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Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate

The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ʃ⟩, ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ or ⟨⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʧ⟩). It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".

Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
t͡ʃ
t͜ʃ
t̠ʃ
IPA number 103 134
Encoding
Entity (decimal) t​͡​ʃ
Unicode (hex) U+0074 U+0361 U+0283
X-SAMPA tS or t_rS
Kirshenbaum tS
Listen

Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in English, Gulf Arabic, Slavic languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel.

Contents

FeaturesEdit

Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe чэмы   [t͡ʃamə]  'cow' Some dialects contrast labialized and non-labialized forms.
Albanian çelur [t͡ʃɛluɾ] 'open'
Aleut Atkan dialect chamĝul [t͡ʃɑmʁul] 'to wash'
Amharic አንቺ [ant͡ʃi] 'you'
Arabic[1] Central Palestinian مكتبة (Normally unwritten) [ˈmat͡ʃt̪abe] 'library' Corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Iraqi چتاب [t͡ʃɪˈt̪ɑːb] 'book'
Jordanian كتاب (Normally unwritten) [t͡ʃɪˈt̪aːb]
Armenian Eastern[2] ճնճղուկ   [t͡ʃənt͡ʃʁuk]  'sparrow'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic chmah [t͡ʃmaː] 'how many?' Used in the Urmia and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [k] in other varieties.
Azeri Əkinçi [ækint͡ʃi] 'the ploughman'
Bengali শমা [t͡ʃɔʃma] 'spectacles' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Basque txalupa [t͡ʃalupa] 'boat'
Bulgarian чучулига [t͡ʃut͡ʃuˈliɡɐ] 'lark' See Bulgarian phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'ik nacaq [ˈnat͡ʃaq] 'parka hood'
Choctaw hakchioma [hakt͡ʃioma] 'tobacco'
Coptic Bohairic dialect ϭⲟϩ [t͡ʃoh] 'touch'
Czech morče [ˈmo̞rt͡ʃɛ] 'guinea pig' See Czech phonology
English leach [ˈliːt͡ʃ] 'leach' See English phonology
Esperanto ĉar [t͡ʃar] 'because' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese gera [t͡ʃeːɹa] 'to do' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Faroese phonology
French Standard caoutchouc [kaut͡ʃu] 'rubber' Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords. See French phonology
Acadian tiens [t͡ʃɛ̃] '(I/you) keep' Allophone of /k/ and /tj/ before a front vowel.
Galician cheo [ˈt͡ʃeo] 'full' Galician-Portuguese /t͡ʃ/ is conserved in Galician and merged with /ʃ/ in most Portuguese dialects. See Galician phonology
Georgian[3] იხი [t͡ʃixi] 'impasse'
German Standard[4] Tschinelle [t͡ʃʷiˈnɛlə] 'cymbal' Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot τζ̌αι [t͡ʃe̞] 'and' Contrasts with /t͡ʃʰː/ and prenasalised [d͡ʒ].
Hebrew תשובה [t͡ʃuˈva] 'answer' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani चाय چاۓ [t͡ʃɑːj] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Haitian Creole match [mat͡ʃ] 'sports match'
Hungarian gyümölcs [ˈɟymølt͡ʃleː] 'juice' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5] ciao [ˈt͡ʃaːo] 'ciao' See Italian phonology
K'iche' K'iche' [kʼiˈt͡ʃeʔ] 'K'iche'' Contrasts with ejective form
Kabardian чэнж   [t͡ʃanʒ]  'shallow'
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Macedonian чека [t͡ʃɛka] 'wait' See Macedonian phonology
Malay cuci [t͡ʃut͡ʃi] 'wash'
Maltese bliċ [blit͡ʃ] 'bleach'
Marathi हा [t͡ʃəhɑː] 'tea' See Marathi phonology
Nahuatl āyōtōchtli [aːjoːˈtoːt͡ʃt͡ɬi] 'armadillo'
Norwegian Some dialects kjøkken [t͡ʃøkːen] 'kitchen' See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[7] [t͡ʃaɾo] 'needle'
Occitan chuc [ˈt͡ʃyk] 'juice' See Occitan phonology
Persian چوب [t͡ʃʰuːb] 'wood' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna ciemny [ˈt͡ʃɛmn̪ɘ] 'dark' /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ merge into [t͡ʃ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /t͡ʃ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[9] presente [pɾe̞ˈzẽ̞t͡ʃi] 'present' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects tchau [ˈt͡ʃaw] 'bye' In Standard European Portuguese it occurs only in recent loanwords.
Punjabi ਚੌਲ [t͡ʃɔːl] 'rice'
Romanian cer [t͡ʃe̞r] 'sky' See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[10] joni [ˈt͡ʃɔni] 'to flee'
Scottish Gaelic slàinte [ˈsl̪ˠaːnʲt͡ʃə] 'health' Southern dialects only; standard pronunciation is [tʲ]. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers čokoláda чоколада [t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈɫǎ̠ːd̪a̠] 'chocolate' In varieties that distinguish /t͡ʃ/ from /t͡ɕ/ it may be laminal retroflex instead. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian Ловћен Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ʃe̞n] 'Lovćen' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /t͡ʃ/ and /t͡ɕ/, either to [t͡ʃ] or to laminal [ʈ͡ʂ].
Croatian
Silesian Gmina Istebna[11] [example needed] These dialects merge /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ into [t͡ʃ].
Jablunkov[11] [example needed]
Spanish[12] chocolate   [t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈlät̪e̞]  'chocolate' See Spanish phonology
Swahili jicho [ʄit͡ʃo] 'eye'
Swedish Finland tjugo [t͡ʃʉːɡʉ] 'twenty' See Swedish phonology
Some rural Swedish dialects kärlek [t͡ʃæːɭeːk] 'love'
Tlingit jinkaat [ˈt͡ʃiŋkʰaːtʰ] 'ten'
Turkish çim [t͡ʃim] 'sward' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh Çəbƹəja [t͡ʃəbʒəja] 'pepper' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[13] чотири [t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ] 'four' See Ukrainian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[14] chane [t͡ʃanɘ]

Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t͡ʃ/.

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricateEdit

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
t̠͡ɹ̠̊˔
t̠ɹ̠̊˔
t͡ɹ̝̊˗
tɹ̝̊˗
Listen

FeaturesEdit

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Australian[15] tree [t̠ɹ̠̊˔ʷɪi̯] 'tree' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /tr/.[15][16][17][18] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [tɹ̝̊].[16] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[16][17]
Received Pronunciation[16][17]
Port Talbot[18] [t̠ɹ̠̊˔iː]

NotesEdit

BibliographyEdit