Ge (Cyrillic)

Ge or Ghe (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is also known in some languages as He. It commonly represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/, like ⟨g⟩ in "gift".

Cyrillic letter Ghe
Cyrillic letter Ge - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Phonetic usage:[ɡ], [ɦ], [ɣ]
Name:глаголи
Numeric value:3
Derived from:Greek letter Gamma (Γ γ)
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АБВГҐДЂ
ЃЕЀЁЄЖЗ
З́ЅИЍЙІЇ
ЈКЛЉМНЊ
ОŌПРСС́Т
ЋЌУӮЎФХ
ЦЧЏШЩЪЫ
ЬЭЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
А́А̀ӐА̄А̊А̃Ӓ
Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃ӚВ̌
ҒГ̑Г̣Г̌ҔӺҒ̌
ӶД̣Д̆ӖЕ̄Е̃Ё̄
Є̈ӁҖӜҘӞЗ̌
З̱З̣ԐԐ̈ӠӢИ̃
ҊӤИ́ҚӃҠҞ
ҜК̣ԚӅԮԒӍ
ӉҢԨӇҤО́О̀
О̆О̂О̃ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄
Ө́Ө̆ӪҨԤР̌Ҏ
ҪС̣С̱Т̌Т̣ҬУ̃
ӰӰ́ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣
Х̱Х̮Х̑ҲӼӾҺ
Һ̈ԦҴҶӴӋҸ
ҼҾЫ̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆
Э̄Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈
Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈ԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԪԬГ̧Г̄

It is generally romanized using the Latin letter G, but to romanize Belarusian, Ukrainian and Rusyn, the Latin letter H is used.

HistoryEdit

The Cyrillic letter Ghe was derived directly from the Greek letter Gamma (Γ) in uncial script.

In the Early Cyrillic alphabet, its name was глаголи (glagoli), meaning "speak". e In the Cyrillic numeral system, it had a numerical value of 3. ghe or ge

  • G
  • Ghe
  • Old Bulgarian,Crunch slovenic,russia,tat,juedo tat and Ukrainian

Usage in Slavic languagesEdit

 
Г in:
Russian/Serbian normal font;
Bulgarian Cyrillic;
Russian/Bulgarian italic;
Serbian italic

South SlavicEdit

In standard Serbian, Bosnian, Montenegrin, Bulgarian and Macedonian the letter Ghe represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ but is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant.

RussianEdit

In standard Russian, Ghe represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ but is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant. It represents /ɡʲ/ before a palatalizing vowel. In the Southern Russian dialect, the sound becomes the velar fricative /ɣ/. Sometimes, the sound is the glottal fricative /ɦ/ in the regions bordering Belarus and Ukraine.

It is acceptable, for some people, to pronounce certain Russian words with [ɣ] (sometimes referred to as Ukrainian Ge): Бог, богатый, благо, Господь (Bog, bogatyj, blago, Gospod’). The sound is normally considered nonstandard or dialectal in Russian and is avoided by educated Russian speakers. Бог (Bog, "God") is always pronounced [box] in the nominative case.[1]

In the Russian nominal genitive ending -ого, -его, Ghe represents [v], including in the word сегодня ("today", from сего дня).

It represents a voiceless [x] (not [k]) in front of Ka in two Russian words, namely, мягкий and лёгкий, and their derivatives.

The Latin letter H of words of Latin, Greek, English or German origin is usually transliterated into Russian with Ghe rather than Kha: heroгерой, hamburgerгамбургер, HaydnГайдн. That can occasionally cause ambiguity, as for example English Harry and Gary/Garry would be spelled the same in Russian, eg. Гарри Поттер). The reasons for using Ghe to write h include the fact that Ghe is used for h in Ukrainian, Belarusian and some Russian dialects, along with the perception that Kha sounds too harsh. Nevertheless, in newer loanwords (especially from English), Kha is often used.[citation needed]

Belarusian, Ukrainian and RusynEdit

 
ZAPOROHscensis Praefectus

In Ukrainian and Rusyn, it represents a voiced glottal fricative [ɦ],[1] a breathy voiced counterpart of the English [h].

In Belarusian (like in Southern Russian), the letter corresponds to the velar fricative /ɣ/[1] and its soft counterpart /ɣʲ/.

In both languages, the letter is called He and transliterated with H rather than with G.

In Ukrainian, Rusyn and Belarusian, a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ is written with the Cyrillic letter Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ) in Ukrainian (transliterated with G) and with the digraph кг in Belarusian (also ґ in Taraškievica).

Usage in non-Slavic languagesEdit

In many non-Slavic languages it can represent both /ɡ/ and /ʁ~ɣ/ (the latter mostly in Turkic and some Finno-Ugric languages).

In Ossetian, an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the Caucasus, ⟨г⟩ represents the voiced velar stop /ɡ/. However, the digraph ⟨гъ⟩ represents the voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/.

Related letters and other similar charactersEdit

Computing codesEdit

Character information
Preview Г г
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHE CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1043 U+0413 1075 U+0433
UTF-8 208 147 D0 93 208 179 D0 B3
Numeric character reference Г Г г г
Named character reference Г г
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 231 E7 199 C7
CP 855 173 AD 172 AC
Windows-1251 195 C3 227 E3
ISO-8859-5 179 B3 211 D3
Mac Cyrillic 131 83 227 E3

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Звуки на месте буквы г [Sounds in place of the letter г]. Scholarly Dialectical Atlas (in Russian). map 14.

External linksEdit

  •   The dictionary definition of Г at Wiktionary
  •   The dictionary definition of г at Wiktionary