Short I (Cyrillic)

(Redirected from Short I)

Short I or Yot/Jot (Й й; italics: Й й or Й й; italics: Й й) (sometimes called i-kratkoye, Russian: и-краткое, Ukrainian: йот) or I with breve, Russian: я с бреве) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.[1] It is made of the Cyrillic letter И with a breve.

Cyrillic letter Short I
Phonetic usage:[j] [ː] [ʏ] [ɪ]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА̀А̂А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЀЕ̄Е̂
ЁЄЖЗЗ́ЅИІ
ЇЍИ̂ӢЙЈК
ЛЉМНЊОО̀О̂
ŌӦПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУУ̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЬѢЭЮЮ̀Я
Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒӺҒ̌Ӷ
Д́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ҖӜӁЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ̈ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈Ӎ
Н́ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤП̈
Р̌ҎС̌ҪС̣С̱Т́Т̈
Т̌Т̇Т̣ҬУ̃ӲУ̊
Ӱ̄ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮Х̑
Х̌ҲӼӾҺҺ̈ԦЦ̌
Ц̈ҴҶҶ̣ӴӋҸ
Ч̇Ч̣ҼҾШ̈Ш̣Ы̆
Ы̄ӸҌҨЭ̆Э̄Э̇
ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̄Я̆Я̄
Я̈Ӏ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̀Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆ
ԪІ̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆
К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂
Л̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
М̀М̃Н̀Н̄Н̧
Н̃ԊԢН̡Ѻ
П̓П̀
П́ҦП̧П̑ҀԚ̆Р́
Р̀Р̃ԖС̀С̈ԌҪ̓
Т̓Т̀ԎТ̑Т̧
Ꚍ̆ОУУ̇
У̨ꙋ́Ф̑Ф̓Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇
Х̧Х̾Х̓һ̱ѠѼ
ѾЦ̀Ц́Ц̓Ꚏ̆
Ч́Ч̀Ч̆Ч̑Ч̓
ԬꚆ̆Ҽ̆Ш̀
Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆Ы̂
Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆Э̨Э̂
Ю̂Я̈Я̂Я̨
ԘѤѦѪѨ
ѬѮѰѲѴѶ
Yot, from Alexandre Benois' 1904 alphabet book

The short I represents the palatal approximant /j/, like the pronunciation of ⟨y⟩ in yesterday.

Depending on the romanization system in use and the Slavic language that is under examination, it can be romanized as ⟨y⟩, ⟨j⟩, ⟨i⟩ or ⟨ĭ⟩. For more details, see romanization of Russian, romanization of Ukrainian, romanization of Belarusian and romanization of Bulgarian.

History edit

Active use of ⟨Й⟩ (or, rather, the breve over ⟨И⟩) began around the 15th and 16th centuries. Since the middle of the 17th century, the differentiation between ⟨И⟩ and ⟨Й⟩ is obligatory in the Russian variant of Church Slavonic orthography (used for the Russian language as well). During the alphabet reforms of Peter I, all diacritic marks were removed from the Russian writing system, but shortly after his death, in 1735, the distinction between ⟨И⟩ and ⟨Й⟩ was restored.[2] ⟨Й⟩ was not officially considered a separate letter of the alphabet until the 1930s.

Because ⟨Й⟩ was considered to be a vowel and not a consonant, it was not required to take a hard sign when it came at the end of a word in pre-reform orthography.

Usage edit

Language position in
alphabet
name
Belarusian 11th і нескладовае (i nieskladovaje, or "non-syllabic I")
Bulgarian 10th и кратко (i kratko or "short I")
Russian 11th и краткое (i kratkoye or "short I")
Ukrainian 14th йот /jɔt/, й /ɪj/
Kazakh 13th қысқа й /qysqa ɪ/ (qysqa i or "short I")

In Russian, it appears predominantly in diphthongs like /ij/ in широкий (shirokiy 'wide'), /aj/ in край (kray 'end', 'krai'), /ej/ in долей (doley 'portion'), /oj/ in горой (goroy 'mountain'), and /uj/ in буйство (buystvo 'rage').[3] It is used in other positions only in foreign words, such as Йopк (York, not with ⟨Ё⟩), including fellow Slavic words like Йовович (Yovovich).

In Kazakh, the letter is used to represent a short ɪ sound (e.g. берейік (tr. (Let us) give)). The letter, much like the other 11 Cyrillic letters, does not have another Latin version and merges with Ии (İi).

In Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian, the Cyrillic letter Јe is used to represent the same sound. Latin-based Slavonic writing systems, such as Polish, Czech and the Latin version of Serbo-Croatian use the Latin letter J (not the letter Y, as in English), for that purpose.

Related letters and other similar characters edit

 
Contrastive use of Cyrillic kratka (for consonant [j]) and Latin breve (for short vowel [ĭ]) above и in Russian-Nenets dictionary

Note that breve in Й may be quite different from ordinary breve, the former having a thinner central part and thicker ends (the opposite holds for ordinary breve). This is often seen in serif fonts, cf. Й (Cyrillic Short I) and Ŭ (Latin U with breve).

Computing codes edit

Character information
Preview Й й
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHORT I CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHORT I
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1049 U+0419 1081 U+0439
UTF-8 208 153 D0 99 208 185 D0 B9
Numeric character reference Й Й й й
Named character reference Й й
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 234 EA 202 CA
Code page 855 190 BE 189 BD
Code page 866 137 89 169 A9
Windows-1251 201 C9 233 E9
ISO-8859-5 185 B9 217 D9
Macintosh Cyrillic 137 89 233 E9

References edit

  1. ^ Franklin, Simon (2019-05-16). The Russian Graphosphere, 1450-1850. Cambridge University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-108-49257-7.
  2. ^ Language dynamics in the early modern period. Karen Bennett, Angelo Cattaneo, Lingua Franca and Translation in the Early Modern Period (2018 : Lisbon, Portugal) "A host of tongues...": Multilingualism. New York, NY. 2022. ISBN 978-1-000-57461-6. OCLC 1287743631.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. ^ Zhang, Xiangning; Zhang, Ruolin (July 2018). "Evolution of Ancient Alphabet to Modern Greek, Latin and Cyrillic Alphabets and Transcription between Them". Proceedings of the 2018 4th International Conference on Economics, Social Science, Arts, Education and Management Engineering (ESSAEME 2018). Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research. Atlantis Press. pp. 156–162. doi:10.2991/essaeme-18.2018.30. ISBN 978-94-6252-549-8.

External links edit

  •   The dictionary definition of Й at Wiktionary
  •   The dictionary definition of й at Wiktionary