List of Cyrillic letters

This is a list of letters of the Cyrillic script. The definition of a Cyrillic letter for this list is a character encoded in the Unicode standard that a has script property of 'Cyrillic' and the general category of 'Letter'. An overview of the distribution of Cyrillic letters in Unicode is given in Cyrillic script in Unicode.

Letters contained in the Russian AlphabetEdit

Russian alphabet
Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Оо Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Фф Хх Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ъъ Ыы Ьь Ээ Юю Яя

Letters not contained in the Russian AlphabetEdit


Letter Name Notes
Ә ә Schwa Abkhasian, azerbaijan, bashkir, kazakh, kurdish, tatar, khanty
Ԝ ԝ We Kurdish
Ђ ђ Dje Serbian
Ԁ ԁ Komi De Komi (1919—1940)
Ԃ ԃ Komi Dje Komi (1919—1940)
Џ џ Dzhe Serbian, macedonian, abkhasian
Ӡ ӡ Abkhasian Dzje Abkhasian, orok
Ꚁ ꚁ Dwe Abkhasian (1909—1926)
Ꙉ ꙉ Djerv Old Church Slavonic
Є є Ukrainian Ye Ukrainian, Khanty
Ԑ ԑ Reversed Ze Enets, Khanty
Ѕ ѕ Dze Macedonian
Ꙅ ꙅ Reversed Dze
Ꙃ ꙃ Dzelo
Ԅ ԅ Komi Zje Komi (1919—1940)
Ԇ ԇ Komi Dzje Komi (1919—1940)
Ꙁ ꙁ Zemlya
І і Byelorussian-ukrainian I Byelorussian, ukrainian, russian (to 1918), kazakh, komi, rusyn, udmurt
Ї ї Yi Ukrainian, rusyn
Ѵ ѵ Izhitsa Udmurt (to 1897), abkhasian
Ѷ ѷ Izhitsa with double grave accent
Ꙇ ꙇ Iota
Ј ј Je Serbian, macedonian, kildin sami, azerbaijan (to 1991), udmurt (to 1897), orok
Ҡ ҡ Bashkir Ka Bashkir
Ԛ ԛ Qa Kurdish
Ѯ ѯ Ksi
Ҁ ҁ Koppa Old Church Slavonic
Ԉ ԉ Komi Lje Komi (1919—1940)
Small capital El UPA
Ӏ ӏ Palochka
Ԋ ԋ Komi Nje Komi (1919—1940)
Ө ө Barred O
Ꚛ ꚛ Crossed O
Ꙩ ꙩ Monocular O
Ꙫ ꙫ Binocular O
Multiocular O
Ѻ ѻ Round Omega
Ѡ ѡ Omega
Ꙍ ꙍ Broad Omega
Ѱ ѱ Psi
Ҏ ҏ Er with tick Kildin Sami
Ԍ ԍ Komi Sje Komi (1919—1940)
Ԏ ԏ Komi Tje Komi (1919—1940)
Ꚍ ꚍ Twe Abkhasian
Ү ү Straight U Kazakh
Ҩ ҩ Abkhasian Ha Abkhasian
Һ һ Shha Kazakh
Ꚕ ꚕ Hwe Abkhasian
Ꚏ ꚏ Tswe Abkhasian
Ꙡ ꙡ Reversed Tse
Ћ ћ Tshe Serbian
Ҽ ҽ Abkhasian Che Abkhasian
Ꚗ ꚗ Shwe Abkhasian
Ꙟ ꙟ Yn
Ꙏ ꙏ Neutral Yer
Ѣ ѣ Yat
Ꙕ ꙕ Reversed Yu
Ѧ ѧ Little Yus
Ꙙ ꙙ Closed Little Yus
Ѫ ѫ Big Yus
Ꙛ ꙛ Blended Yus

Letters with diacriticsEdit

Letters with diacritics
Letter Name Notes
Ӑ ӑ A with breve Chuvash, Khanty
Ӓ ӓ A with diaeresis Kildin Sami
А̄ а̄ A with macron Kildin Sami
А̊ а̊ A with ring above
Ѓ ѓ Gje Macedonian
Ґ ґ Ghe with upturn Ukrainian
Ғ ғ Ghe with stroke Kazakh
Ӻ ӻ Ghe with stroke and hook Nivkh
Ҕ ҕ Ghe with middle hook Yakut
Ӷ ӷ Ghe with descender
Г̧ г̧ Ghe with cedilla
Ѐ ѐ Ye with grave
Ӗ ӗ Ye with breve Chuvash
Ё̄ ё̄ Yo with macron
Е̄ е̄ Ye with macron
Е̃ е̃ Ye with tilde
Є̈ є̈ Ukrainian Ye with diaeresis Khanty
Ӂ ӂ Zhe with breve
Ӝ ӝ Zhe with diaeresis Udmurt
Җ җ Zhe with descender Tatar
З́ з́ Ze with acute
Ӟ ӟ Ze with diaeresis Udmurt
Ҙ ҙ Ze with descender Bashkir
Ѝ ѝ I with grave
Ҋ ҋ Short I with tail Kildin Sami
Ӥ ӥ I with diaeresis Udmurt
Ӣ ӣ I with macron
И̃ и̃ I with tilde
Ќ ќ Kje Macedonian
Ӄ ӄ Ka with hook Aleut
Ҟ ҟ Ka with stroke Abkhasian
Ҝ ҝ Ka with vertical stroke Azerbaijan
Ԟ ԟ Aleut Ka Aleut
Қ қ Ka with descender Kazakh, khanty
Ԓ ԓ El with hook
Ԡ ԡ El with middle hook
Ԯ ԯ El with descender Khanty
Ӆ ӆ El with tail Kildin Sami
Ӎ ӎ Em with tail Kildin Sami
Ӈ ӈ En with hook Kildin Sami, khanty
Ԣ ԣ En with middle hook Chuvash (1872), udmurt (to 1897)
Ԩ ԩ En with left hook Orok
Ң ң En with descender Kazakh, tatar, bashkir, khakassian
Ӊ ӊ En with tail Kildin sami
О̄ о̄ O with macron
Ӧ ӧ O with diaeresis Udmurt
Ӫ ӫ Barred O with diaeresis Khanty
Ҧ ҧ Pe with middle hook Abkhasian
Ԥ ԥ Pe with descender Abkhasian
Р̌ р̌ Er with caron Nivkh
С́ с́ Es with acute
Ҫ ҫ Es with descender Baskir
Ꚋ ꚋ Te with middle hook Abkhasian (1909—1926)
Ҭ ҭ Te with descender Abkhasian
Ӳ ӳ U with double acute Chuvash
Ў ў Short U Byelorussian
Ӱ ӱ U with diaeresis Khanty
Ӯ ӯ U with macron Tajik
Ұ ұ Straight U with stroke Kazakh
Ӽ ӽ Kha with hook
Ӿ ӿ Kha with stroke
Ҳ ҳ Kha with descender
Ԧ ԧ Shha with descender
Ӵ ӵ Che with diaeresis Udmurt
Ҹ ҹ Che with vertical stroke Azerbaijan
Ҷ ҷ Che with descender Tajik
Ӌ ӌ Khakassian Che Khakassian
Ҿ ҿ Abkhasian Che with descender Abkhasian
Ы̆ ы̆ Yerý with breve
Ӹ ӹ Yerý with diaeresis
Ꙑ ꙑ Yerý with back yer Old Church Slavonic
Ы̄ ы̄ Yerý with macron
Ы̃ ы̃ Yerý with tilde
Ҍ ҍ Semisoft Sign Kildin Sami
Э̄ э̄ E with macron
Ӭ ӭ E with diaeresis Kildin Sami
Ӭ́ ӭ́ E with diaeresis and acute Kildin Sami
Ӭ̄ ӭ̄ E with diaeresis and macron
Э̇ э̇ E with dot above
Ю̈ ю̈ Yu with diaeresis
Ю̈́ ю̈́ Yu with diaeresis and acute Rusyn
Ю̄ ю̄ Yu with macron
Я̆ я̆ Ya with breve
Я̈ я̈ Ya with diaeresis
Я̄ я̄ Ya with macron Kildin Sami
Ӛ ӛ Schwa with diaeresis


Letter Decomposition Name Notes
Ӕ ӕ АЕ Ligature A Ie Ossetian
Ꙣ ꙣ ДГ Soft De Old Church Slavonic
Ԫ ԫ ДЖ Dzzhe
Ԭ ԭ ДЧ Dche
Ꚉ ꚉ ДЗ Dzze
Ꚅ ꚅ ЗЖ Zhwe Abkhasian
Ꙗ ꙗ ІА Iotified A Old Church Slavonic
Ѥ ѥ ІЄ Iotified E Old Church Slavonic
Ꙓ ꙓ ІѢ Iotified Yat Old Church Slavonic
Ѩ ѩ ІѦ Iotified Little Yus Old Church Slavonic
Ꙝ ꙝ ІꙘ Iotified Closed Little Yus
Ѭ ѭ ІѪ Iotified Big Yus Old Church Slavonic
Ꙥ ꙥ ЛГ Soft El Old Church Slavonic
Ԕ ԕ ЛХ Lha
Љ љ ЛЬ Lje Macedonian, serbian
Ꙧ ꙧ МГ Soft Em Old Church Slavonic
Ҥ ҥ НГ Ligature En Ghe Yakut
Њ њ НЬ Nje Macedonian, serbian
Ꚙ ꚙ ОО Double O
Ꙭ ꙭ ꙨꙨ Double Monocular O
Ѹ ѹ Оу Uk Old Church Slavonic
Ꙋ ꙋ
Ѿ ѿ ꙌТ Ot Old Church Slavonic
Ԗ ԗ РХ Rha
Ꚑ ꚑ ТС Tsse Abkhasian (to 1926)
Ҵ ҵ ТЦ Ligature Te Tse Abkhasian
Ꚓ ꚓ ТЧ Tche Abkhasian (1909—1926)
Ꚇ ꚇ ЧЧ Cche Abkhasian (to 1926)
Ԙ ԙ ЯЕ Yae

Position cyrillic letters in alphabetEdit

Variants of Cyrillic are used by the writing systems of many languages, especially languages used in the former Soviet Union. The tables below list the Cyrillic letters in use in various modern languages and show the primary sounds they represent in them (see the articles on the specific languages for more detail). Letter forms with a combined diacritic which are not considered separate letters in any language (notably vowels with accent marks which are sometimes used in some languages to indicate stress and/or tone) are excluded from the tables, with the exception of ѐ and ѝ[a]. The highlighted letters are those of the basic (original) Cyrillic alphabet; archaic letters no longer in use in any language today are not listed.

For letters not on this list, see Template:Infobox Cyrillic letter.

Usage of letters in various languages
Language families Slavic languages Other Indo-European Uralic Caucasian
Alphabet ru be uk rue sr[b] bg mk mo os tg sjd mhr mrj udm kca yrk ab kbd ce
А а /a/ /ɑ/ /a/ /ɑ/ /a/ /ɑ/ //
Ӑ ӑ  
Ӓ ӓ   /ʲa/ /æ/ /ɐ/  
Ә ә   /ɤ~ʌ/  
Ӛ ӛ   /ɘ/  
Ӕ ӕ   /ɐ/  
Б б /b/ /β, b/ /b/
В в /v/ /ʋ~w/ /v/
Г г /ɡ/ /ɣ/ /ɦ/ /ɡ/ /ɣ, ɡ/ /ɡ/ /ɣ, ɡ/ /ɡ/ /ɣ/ /ɡ/
Ґ ґ   /ɡ/  
Ѓ ѓ   /ɟ~/  
Ғ ғ   /ʁ/  
Ӷ ӷ   /ɣ~ʁ/  
Ҕ ҕ   /ɣ/  
Д д /d/ /ð, d/ /d/
Ђ ђ   /d͡ʑ/  
Е е /je, e/ /e/ /je, ʲe/ /e/ /je, ʲe/ /e, ʲe, je/ /je, ʲe, e, ɤ/ /ɛ/ /e, ja, aj/ /e, ɛː, je, ie/
Ѐ ѐ   /e/[a]  
Ё ё /jɵ/[c] /jɔ/ /jɔ/   /jo/ /jɒ/ /jo, ʲo/ /jo/ /jo, ʲo/   /jo/
Ӗ ӗ  
Ҽ ҽ   /ʈʂ/  
Ҿ ҿ   /ʈ͡ʂʼ/  
Є є   /je/  
Ж ж /ʐ/ /ʒ/ /ʐ/ /ʒ/ /ʐ/ /ʒ/
Ӂ ӂ   //  
Җ җ  
Ӝ ӝ   /d͡ʒ/  
З з /z/ /z~ʒ/ /z/
З́ з́   //[b]  
Ҙ ҙ  
Ӟ ӟ   /dʲʑ/  
Ӡ ӡ   /dz/  
Ѕ ѕ   /dz/  
И и /i/ /ɪ/ /i/ /i, ʲi/ /i/ /i~ɨ/ /i/
Ѝ ѝ   /i/[a]  
Ӥ ӥ   /i/  
Ӣ ӣ   /iː/  
І і /i/  
Ї ї   /ji/  
Ӏ ӏ   /ʔ/ /ʢ/
Й й /j/ /j/ /j/ /j/
Ҋ ҋ   //  
Ј ј   /j/ /j/    
К к /k/ // /k/
Қ қ   /q/   /kʰ/  
Ҟ ҟ   //  
Ҡ ҡ  
Ӄ ӄ   /q/  
Ҝ ҝ  
Л л /l~ɫ/ /l/ /l~ɫ/ /l/ /l~ɫ/ /l/ /l~ɮ/ /l/
Ӆ ӆ   //  
Љ љ   /ʎ/ /ʎ/  
М м /m/
Ӎ ӎ   //  
Н н /n/
Ӊ ӊ   //  
Ң ң  
Ӈ ӈ   /ŋ/   /ŋ/  
Ҥ ҥ   /ŋ/  
Њ њ   /ɲ/ /ɲ/  
О о /o/ /ɔ/ /o/ /ɔ/ /o/ /ɔ/ /o/ /ɔ/ /o/
Ӧ ӧ   /ø/ /ʌ/ /ø/  
Ө ө   /ŏ/  
Ӫ ӫ   /ɵ~ɞ/  
Ҩ ҩ   /ɥ/  
П п /p/ // /p/
Ԥ ԥ   /pʰ/  
Р р /r/ /r~ɾ/ /r/
Ҏ ҏ   //  
С с /s/ /s~ʃ/ /s/
С́ с́   //[b]  
Ҫ ҫ  
Т т /t/ // /t/
Ҭ ҭ   /tʰ/  
Ћ ћ   /t͡ɕ/  
Ќ ќ   /c~/  
У у /u/ [u]; /w/ /u/
Ў ў /w/  
Ӳ ӳ  
Ӱ ӱ   /y/ /y/  
Ӯ ӯ   /ɵ~ø/  
Ү ү  
Ұ ұ  
Ф ф /f/
Х х /x/ /h/ /χ/ /x/ /χ/ /x/
Ҳ ҳ   /h/   /ħ/  
Һ һ   /ʰ~h/  
Ц ц /ts/
Ҵ ҵ   /tsʼ/  
Ч ч // /ʈʂ/ // /ʈ͡ʂ/ // // // // /ʰ/ //
Ӵ ӵ   //  
Ҷ ҷ   //   /tʃʼ/  
Ӌ ӌ  
Ҹ ҹ  
Џ џ   /ɖ͡ʐ/ //   /ɖʐ/  
Ш ш /ʂ/ /ʃ/ /ʂ/ /ʃ/ /ʃ~ʂ/ /ʃ/ /ʂ/ /ʃ/
Щ щ /ɕː/ /ʃ/ /ʃt/   /ʃ/ (/ʃ/) /ç/ /ʃ/ /ɕ(ː)/ /ʃ/ /ɕː/ /ɕ/  
Ъ ъ [d]   [d] /ɤ~ɐ/   [e] /ʔ/ [d] /ˠ/ /ʔ/
Ы ы [ɨ] /ɨ/   /ɨ/ (/i/) /ɨ/ /ɤ/ /ɨ~ɯ/ /ɨ/ /ə/ (/i/)
Ӹ ӹ   /ɯ~ə/  
Ь ь /ʲ/ /ʲ/ /ʲ/ (/ʲ/) /ʲ/ [f]
Ҍ ҍ   /ʲ/  
Э э [ɛ] /ɛ/   /ə/ (/e/) /e/ /e, ɛː/ /e, æ/   /e/
Ӭ ӭ   /ʲe/  
Ю ю /ju/ /ju/ /ju/ /ju/
Я я /ja/ /jɑ/ /ja/ /ja/ /ja/ /jɑ/ /ja/ /jɑ/ /ja/
Alphabet ru be uk rue sr bg mk mo os tg sjd mhr mrj udm kca yrk ab kbd ce
Usage of letters in various languages
Language families Turkic languages Tung. Mongolic Chin.
Alphabet az tk kk ky krc ba tt alt kjh sah tyv uz ug cv evn bua mn xal dng
А а /ɑ/ /a/ /ɑ/ /a/, /æ/ /a/ /ɑ/ /a/ /ɑ/ /a~æ/ /ɑ/ /a/ /a, ɑ/
Ӑ ӑ /ə/  
Ӓ ӓ  
Ә ә /æ/ /æ/ /æ/ /æ/ /ɤ/
Ӛ ӛ  
Ӕ ӕ  
Б б /b/ /b~p/ /b/ /w/ /b/ /p/
В в /v/ /β/ (/v/) /v/ /w/ /w/, /v/ (/v/) /v/ (/v/) /v/, /w/ /w/ (/v/) /ʋ/ /v/ (/w~β/) // /w/
Г г /ɡ/ /ɡ~ʁ/ /ɡ/ /ɡ/, /ɣ/ /ɡ/ /ɡ/, /ɣ/ /ɡ/ /ɡ/, /ɢ/ /k/
Ґ ґ  
Ѓ ѓ  
Ғ ғ /ɣ/ /ʁ/ /ɣ/ /ɣ/ /ɣ/ /ʁ/  
Ӷ ӷ  
Ҕ ҕ /ɣ~ʁ/  
Д д /d/ /d~t/ /d/ /t/
Ђ ђ  
Е е /e/ /iɘ/ /je, e/ /e/ /e/ /e/, /je/, /jɤ/ /e/ /je, e/ (/e/, /je/) /e, je/ /ɛ/, /jɛ/ /e/ /ɛ/ /je/ /ji~jo/ /je/ /iɛ/
Ѐ ѐ  
Ё ё /jo/ (/jo/) /jo/ /ø/ /jo/ (/jo/) /jo/ (/jo/) (/jɔ/) (/jo/) /jo/ /jɔ/ /iɔ/
Ӗ ӗ /ɘ/  
Ҽ ҽ  
Ҿ ҿ  
Є є  
Ж ж /ʒ/ // //, /ʒ/ /ʒ/ (/ʒ/) /ʒ/ // /ʒ/ /ʐ/ /ʒ/ // /ʐ/
Ӂ ӂ  
Җ җ // /ʑ/ // // /, /
Ӝ ӝ  
З з /z/ /ð/ /z/ (/z/) /z/ /ts/
З́ з́  
Ҙ ҙ /ð/  
Ӟ ӟ  
Ӡ ӡ  
Ѕ ѕ  
И и /i/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/, /ɯ/ /i/ /i, ei/
Ѝ ѝ  
Ӥ ӥ  
Ӣ ӣ  
І і   /ɘ/   /ɪ/  
Ї ї  
Ӏ ӏ  
Й й /j/ /j/, /ȷ̃/ /j/ /i/ /j/
Ҋ ҋ  
Ј ј /j/ /ɟ/  
К к /c/ (/k/) /k~q/ /k/ /k~q/ /k/ /k/, /q/ /k/ /k~q/ /k/ (/k/) (/kʰ~x/) (/k/) /kʰ/
Қ қ /q/ /q/  
Ҟ ҟ  
Ҡ ҡ /q/  
Ӄ ӄ  
Ҝ ҝ /ɟ/  
Л л /l/ /ɮ/ /l/
Ӆ ӆ  
Љ љ  
М м /m/
Ӎ ӎ  
Н н /n/
Ӊ ӊ  
Ң ң /ŋ/ /ŋ/ /ŋ/ /ŋ/ /ŋ/ /ŋ/
Ӈ ӈ /ŋ/
Ҥ ҥ /ŋ/ /ŋ/
Њ њ  
О о /o/ /uʊ/ /o/ /ɔ/ /o/ /ɔ/
Ӧ ӧ /ø/  
Ө ө /ø/ /yʉ/ /ø/ /ø/ /ø/ /ø/ /ø/ /o/  
Ӫ ӫ  
Ҩ ҩ  
П п /p/ /p~pʰ/ /p/ (/p/) (/pʰ/) /pʰ/
Ԥ ԥ  
Р р /ɾ/ /r/ /ɾ/ /r/ /ɾ/ /r/ /ɾ/ /r/ /ɚ, r/
Ҏ ҏ  
С с /s/ /θ/ /s/
С́ с́  
Ҫ ҫ /θ/ /ɕ/  
Т т /t/ /t~tʰ/ /t/ /tʰ/
Ҭ ҭ  
Ћ ћ  
Ќ ќ  
У у /u/ /w/, /ʊw/, /ʉw/ /u/ /u/, /w/ /u/ /ʊ/ /ɤu, u/
Ў ў /w/ /o/ /u/
Ӳ ӳ /y/  
Ӱ ӱ /y/  
Ӯ ӯ  
Ү ү /y/ /ʉ/ /y/ /y/ /y/, /w/ /y/ /ʏ/ /y/ /u/ /y/
Ұ ұ /ʊ/  
Ф ф /f/ /ɸ/ (/f/) /f/ /ɸ/ (/f/) /f~ɸ/ (/f/) /f/ (/f/) (/f~pʰ/) (/f/) /f/
Х х /x~χ/ /h~x/ (/x/) /h/ /x/ /χ/ /x/
Ҳ ҳ /h/  
Һ һ /h/ /h/ /h/ /h/ /h/ /h/ /h/  
Ц ц (/ts/) (/t͡s/) (/ts/) /t͡s/ (/ts/) /t͡s/ (/ts/) (/t͡s/) (/ts/) (/ts/) /ts/ (/ts/) /t͡sʰ/
Ҵ ҵ  
Ч ч // (//) // /ɕ/ (/tʃ/) // /c/ // // // (/tʃ/) /ʰ/ /ʰ, ʰ/
Ӵ ӵ  
Ҷ ҷ  
Ӌ ӌ //  
Ҹ ҹ //  
Џ џ  
Ш ш /ʃ/ (/ʃ/) /ʃ/ /ʂ/ /ʃ/ /ʂ/
Щ щ (/ʃ/) (/ɕ/) /ʃ, ʃː/ (/ʃ/) /ɕ/ /ʃɕ/ (/ʃtʃ/) /ɕː/ (/ɕː/) (/ʃ/) (/ɕː/, /ɕ/) (/ʃ/) /ɕ/
Ъ ъ [g] /ʲ/ /ʔ/ [g] /ˤ/ [ʔ] [g] [d] [g]
Ы ы /ɯ/ /ə/ /ɯ/ /ɨ/ /ɯ/ /ɤ/ /ɯ/ /ɯ/ /i/ /ʉ/ /i/ /ɪ, ɨə/
Ӹ ӹ  
Ь ь [g] /ʲ/ /ʔ/ /ʲ/ [g] /ʲ/ [g] [g] /ʲ/ [g]
Ҍ ҍ  
Э э /e/ (/e/) /e/ /e/, /æ/ /e/ /e/, /ʔ/ (/e/) /e/ /ɛ/ /e/ /ɛ/ /e/ /ɛ/
Ӭ ӭ  
Ю ю /ju/ /jʉw/, /jʊw/ /ju, jy/ /y/ /ju/ /ju/, /jy/ (/ju/) /ju/ (/ju/) /ju/ /ju, jʊ/ /jʊ/ /iɤu/
Я я /ja/ /jɑ/ /ja, jɑ/ /æ/ /ja/ /ja/, /jæ/ (/jɑ/) /ja/ (/ja/) (/jɑ/) (/ja/) /ja/ /ia, iɑ/
Alphabet az tk kk ky krc ba tt alt kjh sah tyv uz ug cv bua mn xal evn dng

See alsoEdit


  • ^a ѐ and ѝ – considered variants of е and и, respectively, not separate letters – are included here because they are used in some South Slavic languages for preventing ambiguity and have been assigned separate Unicode code points.
  • ^b The letters з́ and с́ only appear in the Montenegrin alphabet, which is otherwise identical to the Serbian alphabet and was not given a separate column.
  • ^c In normal Russian texts ё is written without the dots, that is it appears as е. The dots are sometimes added to prevent ambiguity or in children books.
  • ^d In the indicated languages, ъ indicates that the preceding consonant is not iotated.
  • ^e In Ossetian, ъ is combined with consonants to indicate new phonemes, most commonly ejective consonants.
  • ^f In Chechen, ь is combined with both consonants and vowels to indicate various new phonemes.
  • ^g Only used in borrowings, not in native words.
  • There are many languages that use two or more scripts, for example Latin or Arabic.
  • In Belarusian and Ukrainian there is an apostrophe to indicate de-palatalization of the preceding consonant.
  • Azerbaijani has the apostrophe ⟨ʼ⟩ as a letter.
  • Nenets has the apostrophe ⟨ʼ⟩ and double apostrophe ⟨ˮ⟩ as letters.

External linksEdit