Ge (Cyrillic)

Ge, ghe, or he (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/, like ⟨g⟩ in "gift", or the voiced glottal fricative [ɦ], like ⟨h⟩ in "heft". It is generally romanized using the Latin letter g or h, depending on the source language.

Cyrillic letter Ge
Cyrillic letter Ge - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Phonetic usage:[ɡ], [k], [v], [ɦ], [ɣ]
Name:глаголи
Numeric value:3
Derived from:Greek letter Gamma (Γ γ)
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА́А̀А̂ĀӒБВ
ГҐДЂЃЕЕ́Ѐ
ĒÊЁЄЄ́ЖЗЗ́
ЅИІІ́ЇЇ́И́
ЍИ̂ӢЙЈКЛЉ
МНЊОО́О̀О̂Ō
ӦПРСС́ТЋЌ
УУ́У̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЫ́ЬѢЭЭ́Ю
Ю́Ю̀ЯЯ́Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒCyrillic capital letter Ghe with stroke and descender.svgӺҒ̌Ӷ
Cyrillic capital letter Ghe with hook.svgД́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ҖӜӁЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ̈ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈ӍН́
ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃Ӧ̄
ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤП̈Р̌
ҎС̌ҪС̣С̱Т́Т̈Т̌
Т̇Т̣ҬCyrillic capital letter Te Soft-sign.svgУ̃ӲУ̊Ӱ̄
ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮Х̑Х̌
ҲӼӾҺԦЦ̌Ц̈Ҵ
ҶҶ̣ӴӋCyrillic capital letter Che with hook.svgҸЧ̇Ч̣
ҼҾШ̈Ш̣Ы̆Ы̄Ӹ
ҌҨЭ̆Э̄Э̇ӬӬ́
Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈
Я̈́Ӏ
Archaic or unused letters
Cyrillic capital letter script A.svgА̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆Cyrillic capital letter split by middle ring Ghe.svgԀД̓
Д̀Д̨Cyrillic capital letter archaic Dje.svgԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̑Cyrillic small letter Zhe with long middle leg and stroke through descender.svgCyrillic capital letter bashkir Ie.svgCyrillic small letter Dje with high right breve serif.svgЏ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆԪ
Cyrillic capital letter Shha with Cil top.svgCyrillic capital letter Shha with high right breve serif.svgІ̂І̣І̨Cyrillic capital letter bashkir Dha.svg
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆К̑
К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂Cyrillic capital letter Ka with loop.svgCyrillic small letter ka with ascender.svgЛ̀
ԠԈЛ̑Л̇ԔМ̀М̃
Н̀Н̄Н̧Н̃ԊԢН̡
ѺCyrillic capital letter open at bottom O.svg
Cyrillic capital letter O with left notch.svgП̓П̀П́П̧П̑ҦҀ
Ԛ̆Cyrillic capital letter Shha with hook.svgР́Р̀Р̃ԖС̀С̈
ԌҪ̓Cyrillic capital letter long Es.svgТ̓Т̀ԎТ̑
Т̧Ꚍ̆Cyrillic small letter Te El Soft-sign.svgCyrillic small letter voiceless L with comma above.svgѸCyrillic capital letter script U.svg
У̇У̨Ф̑Ф̓Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇
Х̧Х̓Cyrillic capital letter bashkir Ha.svgѠѼѾ
Ц̀Ц́Ц̓Cyrillic capital letter Tse with long left leg.svgꚎ̆Cyrillic capital letter Cil.svgCyrillic capital letter Cil with bar.svg
Ч́Ч̀Ч̑Ч̓Cyrillic capital letter Char.svgCyrillic small letter Char with high right breve serif.svgԬ
Ꚇ̆Ҽ̆Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆
Ꚗ̆Cyrillic capital letter Che Sha.svgЫ̂Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆
Э̨Э̂Ю̂Я̂Я̨
ԘѤѦѪѨ
ѬѮѰѲѴѶ

HistoryEdit

The Cyrillic letter ge was derived directly from the Greek letter Gamma (Γ) in uncial script.

In the Early Cyrillic alphabet, its name was глаголи (glagoli), meaning "speak".

In the Cyrillic numeral system, it had a numerical value of 3.

Usage in Slavic languagesEdit

 
Г in:
Russian/Serbian normal font;
Bulgarian Cyrillic;
Russian/Bulgarian italic;
Serbian italic

Belarusian, Rusyn, and UkrainianEdit

From these three languages, the letter is romanized with h. Its name is he in Belarusian and Ukrainian, and hy in Rusyn.

In Belarusian (like in Southern Russian), the letter corresponds to the velar fricative /ɣ/[1] and its soft counterpart /ɣʲ/.

In Ukrainian and Rusyn, it represents a voiced glottal fricative [ɦ],[1] a breathy voiced counterpart of the English [h].

In Ukrainian and Rusyn, a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ is written with the Cyrillic letter ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ). In Belarusian, the official orthography uses г for both /ɣ/ and /ɡ/ (which is rare), although in Taraškievica ghe with upturn is optionally used for /ɡ/. Ґ is transliterated with G.

In all three languages' historical ancestor Ruthenian, the sound /ɡ/ was also represented by the digraph кг.

RussianEdit

In standard Russian, ghe represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ but is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant. It represents /ɡʲ/ before a palatalizing vowel. In the Southern Russian dialect, the sound becomes the velar fricative /ɣ/. Sometimes, the sound is the glottal fricative /ɦ/ in the regions bordering Belarus and Ukraine.

It is acceptable, for some people, to pronounce certain Russian words with [ɣ] (sometimes referred to as Ukrainian Ge): Бог, богатый, благо, Господь (Bog, bogatyj, blago, Gospod’). The sound is normally considered nonstandard or dialectal in Russian and is avoided by educated Russian speakers. Бог (Bog, "God") is always pronounced [box] in the nominative case.[1]

In the Russian nominal genitive ending -ого, -его, ghe represents [v], including in the word сегодня ("today", from сего дня).

It represents a voiceless [x] (not [k]) in front of ka in two Russian words, namely, мягкий and лёгкий, and their derivatives.

The Latin letter h of words of Latin, Greek, English or German origin is usually transliterated into Russian with ghe rather than kha: heroгерой, hamburgerгамбургер, HaydnГайдн. That can occasionally cause ambiguity, as for example English Harry and Gary/Garry would be spelled the same in Russian, eg. Гарри Поттер). The reasons for using ghe to write h include the fact that ghe is used for h in Ukrainian, Belarusian and some Russian dialects, along with the perception that kha sounds too harsh. Nevertheless, in newer loanwords (especially from English), kha is often used.[citation needed]

South SlavicEdit

In standard Serbian, Bosnian, Montenegrin, Bulgarian and Macedonian the letter ghe represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/. But in Bulgarian and Macedonian it is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant.

Usage in non-Slavic languagesEdit

In many non-Slavic languages it can represent both /ɡ/ and /ʁ~ɣ/ (the latter mostly in Turkic and some Finno-Ugric languages).

In Ossetian, an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the Caucasus, ⟨г⟩ represents the voiced velar stop /ɡ/. However, the digraph ⟨гъ⟩ represents the voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/.

Related letters and other similar charactersEdit

Computing codesEdit

Character information
Preview Г г
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHE CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1043 U+0413 1075 U+0433
UTF-8 208 147 D0 93 208 179 D0 B3
Numeric character reference Г Г г г
Named character reference Г г
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 231 E7 199 C7
CP 855 173 AD 172 AC
Windows-1251 195 C3 227 E3
ISO-8859-5 179 B3 211 D3
Mac Cyrillic 131 83 227 E3

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Звуки на месте буквы г [Sounds in place of the letter г]. Scholarly Dialectical Atlas (in Russian). map 14.

External linksEdit

  •   The dictionary definition of Г at Wiktionary
  •   The dictionary definition of г at Wiktionary