The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (Russian: палочка, tr. palochka, IPA: [ˈpaɫətɕkə], literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script. The letter usually has only a capital form, which is also used in lowercase text. The capital form of the palochka often looks like the capital form of the Cyrillic letter soft-dotted I (І і), the capital form of the Latin letter I (I i), and the lowercase form of the Latin letter L (L l). The letter was introduced in the late 1930s.

Cyrillic Palochka
Cyrillic letter palochka - uppercase and lowercase.svg
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА́А̀А̂А̄ӒБВ
ГҐДЂЃЕЕ́Ѐ
Е̂Е̄ЁЄЄ́ЖЗЗ́
ЅИІІ́ЇИ́ЍИ̂
ӢЙЈКЛЉМН
ЊОО́О̀О̂ŌӦП
РСС́ТЋЌУУ́
У̀У̂ӮЎӰФХЦ
ЧЏШЩЪЪ̀ЫЫ́
ЬѢЭЭ́ЮЮ́Ю̀Я
Я́Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄А̨ӔӘӘ́
Ә̀Ә̃ӚӘ̄В̌ҒГ̑Г̣
Г̌ Г̂Г̆Г̈ҔӺҒ̌Ӷ
Д́Д̀Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ҖӜӁЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ́Ԑ̈ӠИ̃
ӤҊІ̄́І̨Ј̵ҚК̈Ӄ
ҠҞҜК̣ԚЛ́Л̀Ӆ
ԮԒЛ̈ӍН́Н̀Н̃
ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃Ӧ̄
ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪҨԤП̈
Р́Р̌ҎС̀С̌ҪС̣Т́
Т̈Т̌Т̣ҬТЬУ̃ӲУ̊
Ӱ̄ҮҮ́Ү̈ҰХ̣Х̱Х̮
Х̑Х̌ҲӼӾҺҺ̈Һ̌
ԦЦ́Ц̌Ц̈ҴЧ̀ҶҶ̣
ӴӋЧ̡ҸЧ̇Ч̣ҼҾ
Ш̆Ш̈Ш̣Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆
Э̄Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́
Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈Я̈́ԜӀ
Archaic letters
Б̣ԀԂ
ԄԆІ̂
ԞК̂ԈԠН̄ԊԢѺ
ҦҀ
ԌԎѸѠ
Ѿ
Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆Ѥ
ѦѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԔԖԪԬГ̧Г̄
К̅З̀Т̀

HistoryEdit

In the early times of the Soviet Union, many of the non-Russian Cyrillic alphabets contained only letters found in the Russian alphabet to keep them compatible with Russian typewriters. Sounds absent from Russian were marked with digraphs and other letter combinations. The palochka was the only exception because the numerical digit 1 was used instead of the letter. In fact, on many Russian typewriters, the character looked not like the digit 1 but like the Roman numeral I with serifs. That is still common because the palochka is not present in most standard keyboard layouts (and, for some of them, not even the soft-dotted I) or common fonts and so it cannot be easily entered or reliably displayed on many computer systems. For example, as of 4 February 2023, even the official site of the People's Assembly of the Republic of Ingushetia uses the digit 1 instead of the palochka.[1]

UsageEdit

In the alphabets of Abaza, Avar, Chechen, Dargwa, Ingush, Lak, Lezgian, and Tabassaran, it is a modifier letter which signals the preceding consonant as an ejective or pharyngeal consonant;[2] this letter has no phonetic value on its own.

In Adyghe, the palochka by itself represents a glottal stop /ʔ/.

In Avar

  • Example from Avar: кӏалъазе [kʼaˈɬaze], "to speak"

In Chechen, the palochka makes a preceding stop or affricate ejective if voiceless, or pharyngealized if voiced, but also represents the voiced pharyngeal fricative /ʕ/ when it does not follow a stop or affricate. As an exception, in the digraph ⟨хӏ⟩, it produces the voiceless pharyngeal fricative /ħ/. Ingush is similar.

  • Examples from Chechen: йоӏ [joːʕ], "girl" and хӏорд [ħoːrd], "sea"

Exceptionally among the Caucasian languages, Abkhaz does not use the palochka, but instead uses a series of special letters to distinguish ejective and non-ejective (aspirated) consonants.

Computing codesEdit

Character information
Preview Ӏ ӏ
Unicode name CYRILLIC LETTER PALOCHKA CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PALOCHKA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1216 U+04C0 1231 U+04CF
UTF-8 211 128 D3 80 211 143 D3 8F
Numeric character reference Ӏ Ӏ ӏ ӏ
The lowercase form of palochka was added to Unicode 5.0 in July 2006.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Г1алг1ай Республика законаш". Народное Собрание Республики Ингушетия (in Ingush). Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  2. ^ "Cyrillic: Range: 0400–04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0. 2010. p. 42. Retrieved 2011-05-20.