Cyrillic o variants

(Redirected from Broad On)

Monocular O (Ꙩ), binocular O (Ꙫ), double monocular O (Ꙭ), multiocular O (ꙮ) double O (Ꚙ), crossed O (Ꚛ), and broad on (Ѻ) are rare glyph variants of Cyrillic letter O. In 2007, they were proposed for inclusion into Unicode.[1]

The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА̀А̂А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЀЕ̄Е̂
ЁЄЖЗЗ́ЅИІ
ЇЍИ̂ӢЙЈК
ЛЉМНЊОО̀О̂
ŌӦПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУУ̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЬѢЭЮЮ̀Я
Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒӺҒ̌Ӷ
Д́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ԐԐ̈ҖӜӁЖ̣
ҘӞЗ̌З̣З̆ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈Ӎ
Н́ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤП̈
ҎР̌С̌ҪС̣С̱Т́Т̈
Т̌Т̇Т̣ҬУ̃ӲУ̊
Ӱ̄ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮Х̑
Х̌ҲӼӾҺҺ̈ԦЦ̌
Ц̈ҴҶҶ̣ӴӋҸ
Ч̇Ч̣ҼҾШ̈Ш̣Ы̆
Ы̄ӸҌҨЭ̆Э̄Э̇
ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̄Я̆Я̄
Я̈Ӏʼˮ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̀Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆ
ԪІ̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆
К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂
Л̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
М̀М̃Н̀Н̄Н̧
Н̃ԊԢН̡Ѻ
П̓П̀
П́ҦП̧П̑ҀԚ̆Р́
Р̀Р̃ԖС̀С̈ԌҪ̓
Т̓Т̀ԎТ̑Т̧
Ꚍ̆ОУУ̇
У̨ꙋ́Ф̑Ф̓Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇
Х̧Х̾Х̓һ̱ѠѼ
ѾЦ̀Ц́Ц̓Ꚏ̆
Ч́Ч̀Ч̆Ч̑Ч̓
ԬꚆ̆Ҽ̆Ш̀
Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆Ъ̄Ъ̈
Ъ̈̄Ы̂Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆
Э̨Э̂Ю̂
Я̈Я̂Я̨ԘѤѦѪ
ѨѬѮѰѲѴ
Ѷ

Monocular O edit

Monocular O (Capital: , minuscule: ) is one of the rare glyph variants of Cyrillic letter O. This glyph variant was used in certain manuscripts in the root word ꙩко (eye),[1] and also in some other functions, for example, in the word- and syllable-initial position. It is used in some late birchbark letters of the 14th and 15th centuries, where it is usually differentiated from a regular о, used after consonants, also by width, being a broad On (ѻ) with a dot inside.

It resembles the Latin letter for the bilabial click (ʘ), and the Gothic letter Hwair (𐍈). It was proposed for inclusion into Unicode in 2007 alongside the Binocular O, Double monocular O, and Multiocular O,[1] and was incorporated as characters U+A668 (majuscule) and U+A669 (minuscule) in Unicode version 5.1 (2008).[2]

Monocular O

Binocular O edit

Binocular O (majuscule: , minuscule: ) is one of the exotic glyph variants of Cyrillic letter O. This glyph variant can be found in certain manuscripts in the plural or dual forms of the root word eye, like Ꙫчи.[3]

A similar jocular glyph (called "double-dot wide O") has been suggested as a phonetic symbol for the "nasal-ingressive velar trill", a paralinguistic impression of a snort, due to the graphic resemblance to a pig snout.[4]

Binocular O

Computing encodings edit

Character information
Preview
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER BINOCULAR O CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BINOCULAR O
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 42602 U+A66A 42603 U+A66B
UTF-8 234 153 170 EA 99 AA 234 153 171 EA 99 AB
Numeric character reference Ꙫ Ꙫ ꙫ ꙫ

Double monocular O edit

Double monocular O (uppercase: , lowercase: ) is one of the exotic glyph variants of the Cyrillic letter O. This glyph variant can be found in certain manuscripts in the plural or dual forms of the word eye, for example ꙭчи "[two] eyes". They were incorporated into Unicode as characters U+A66C[5] and U+A66D[6] in Unicode version 5.1 (2008).

Double monocular O

Multiocular O edit

Multiocular O () is a rare glyph variant of the Cyrillic letter O. This glyph variant can be found in a single 15th century manuscript, in the Old Church Slavonic phrase "серафими многоꙮчитїй" (abbreviated "мн҇оꙮчитїй") (serafimi mnogoočitii, "many-eyed seraphim"). It was documented by Yefim Karsky[7] in 1928 in a copy of the Book of Psalms[8] (back of page 244) from around 1429, now found in the collection[9] of the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius.

It is most likely that Multiocular O was a result of a writer’s attempt at depicting how many eyes the seraphim they were describing had.[citation needed]

The character was proposed for inclusion into Unicode in 2007[10] and incorporated as character U+A66E in Unicode version 5.1 (2008).[11] The representative glyph had seven eyes and sat on the baseline. However, in 2021, following a tweet highlighting the character,[12] it came to linguist Michael Everson's attention that the character in the 1429 manuscript was actually made up of ten eyes. After a 2022 proposal to change the character to reflect this, it was updated later that year for Unicode 15.0 to have ten eyes and to extend below the baseline.[13][14] However, not all fonts support the ten-eyed variant as of April 2024.

The letter in the original manuscript.
Multiocular O
The incorrect form originally implemented into Unicode (2007–2022).

Double O edit

 
Double O

Double O (Ꚙ ꚙ) is a variant of the letter О in the Cyrillic script. It is found in some early Old Church Slavonic manuscripts, where it is used in place of ⟨О⟩ in две "two", бо "both", банадесять "twelve", and двюнадесять "twelve".[15] The Cyrillic "double O" looks similar to the Latin-script double-o ligature: ⟨ꝏ⟩.

Crossed O edit

 
Crossed O

Crossed O (Ꚛ ꚛ) is a variant of the Cyrillic letter O but with the addition of a cross.

Crossed O is used in the Old Church Slavonic language. The crossed o is primarily used in the word ꚛкрест (around, in the region of) in early Slavonic manuscripts,[16] whose component крест means 'cross'.

Broad On edit

 
Broad On

Broad On (Ѻ ѻ; italics: Ѻ ѻ) is a positional and orthographical variant of the Cyrillic letter O (О о) (here "on" (ѻнъ, onŭ) is a traditional name of Cyrillic letter О; these names are still in use in the Church Slavonic alphabet).

Broad On is used only in the Church Slavonic language. In its alphabet (in primers and grammar books), broad and regular shapes of О/о share the same position, as they are not considered different letters. Uppercase is typically represented by broad Ѻ, and lowercase is either regular о or dual: both broad ѻ and regular о (in the same way as Greek uppercase Σ is accompanied with two lowercases σ, ς). Phonetically, broad Ѻ/ѻ is the same as regular О/о.

In standard Church Slavonic orthography (since the middle of the 17th century until present time), the broad shape of letter On is used instead of the regular shape of the same letter in the following cases:

  • as the first letter of a word's root, which could fall:
    • at the beginning of the word: (ѻгнь, ѻтрокъ),
    • after a prefix: (праѻтецъ),
    • after another root in compound words (ѻбоюдуѻстрый);
  • in the middle of the root in two geographical names (іѻрданъJordan River, іѻппіа—city of Jaffa) and their derivatives;
  • as the numerical sign to represent the number 70 (However, Church Slavonic editions printed outside the Russian Empire have often ignored this rule and used regular о as the numerical sign).
 
St. Olga icon at St Volodymyr's Cathedral, Kyiv

Historically, Broad On was also used in the later Old Russian period, including documents, letters and other vernacular texts, to signal the initial position of a word or a syllable or occasionally to mark a closed vowel (developed in North Russian dialects since the 14th century). It is found in birch bark manuscripts and in some other Russian texts. Other glyphs could be used in the same functions, including Monocular O and Cyrillic Omega.

Name edit

Broad On has no standard traditional name. The names used in literature (broad/wide/round/initial on/o etc.) are just shape-based or functional descriptions. A name from certain Russian sources,[17] он польское, on pol'skoye (literally, "Polish O"), also points to the round shape of the letter, because Latin fonts from Poland had round "O", and the typical old Cyrillic "O" was lens-shaped and condensed. Now the character is often being referred to by its conventional Unicode name "Round Omega",[18] the fact that may lead to certain misunderstanding, because the Cyrillic letter Omega is a completely different letter; in particular, its numerical value is 800, not 70.

Computing codes edit

Character information
Preview Ѻ ѻ
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER
ROUND OMEGA
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER
ROUND OMEGA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1146 U+047A 1147 U+047B
UTF-8 209 186 D1 BA 209 187 D1 BB
Numeric character reference Ѻ Ѻ ѻ ѻ

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c Everson, Michael; Birnbaum, David; Cleminson, Ralph; et al. (2007-03-21). "Proposal to encode additional Cyrillic characters in the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). p. 4. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  2. ^ "Unicode Database - Derived Age". 2021-07-10. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  3. ^ Everson, Michael; Birnbaum, David; Cleminson, Ralph; Derzhanski, Ivan; Dorosh, Vladislav; Kryukov, Alexej; Paliga, Sorin; Ruppel, Klaas (2007-03-21). "Proposal to encode additional Cyrillic characters in the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3194R, UTC L2/07-003R.
  4. ^ "SpecGram—"Double-Dot Wide O / Nasal-Ingressive Voiceless Velar Trill"—by J–––– J––––––—Reviewed by Jonathan van der Meer". specgram.com.
  5. ^ "Unicode Character "Ꙭ" (U+A66C)".
  6. ^ "Unicode Character "ꙭ" (U+A66D)".
  7. ^ Карский, Ефим (1979). Славянская кирилловская палеография. Moscow. p. 197.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  8. ^ "Рукопись 308. Псалтирь. напис. 1429 (?) года". folio 243v. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  9. ^ "Славянские рукописи — Главная библиотека". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  10. ^ Everson, Michael; Birnbaum, David; Cleminson, Ralph; et al. (2007-03-21). "Proposal to encode additional Cyrillic characters in the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-04-10. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  11. ^ Compart AG (2018). "Unicode Character "ꙮ" (U+A66E)". Archived from the original on 2018-08-04. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  12. ^ @etiennefd on Twitter (2020-10-31). "Happy Halloween! I feel like I have to talk about something scary.[…]". Retrieved 2022-11-02.
  13. ^ "Cyrillic Extended-B; Range: A640–A69F" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-02-13.
  14. ^ Everson, Michael. "Proposal to revise the glyph of CYRILLIC LETTER MULTIOCULAR O" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-03-22. Retrieved 2022-03-22.
  15. ^ "Proposal to Encode Some Outstanding Early Cyrillic Characters in Unicode" (PDF). 25 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  16. ^ Shardt, Yuri; Simmons, Nikita; Andreev, Aleksandr (2011-02-25). Proposal to Encode Some Outstanding Early Cyrillic Characters in Unicode (PDF) (Report). Unicode Consortium. p. 1. L2/10-394R. Retrieved 2018-02-28. The crossed o is primarily used in the word окрест (around, in the region of) in early Slavonic manuscripts.
  17. ^ See, for example: Н. П. Саблина. Буквица славянская. Поэтическая история азбуки с азами церковнославянской грамоты. СПб.: Ижица, 2001. OCLC 51079099 ISBN 978-5-9903415-6-2.
  18. ^ "Cyrillic: Range: 0400–04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0. 2010. p. 41. Retrieved 2011-06-01.