ).[8][9] Zha (ૹ) was added to the Unicode Standard as a single character ljust like the Devanagari character zha (ॹ) with Unicode 8.0 on 17 June 2015.[10][11] An example of a word in the Gujarati script the uses zha (ૹ) is ચીૹ્દી.[12]

Conjuncts with જEdit

Gujarati જ exhibits conjunct ligatures, much like its parent Devanagari Script. While most Gujarati conjuncts can only be formed by reducing the letter shape to create a "half form" that fits tightly to following letter, Ja does not have a half form. A few conjunct clusters can be represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters, and vertically stacked conjuncts can also be found in Gujarati, although much less commonly than in Devanagari. Lacking a half form, X will normally use an explicit virama when forming conjuncts without a true ligature.

True ligatures are quite rare in Indic scripts. The most common ligated conjuncts in Gujarati are in the form of a slight mutation to fit in context or as a consistent variant form appended to the adjacent characters. Those variants include Na and the Repha and Rakar forms of Ra.

  • ર્ (r) + જ (ja) gives the ligature RJa:

 

  • જ્ (j) + ર (ra) gives the ligature JRa:

 

  • જ્ (j) + ઞ (ɲa) gives the ligature JÑa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + જ (ja) ઞ (ɲa) gives the ligature RJÑa:

 

  • જ (ja) + ઞ્ (ɲ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature JÑRa:

 

Gurmukhi scriptEdit

Jajjaa [d͡ʒəd͡ʒːɑ] () is the thirteenth letter of the Gurmukhi alphabet. Its name is [d͡ʒəd͡ʒːɑ] and is pronounced as /d͡ʒ/ when used in words. It is derived from the Laṇḍā letter ja, and ultimately from the Brahmi ja. Gurmukhi jajaa does not have a special pairin or addha (reduced) form for making conjuncts, and in modern Punjabi texts do not take a half form or halant to indicate the bare consonant /d͡ʒ/, although Gurmukhi Sanskrit texts may use an explicit halant.

Jajje vicc bindiEdit

A dot added below Jajja (ਜ਼) denotes that it has to be pronounced as the voiced alveolar fricative /z/.

Thai scriptEdit

Cho chang () and so so () are the tenth and eleventh letters of the Thai script. They fall under the low class of Thai consonants. Unlike many Indic scripts, Thai consonants do not form conjunct ligatures, and use the pinthuan explicit virama with a dot shape—to indicate bare consonants.

Cho changEdit

In IPA, cho chang is pronounced as [tɕh] at the beginning of a syllable and are pronounced as [t̚] at the end of a syllable. The previous letter of the alphabet, cho ching (ฉ), is also named cho, however, it falls under the middle class of Thai consonants. In the acrophony of the Thai script, chang (ช้าง) means 'elephant'. Kho khai corresponds to the Sanskrit character 'ज'.

So soEdit

In IPA, so so is pronounced as [s] at the beginning of a syllable and are pronounced as [t̚] at the end of a syllable. In the acrophony of the Thai script, so (โซ่) means 'chain'. Old Thai had the voiced retroflex affricate sound /dʐ/. When the Thai script was developed, cho ching was slightly modified to create distinct letter for /dʐ/, which is now known as so so. During the Old Thai period, this sound merged into the aspirated stop /tɕh/. This is similar to how ज is sometimes pronounced as [d͡z] in addition to [d͡ʒ] in Marathi. However, Marathi uses the same letter for both sounds while Thai split the corresponding two sounds into the separate letters cho chang and so so. In modern Thai, the voicing of /dʐ/ became lost and thus is now pronounced as [s] at the beginning of a syllable.

Javanese scriptEdit

Telugu JaEdit

Telugu independent and subjoined Ja.

Ja () is a consonant of the Telugu abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  . It is closely related to the Kannada letter . Since it lacks the v-shaped headstroke common to most Telugu letters, జ remains unaltered by most vowel matras, and its subjoined form is simply a smaller version of the normal letter shape.

Telugu conjuncts are created by reducing trailing letters to a subjoined form that appears below the initial consonant of the conjunct. Many subjoined forms are created by dropping their headline, with many extending the end of the stroke of the main letter body to form an extended tail reaching up to the right of the preceding consonant. This subjoining of trailing letters to create conjuncts is in contrast to the leading half forms of Devanagari and Bengali letters. Ligature conjuncts are not a feature in Telugu, with the only non-standard construction being an alternate subjoined form of Ṣa (borrowed from Kannada) in the KṢa conjunct.

Malayalam JaEdit

 
Malayalam letter Ja

Ja () is a consonant of the Malayalam abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , via the Grantha letter   Ja. Like in other Indic scripts, Malayalam consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

 
Malayalam Ja matras: Ja, Jā, Ji, Jī, Ju, Jū, Jr̥, Jr̥̄, Jl̥, Jl̥̄, Je, Jē, Jai, Jo, Jō, Jau, and J.

Conjuncts of ജEdit

As is common in Indic scripts, Malayalam joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. There are several ways in which conjuncts are formed in Malayalam texts: using a post-base form of a trailing consonant placed under the initial consonant of a conjunct, a combined ligature of two or more consonants joined together, a conjoining form that appears as a combining mark on the rest of the conjunct, the use of an explicit candrakkala mark to suppress the inherent "a" vowel, or a special consonant form called a "chillu" letter, representing a bare consonant without the inherent "a" vowel. Texts written with the modern reformed Malayalam orthography, put̪iya lipi, may favor more regular conjunct forms than older texts in paḻaya lipi, due to changes undertaken in the 1970s by the Government of Kerala.

  • ജ് (j) + ജ (ja) gives the ligature jja:

 

  • ഞ് (ñ) + ജ (ja) gives the ligature ñja:

 

  • ജ് (j) + ഞ (ña) gives the ligature jña:

 

Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics CeEdit

, , and are the base characters "Ce", "Ci", "Co" and "Ca" in the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. The bare consonant (C) is a small version of the A-series letter ᒐ, although the Western Cree letter ᐨ, derived from Pitman shorthand was the original bare consonant symbol for C. The character ᒉ is derived from a handwritten form of the Devanagari letter ज, without the headline or vertical stem, and the forms for different vowels are derived by mirroring.[13][14]

Unlike most writing systems without legacy computer encodings, complex Canadian syllabic letters are represented in Unicode with pre-composed characters, rather than with base characters and diacritical marks.

Variant E-series I-series O-series A-series Other
C + vowel
Ce Ci Co Ca
Small -
- Ojibway C Sayisi Th C Cree C
C with long vowels -
- Cree Cāi
C + W- vowels
Cwe Cree Cwe Cwi Cree Cwi Cwo Cree Cwo Cwa Cree Cwa
C + W- long vowels - -
- Cwī Cree Cwī Cwō Cree Cwō Cwā Naskapi Cwā Cree Cwā -

Odia JaEdit

Odia independent and subjoined letter Ja.

Ja () is a consonant of the Odia abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , via the Siddhaṃ letter   Ja. Like in other Indic scripts, Odia consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

Odia Ja with vowel matras
Ja Ji Ju Jr̥ Jr̥̄ Jl̥ Jl̥̄ Je Jai Jo Jau J
ଜା ଜି ଜୀ ଜୁ ଜୂ ଜୃ ଜୄ ଜୢ ଜୣ ଜେ ଜୈ ଜୋ ଜୌ ଜ୍

Conjuncts of ଜEdit

As is common in Indic scripts, Odia joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. The most common conjunct formation is achieved by using a small subjoined form of trailing consonants. Most consonants' subjoined forms are identical to the full form, just reduced in size, although a few drop the curved headline or have a subjoined form not directly related to the full form of the consonant. The second type of conjunct formation is through pure ligatures, where the constituent consonants are written together in a single graphic form. This ligature may be recognizable as being a combination of two characters or it can have a conjunct ligature unrelated to its constituent characters.

  • ଞ୍ (ñ) + ଜ (ja) gives the ligature ñja:

 

  • ଜ୍ (j) + ଞ (ña) gives the ligature jña:

 

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  2. ^ Evolutionary chart, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Vol 7, 1838 [1]
  3. ^ Everson, Michael (30 March 2005). "Proposal to add four characters for Sindhi to the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). Unicode.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  4. ^ Lekhwani, Kanhaiyalal. 1987 (1909). An intensive course in Sindhi. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages; [New York]: Hippocrene Books. OCLC 18986594
  5. ^ "Proposal to encode 55 characters for Vedic Sanskrit in the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). Unicode.org. 18 October 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  6. ^ Pall, Peeter. "Microsoft Word - kblhi2" (PDF). Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  7. ^ "The Bengali Alphabet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-28.
  8. ^ a b Rajan, Vinod (16 July 2013). "Proposal to encode Gujarati Letter ZHA" (PDF). Unicode.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  9. ^ a b Rajan, Vinodh (15 April 2013). "Proposal to encode Gujarati Sign Triple Nukta" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  10. ^ a b Rajan, Vinodh (26 April 2013). "Recommendations to UTC on Script Proposals" (PDF). Unicode.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  11. ^ West, Andrew (1 April 2015). "What's new in Unicode 8.0 ?". BabelStone. BabelStone. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  12. ^ Kanga, Ervad Kavasji Edalji (1936). Kanga, Navroji Pestonji Kavasji (ed.). Khordeh Avestâ (PDF). Bombay: Nirnaya Sagar Press. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2016 – via www.avesta.org.
  13. ^ Andrew Dalby (2004:139) Dictionary of Languages
  14. ^ Some General Aspects of the Syllabics Orthography, Chris Harvey 2003
  • Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6
  • Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  • B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9
  • Fleet, J. F. (January 1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823.
  • Fleet, J. F. (1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 109–126. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823.
^note Conjuncts are identified by IAST transliteration, except aspirated consonants are indicated with a superscript "h" to distinguish from an unaspirated cononant + Ha, and the use of the IPA "ŋ" and "ʃ" instead of the less dinstinctive "ṅ" and "ś".