I with grave (Cyrillic)

I with grave (Ѝ ѝ; italics: Ѝ ѝ) is a character representing a stressed variant of the regular letter ⟨И⟩ in some Cyrillic alphabets, but none of them, whether modern or archaic, includes it as a separate letter.[1]

Cyrillic letter
I with grave
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА̀А̂А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЀЕ̄Е̂
ЁЄЖЗЗ́ЅИІ
ЇЍИ̂ӢЙЈК
ЛЉМНЊОО̀О̂
ŌӦПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУУ̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЬѢЭЮЮ̀Я
Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒӺҒ̌Ӷ
Г̡Д́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ҖӜӁЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ̈ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈Ӎ
Н́ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤП̈
ҦР̌ҎС̌ҪС̣С̱Т́
Т̈Т̌Т̇Т̣ҬУ̃Ӳ
У̊Ӱ̄ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮
Х̑Х̌ҲӼӾҺҺ̈Ԧ
Ц̌Ц̈ҴҶҶ̣ӴӋЧ̡
ҸЧ̇Ч̣ҼҾШ̈Ш̣
Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌҨЭ̆Э̄
Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̄Я̆
Я̄Я̈Ӏ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̀Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆ
ԪІ̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆
К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂
Л̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
М̀М̃Н̀Н̄Н̧Н̃
ԊԢН̡Ѻ
П̓П̀П́П̧
П̑ҀԚ̆Р́Р̀Р̃Ԗ
С̀С̈ԌҪ̓Т̓Т̀Ԏ
Т̑Т̧Ꚍ̆
ОУУ̇У̨ꙋ́Ф̑Ф̓
Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇Х̧Х̓һ̱
ѠѼѾЦ̀Ц́Ц̓
Ꚏ̆Ч́Ч̀
Ч̆Ч̑Ч̓Ԭ
Ꚇ̆Ҽ̆Ш̀Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆
Ы̂Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆
Э̨Э̂Ю̂Я̈
Я̂Я̨ԘѤѦѪ
ѨѬѮѰѲѴѶ

South Slavic languages edit

Bulgarian and Macedonian edit

Most regularly ⟨Ѝ⟩ is used in Bulgarian and Macedonian languages to distinguish the short form of the indirect object ⟨ѝ⟩ ("her") from the conjunction ⟨и⟩ ("and", "also") or, less frequently, to prevent ambiguity in other similar cases.[2] If it is not available, the character ⟨ѝ⟩ is often replaced by an ordinary ⟨и⟩ (not recommended but still orthographically correct) or in Bulgarian by the letter й (formally considered a spelling error).[3]

Church Slavonic edit

Since the 17th century in the modern Russian recension of Church Slavonic, ⟨Ѝ⟩ and any other vowel with a grave accent is just an orthographic variant of the same letter with an acute accent when it is used as the last letter of a word.

Serbian edit

⟨Ѝ⟩ (as well as other vowels with an acute, grave, circumflex, or double grave accents) can be optionally used in Serbian texts to show one of four possible tones of the stressed syllable. In cases like прѝкупити ('to gather') vs. прику́пити ('to purchase more'), or ѝскуп ('redemption' 'ransom') vs. и̏скуп ('meeting'), the usage of diacritics can also prevent ambiguity. In the Latin Serbo-Croatian alphabet (the so-called Gajevica), all stress/tone marks are the same: Cyrillic ⟨Ѝ⟩ corresponds to Latin ⟨ì⟩, etc.

East Slavic languages edit

⟨Ѝ⟩ and any other vowel with grave accent can be found in older Russian and Ukrainian books as stressed variants of regular (unaccented) vowels until the early 20th century, like Russian вѝна ('wines') vs. вина̀ ('guilt'). Recently, East Slavonic typographies have begun using the acute accent (ви́на) instead of the grave accent (вина́) to denote stress.[4]

Stress marks are optional in East Slavic languages and are regularly used only in special books like dictionaries, primers, or textbooks for foreigners, as stress is very unpredictable in all three languages. However, in general texts, stress marks are hardly ever used and then mainly to prevent ambiguity or to show the pronunciation of foreign words.

Some modern Russian dictionaries use a grave accent to denote the secondary stress in compound words, with an acute accent for the main stress, like жѝзнеспосо́бный [ˌʐɨzʲnʲɪspɐˈsobnɨj] ('viable') (from жизнь [ˈʐɨzʲnʲ] 'life' and способный [spɐˈsobnɨj] 'capable').

"Decimal" I with grave edit

Cyrillic orthographies that have І (the so-called "decimal I" or "Ukrainian I") can use ⟨ì⟩ or ⟨í⟩ as its stressed variant in the modern Ukrainian and Belarusian, the old Russian or Serbian, and the Church Slavonic orthographies. The difference between ⟨ì⟩ and ⟨í⟩ is the same as that between ⟨ѝ⟩ and ⟨и́⟩.

Related letters and other similar characters edit

Computing codes edit

Character information
Preview Ѝ ѝ
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER
I WITH GRAVE
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER
I WITH GRAVE
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1037 U+040D 1117 U+045D
UTF-8 208 141 D0 8D 209 157 D1 9D
Numeric character reference Ѝ Ѝ ѝ ѝ

References edit

  1. ^ "Как да пишем Ѝ?". 26 February 2020.
  2. ^ "Cyrillic: No glyphs for Ѝ ѝ · Issue #10 · excalidraw/Virgil". GitHub.
  3. ^ "Как да пишем Ѝ?". 18 August 2017.
  4. ^ "Grave Accent".