Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

The Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YaNAO; Russian: Яма́ло-Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг (ЯНАО), Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug (YaNAO); Nenets: Ямалы-Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, Jamaly-Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk) or Yamalia (Russian: Ямалия) is a federal subject of Russia and an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Salekhard, and its largest city is Noyabrsk. The 2010 Russian Census recorded its population as 522,904.[7] The Autonomous Okrug borders Krasnoyarsk Krai to the east, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug to the south, Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Komi Republic to the west.

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Ямало-Ненецкий автономный округ
Coat of arms of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Anthem: Anthem of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
[3]
Map of Russia - Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug.svg
Coordinates: 67°15′N 74°40′E / 67.250°N 74.667°E / 67.250; 74.667Coordinates: 67°15′N 74°40′E / 67.250°N 74.667°E / 67.250; 74.667
CountryRussia
Federal districtUral[1]
Economic regionWest Siberian[2]
CapitalSalekhard
Government
 • BodyLegislative Assembly[4]
 • Governor[4]Dmitry Artyukhov[5]
Area
 • Total750,300 km2 (289,700 sq mi)
 • Rank6th
Population
 (2010 Census)[7]
 • Total522,904
 • Estimate 
(2018)[8]
538,547 (+3%)
 • Rank71st
 • Density0.70/km2 (1.8/sq mi)
 • Urban
84.7%
 • Rural
15.3%
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[9])
ISO 3166 codeRU-YAN
License plates89
OKTMO ID71900000
Official languagesRussian[10]
Websitehttp://правительство.янао.рф

Geography and natural historyEdit

 
Map of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

The West Siberian petroleum basin is the largest hydrocarbon (petroleum and natural gas) basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2, and is also the largest oil and gas producing region in Russia.[12]

The Nenets people are an indigenous tribe who have long survived in this region. Their prehistoric life involved subsistence hunting and gathering, including the taking of polar bears; the practice of hunting polar bears (Ursus maritimus) continues up to the present time.[13]

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude, that is, at the point 70°N and 70°E, with equal degrees. The Polar Urals rise in the western part and the highest point of the okrug, as well as of the whole Ural mountain system, is Mount Payer.[14][15]

The area consists of arctic tundra and taiga, with three large peninsulas - the Yamal Peninsula, Taz Peninsula and the Gyda Peninsula (itself containing the Yavay Peninsula and Mamonta Peninsula). There are nearly 300,000 lakes in the okrug, some of the main ones being Pyakuto, Chyortovo, Neito, Yambuto, Yarroto and Nembuto.[16]

The Ob River flows through Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug to the Kara Sea via the Gulf of Ob, which dominates the geography of the Okrug (together with its two sub-bays, the Taz Estuary and Khalmyer Bay.[17][18][19]

A number of islands are off the okrug's coast - from west to east, the main ones are Torasovey Island, Bolotnyy Island, Litke Island, Sharapovy Koshki Islands, Bely Island, Shokalsky Island, Petsovyye Islands, Proklyatyye Islands, Oleny Island, and Vilkitsky Island.

HistoryEdit

On December 10, 1930, Yamal (Nenets) National Okrug (Ямальский (Ненецкий) национальный округ) was formed based on Ural Oblast.

Administrative divisionsEdit

DemographicsEdit

Population: 522,904 (2010 Census);[7] 507,006 (2002 Census);[20] 486,164 (1989 Census).[21]

From 1960 to 2016, Yamal Nenets population increased from 60 000 people to more than 530 000 due to the natural resources discovered in the region. Currently, Yamal Nenets is the only Arctic Region in the Russian Federation that is not experiencing population decline. Despite the growing pressure on the regional environment, former governor Dmitry Kobylkin assured in 2016 that industrial developments are not affecting the traditional lifestyles of the native population. Official data accounts for an increment of 11 percent of the indigenous population from 2006 to 2016.[22]

 
Life expectancy at birth in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Vital statisticsEdit

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1970 84 1,683 879 804 20.0 10.5 9.6
1975 127 2,307 819 1,488 18.2 6.4 11.7
1980 194 3,347 1,178 2,169 17.3 6.1 11.2
1985 374 7,838 1,555 6,283 21.0 4.2 16.8
1990 489 8,032 1,631 6,401 16.4 3.3 13.1
1991 483 7,121 1,623 5,498 14.7 3.4 11.4
1992 470 6,123 2,108 4,015 13.0 4.5 8.5
1993 466 5,697 2,764 2,933 12.2 5.9 6.3
1994 473 6,274 2,998 3,276 13.3 6.3 6.9
1995 483 6,337 3,107 3,230 13.1 6.4 6.7
1996 489 6,241 3,004 3,237 12.8 6.1 6.6
1997 495 6,208 2,715 3,493 12.5 5.5 7.1
1998 498 6,395 2,544 3,851 12.8 5.1 7.7
1999 498 6,071 2,608 3,463 12.2 5.2 7.0
2000 497 5,839 2,763 3,076 11.7 5.6 6.2
2001 501 6,388 3,057 3,331 12.8 6.1 6.7
2002 506 6,635 2,934 3,701 13.1 5.8 7.3
2003 510 7,163 3,093 4,070 14.1 6.1 8.0
2004 511 7,264 2,975 4,289 14.2 5.8 8.4
2005 512 7,148 3,099 4,049 14.0 6.0 7.9
2006 513 7,036 3,000 4,036 13.7 5.8 7.9
2007 515 7,700 2,937 4,763 14.9 5.7 9.2
2008 517 7,892 2,959 4,933 15.3 5.7 9.5
2009 519 8,216 2,924 5,292 15.8 5.6 10.2
2010 522 8,263 2,873 5,390 15.8 5.5 10.3

Regional demographicsEdit

 
North Districts of Novy Urengoy

Source[23]

Raion Pp (2007) Births Deaths Growth BR DR NGR
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 538,600 5,814 2,202 3,612 14.39 5.45 0.89%
Salekhard 40,500 499 256 243 16.43 8.43 0.80%
Gubkinsky 22,300 263 71 192 15.72 4.25 1.15%
Labytnangi 27,700 333 212 121 16.03 10.20 0.58%
Muravlenko 37,000 361 104 257 13.01 3.75 0.93%
Nadym 48,500 443 197 246 12.18 5.42 0.68%
Novy Urengoy 117,000 1,122 334 788 12.79 3.81 0.90%
Noyabrsk 109,900 1,029 384 645 12.48 4.66 0.78%
Krasnoselkupsky 6,200 99 41 58 21.29 8.82 1.25%
Nadymsky 21,300 221 67 154 13.83 4.19 0.96%
Priuralsky 15,300 179 72 107 15.60 6.27 0.93%
Purovsky 49,900 548 195 353 14.64 5.21 0.94%
Tazovsky 17,200 268 92 176 20.78 7.13 1.36%
Shuryshkarsky 9,900 144 69 75 19.39 9.29 1.01%
Yamalsky 15,900 305 108 197 25.58 9.06 1.65%

Ethnic groupsEdit

The Nenets make up 5.9% of the population, preceded by ethnic Russians (61.7%) and Ukrainians (9.7%), followed by Tatars (5.6%). Other prominent ethnic groups include Belarusians (1.3%), Khants (1.9%), Azerbaijanis (1.8%), Bashkirs (1.7%), Komi (1%), and Moldovans (0.9%) (all figures are from the 2010 Census).[7] Due to the area's oil and natural gas wealth, it is one of the few places in Russia where the ethnic Russian population is growing.[citation needed]

Ethnic
group
1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Russians 19,308 42.1% 27,789 44.6% 37,518 46.9% 93,750 59.0% 292,808 59.2% 298,359 58.8% 312,019 61.7%
Ukrainians 395 0.9% 1,921 3.1% 3,026 3.8% 15,721 9.9% 85,022 17.2% 66,080 13.0% 48,985 9.7%
Nenets 13,454 29.3% 13,977 22.4% 17,538 21.9% 17,404 11.0% 20,917 4.2% 26,435 5.2% 29,772 5.9%
Tatars 1,636 3.6% 3,952 6.3% 4,653 5.8% 8,556 5.4% 26,431 5.3% 27,734 5.5% 28,509 5.6%
Khants 5,367 11.7% 5,519 8.9% 6,513 8.1% 6,466 4.1% 7,247 1.5% 8,760 1.7% 9,489 1.9%
Komi 4,722 10.3% 4,866 7.8% 5,445 6.8% 5,642 3.6% 6,000 1.2% 6,177 1.2% 5,141 1.0%
Selkups 87 0.2% 1,245 2.0% 1,710 2.1% 1,611 1.0% 1,530 0.3% 1,797 0.4% 1,988 0.4%
Others 871 1.9% 3,065 4.9% 3,574 4.5% 9,694 6.1% 54,889 11.1% 71,664 14.1% 74,625 14.3%
1 17,517 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. The proportion of ethnicities in this group is estimated to be the same as that of the declared group.[24]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[25][26]
Russian Orthodoxy
42.2%
Other Orthodox
0.6%
Old Believers
0.6%
Protestantism
0.6%
Other Christians
13.8%
Islam
17.4%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
1.4%
Spiritual but not religious
13.8%
Atheism and irreligion
7.8%
Other and undeclared
1.8%

According to a 2012 survey[25] 42.2% of the population of Yamalia adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church, 14% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are believers in Orthodox Christianity who do not belong to any church, 1% are members of the Slavic neopaganism (Rodnovery) or practitioners of local shamanic religions, and 1% are members of Protestant churches; Muslims, mostly Caucasian peoples and Tatars, make up 18% of the total population. In addition, 14% of the population declare to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% are atheist, and 0.8% follow other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[25]

EconomyEdit

In 2009, Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug is Russia's most important source of natural gas, with more than 90% of Russia's natural gas being produced there. The region also accounts for 12% of Russia's oil production.[27] The region is the most important to Russia's largest company Gazprom, whose main production fields are located there. Novatek – the country's second-largest gas producer – is also active in the region, with its headquarters located in Tarko-Sale. According to Novatek on 22 October 2019, the natural gas reserves in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug represent 80% of Russia's natural gas and 15% of the world's natural gas supply.[28]

Since the early 2010s Gazprom has been developing Yamal project in the Yamal Peninsula area. As of 2020, Yamal produces over 20% of Russia's gas, which is expected to increase to 40% by 2030. The shortest pipeline routes from Yamal to the northern EU countries are the Yamal–Europe pipeline through Poland and Nord Stream 1 to Germany.[29] The proposed gas route from Western Siberia to China is known as Power of Siberia 2 pipeline.[30]

United States sanctions beginning September 2019Edit

Following the 14 September 2019 attack by Houthi movement on Saudi Arabian oil fields at Khurais and Abqaiq (Biqayq in Arabic) during the 2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis, the United States imposed sanctions under Executive Order 13846 against several international companies, including Cosco Shipping Tanker (Dalian) Seaman and Ship Management Company Ltd and the Cosco Shipping Tanker Dalian (大連中遠海運油品運輸有限公司). Both of these are Cosco Shipping Company subsidiaries that support LNG shipments from Sabetta.[31][32]

Ships operated by these companies and their partnerships are directly affected by the sanctions. As of late September 2019, China LNG Shipping Ltd (CLNG) - a joint venture between the Cosco Shipping Tanker Dalian company and the Canadian firm Teekay - operates six of Sabetta's LNG ice fleet of 15 ARC7 LNG tankers, including:

  • Eduard Toll (Russian: «Эдуард Толль»)
  • Rudolf Samoilovich (Russian: «Рудольф Самойлович»)
  • Nikolay Evgenov (Russian: «Николай Евгенов»)
  • Vladimir Voronin (Russian: «Владимир Воронин»)
  • Georgy Ushakov (Russian: «Георгий Ушаков») (bound for Sabetta following sea trials)
  • Yakov Gakkel (Russian: «Яков Гаккель») (currently undergoing sea trials in South Korea)

Also affected are five ARC7 tankers which supplied by Dynagas in a partnership between Sinotrans&CSC and CLNG, as well as three ARC7 tankers from a joint venture between the Cosco subsidiary Shanghai LNG and Japan's MOL (株式会社商船三井). While these ARC7 tankers are not directly sanctioned by the United States, US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) rules require caution to be exercised when dealing with these related companies. Of the fifteen ARC7 tankers operating out of Sabetta, only Sovcomflot's Christophe de Margerie is not affected by the sanctions.

Service for these ships was previously provided at Honningsvåg, Norway, but this will be phased out and future LNG tanker shipments in the Northern Sea Route are expected to occur between Murmansk and Kamchatka, remaining in Russia coastal waters.[33][34][35] On 30 January 2020, the United States lifted sanctions on Cosco Shipping Tanker (Dalian) and its TC LNG .[28][36][37]

Notable peopleEdit

  • Anastasia Lapsui (b. 1944), Nenets film director, screenwriter, radio journalist

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Law #119-ZAO
  4. ^ a b Charter of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Article 11
  5. ^ Official website of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Dmitry Nikolayevich Kobylkin, Governor of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (in Russian)
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  7. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. ^ Charter of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Article 1
  12. ^ Ulmishek, Gregory F. "West Siberian Oil Basin". PetroNeft Resources Plc. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
  13. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
  14. ^ Gora Payer - Peakbagger
  15. ^ Google Earth
  16. ^ "R-41_42 Topographic Chart (in Russian)". Retrieved June 8, 2022.
  17. ^ Regional Index: Regional Index, accessdate: May 5, 2017
  18. ^ Britannica: ob, accessdate: May 5, 2017
  19. ^ Yamalo-Nenets region, Russia facts, resources, climate, photos: Yamalo-Nenets region, Russia facts, resources, climate, photos, accessdate: May 5, 2017
  20. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  21. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  22. ^ Staalesen, Atle (October 8, 2016). "The Russian Arctic growth region". The Independent Barents Observer. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  23. ^ http://www.oblstat.tmn.ru/statinfo\act\dwiz.htm for 2008 (January–October)
  24. ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  25. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  26. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  27. ^ "Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area". Kommersant. March 5, 2004. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
  28. ^ a b "Пресс-релизы и мероприятия: Сообщение ПАО "НОВАТЭК" в отношении танкеров ледового класса Arc7" [Press releases and events: Communication from PAO NOVATEK regarding Arc7 ice class tankers]. Novatek website. Moscow. October 22, 2019. Archived from the original on October 22, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  29. ^ Yermakov, Vitaly (September 2021). Big Bounce: Russian gas amid market tightness (PDF) (Report). Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
  30. ^ "'Power of Siberia 2' Pipeline Could See Europe, China Compete for Russian Gas". VOA News. January 18, 2022.
  31. ^ "China criticizes new U.S. sanctions over Iranian oil deals". Reuters. September 25, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  32. ^ "США включили в санкционный список по Ирану китайские компании" [US includes Chinese companies on Iran sanctions list]. Kommersant (in Russian). September 25, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  33. ^ "Российский СПГ атаковали рикошетом: Санкции США лишают "Ямал СПГ" трети флота" [Russian LNG ricochet attacked: US sanctions deprive Yamal LNG of a third of its fleet]. Kommersant (in Russian). October 1, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  34. ^ "Iran-related Designations; Issuance of Iran-related Frequently Asked Question". United States Department of Treasury. September 25, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  35. ^ "Executive Order 13846 (6 August 2018)" (PDF). United States Federal Register Vol 83 No 152. August 7, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  36. ^ "США сняли санкции с компании—владельца танкеров для "Ямал СПГ"" [US lifts sanctions on the company that owns Yamal LNG tankers]. Kommersant (in Russian). October 22, 2019. Retrieved January 20, 2020.
  37. ^ Pamuk, Humeyra; Gardner, Timothy (January 30, 2020). "U.S. lifts Iran sanctions on one unit of Chinese shipping giant COSCO". Reuters. Retrieved January 4, 2020.

SourcesEdit

  • Законодательное Собрание Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа. Закон №119-ЗАО от 17 ноября 2010 г. «О гимне Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (20 ноября 2010 г.). Опубликован: "Красный Север", спецвыпуск №147/1, 20 ноября 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Law #119-ZAO of November 17, 2010 On the Anthem of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Effective as of the day of the official publication (November 20, 2010).).
  • Государственная Дума Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа. №56-ЗАО 28 декабря 1998 г. «Устав (Основной Закон) Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа», в ред. Закона №140-ЗАО от 21 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав (Основной Закон) Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа». Вступил в силу 15 января 1999 г. Опубликован: "Красный Север", 15 января 1999 г. (State Duma of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. #56-ZAO December 28, 1998 Charter (Basic Law) of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #140-ZAO of December 21, 2015 An Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Effective as of January 15, 1999.).

External linksEdit