Komi language

The Komi language (Коми кыв, Komi kyv), also known as Zyryan or Komi-Zyryan,[2] is one of the two regional varieties of the pluricentric Komi language, the other regional variety being Permyak.

Komi language
Коми кыв
Native toRussia
RegionKomi Republic
Native speakers
160,000 (2010 census)[1]
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
Komi
Language codes
ISO 639-1kv
ISO 639-3kpv
Glottologkomi1268
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Komi is natively spoken by the Komi peoples native to the Komi Republic and other parts of Russia. There were 285,000 speakers in 1994. Komi has a standard form.

It was written in the Old Permic alphabet for liturgical purposes in the 14th century. The Cyrillic script was introduced by Russia missionaries in the 17th century, replacing the Old Permic script. A tradition of secular works of literature in the modern form of the language dates back to the 19th century.

DialectsEdit

Komi has ten dialects: Prisyktyvkarsky, Lower Vychegdan, Central Vychegdan, Luzsko-letsky, Upper Sysolan, Upper Vychegdan, Pechoran, Izhemsky, Vymsky, and Udorsky. Prisyktyvkarsky is spoken in the region of Syktyvkar and forms the model for the generic standard dialect of the language. Dialects are divided based primarily on their use of /v/ and /l/:[3]

  • Older */l/ remains unchanged in upper Vychegdan and Pechoran dialects (also in most dialects of Komi-Permyak).
  • In Central dialects, /*l/ changed to /v/ syllable-finally; for instance, in literary Komi */kɨl//kɨv/ "tongue".
  • In Northern dialects, changes of /l/ continued with complete vocalization of syllable-final /l/, resulting in long vowels.

The start of the change date to the 17th century. It is not seen in the oldest Komi texts from the 14th century, nor in loanwords from Komi to Khanty, dated to the 16th; though it fully occurred before Russian loanwords that entered the language in the 18th century as /l/ remains unchanged in these.

Some dialects are further distinguished based on the palatalized alveolars /dʲ tʲ/, which have unpacked in syllable-final position as clusters /jd jt/.[3]

 
Komi language

Writing systemEdit

 
A sample of the Komi language words. Upper "Улица Коммунистическая" is in Russian, lower "Коммунистическӧй улича" is in Komi. Both mean "Communist street". This picture was taken in Syktyvkar, the capital of Komi Republic
 
Trilingual (Russian, Komi, and English) sign in a hotel in Ukhta, Komi Republic

The Old Permic script is the first writing system for Komi. It was invented in the 14th century by the missionary Stepan Khrap. The alphabet resembled medieval Greek and Cyrillic. In the 16th century, this alphabet was replaced by the Russian alphabet with certain modifications for affricates. In the 1920s the language was written in the Molodtsov alphabet, which also derived from Cyrillic. In the 1930s, during the Latinisation in the Soviet Union, Komi was briefly written with a version of the Latin script. Since the 1940s it uses the Russian-based Cyrillic alphabet with additional letters І, і and Ӧ, ӧ.

Komi alphabet (Коми анбур)

Cyrillic Latin IPA Letter name Notes
А а A a [ɑ] а
Б б B b [b] бе
В в V v [v] ве
Г г G g [g] ге
Д д D d
Ď ď
[d]
[ɟ] before е, ё, и, ю, я
дэ
ДЖ дж DŽ dž [dʒ] дже
ДЗ дз DZ dz
Đ đ
[dz]
[dʑ] before е, ё, и, ю, я
дзе
Е е JE je
E, e
[ʲe]
[je] word-initially and after vowels
[e] after palatalized coronals
е
Ё ё JO jo [jo] word-initially and after vowels
[o] after [c, ɟ, ɕ, ʑ, ɲ, ʎ]
ё
Ж ж Ž ž [ʒ] же
З з Z z
Ź ź
[z]
[ʑ] before е, ё, и, ю, я
зэ
И и JI ji
I i
[ʲi]
[ji] word-initially and after vowels
[i] after [c, ɟ, ɕ, ʑ, ɲ, ʎ]
небыд и ("soft i")
І і I i [i] after т, д, с, з, н, л чорыд и ("hard i") Non-palatalized form of и.
Й й J j [j] и краткӧй
К к K k [k] ка
Л л L l
Ľ ľ
[ɫ]
[ʎ] before е, ё, и, ю, я
эл
М м M m [m] эм
Н н N n
Ñ ñ
[n]
[ɲ] before е, ё, и, ю, я
эн
О о O o [o] о
Ӧ ӧ Õ õ [ɘ~ə] ӧ
П п P p [p] пе
Р р R r [r] эр
С с S s
Ś ś
[s]
[ɕ] before е, ё, и, ю, я
эс
Т т T t
Ť ť
[t]
[c] before е, ё, и, ю, я
тэ
ТШ тш Č č [tʃ] тше
У у U u [u] у
Ф ф F f [f] эф In loanwords.
Х х H h [x] ха In loanwords.
Ц ц C c [ts] це In loanwords.
Ч ч Ć ć [tɕ] че
Ш ш Š š [ʃ] ша
Щ щ ŠČ šč [ɕ(ː)] ща In loanwords.
Ъ ъ - - чорыд знак ("hard sign") Same usage in Russian.
Ы ы Y y [ɨ] ы
Ь ь - [ʲ] небыд знак ("soft sign") Same usage in Russian.
Э э E e [e] э Non-palataized form of е.
Ю ю JU ju [ju]
[u] after т, д, с, з, н, л
ю
Я я JA ja [jɑ]
[ɑ] after т, д, с, з, н, л
я

Letters particular to the Molodtsov alphabet include ԁ, ԃ, ԅ, ԇ, ԉ, ԋ, ԍ, ԏ, most of which represent palatalized consonants.

The Molodtsov alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ԁ ԁ Ԃ ԃ Д д Е е Ж ж Ԅ ԅ Ԇ ԇ
И и Ј ј К к Л л Ԉ ԉ М м Н н Ԋ ԋ О о П п Р р
С с Ԍ ԍ Т т Ԏ ԏ У у Ф ф Х х Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ы ы

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant phonemes of Zyrian
Labial Dental Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive voiceless p t c k
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless s ʃ ɕ
voiced v z ʒ ʑ
Trill r
Approximant lateral l ʎ
central j

VowelsEdit

Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Open a

GrammarEdit

Komi has 17 cases, with a rich inventory of locative cases. Like other Uralic languages, Komi has no gender. Verbs agree with subjects in person and number (sg/pl). Negation is expressed with an auxiliary verb, which is inflected for person, number and tense.

Komi is an agglutinative language and adheres to a subject–object–verb order.[4]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Komi language at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Komi language Britannica.
  3. ^ a b Bartens 2000, p. 47-49
  4. ^ [1]

BibliographyEdit

  • Bartens, Raija (2000). Permiläisten kielten rakenne ja kehitys (in Finnish). Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. ISBN 952-5150-55-0.
  • Abondolo, Daniel (2015). The Uralic Languages. Routledge
  • R. M. Batalova. 1993. Komi(-Zyryanskij) Jazyk. In V. N. Jartseva (ed.), Jazyki Mira: Ural'skie Jazyki, 214–229. Moskva: Nauka.
  • Fed'un'ova, G.V. Önija komi kyv ('The Modern Komi Language'). Morfologia/Das’töma filologijasa kandidat G.V.Fed'un'ova kipod ulyn. Syktyvkar: Komi n’ebög ledzanin, 2000. 544 pp. ISBN 5-7555-0689-2.

External linksEdit