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A voiceless alveolar trill differs from the voiced alveolar trill /r/ only by the vibrations of the vocal cord. It occurs in a few languages, usually alongside the voiced version, as a similar phoneme or an allophone.

Voiceless alveolar trill
IPA number 122 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPA r_0
Sound

Proto-Indo-European *sr developed into a sound spelled ⟨⟩, with the letter for /r/ and the diacritic for /h/, in Ancient Greek. It was probably a voiceless alveolar trill and became the regular word-initial allophone of /r/ in standard Attic Greek that has disappeared in Modern Greek.

  • PIE *srew- > Ancient Greek ῥέω "flow", possibly [r̥é.oː]

Contents

FeaturesEdit

Features of the voiceless alveolar trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over the articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is dental, alveolar or post-alveolar, which means it is articulated behind upper front teeth, at the alveolar ridge or behind the alveolar ridge. It is most often apical, which means that it is pronounced with the tip of the tongue.[1]
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

OccurrenceEdit

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Estonian[2] [example needed] Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t, s, h/.[2] See Estonian phonology
Icelandic hrafn [ˈr̥apn̥] 'raven' Contrasts with /r/. For some speakers it may actually be a voiceless flap. Also illustrates [n̥]. See Icelandic phonology
Lezgian[3] крчар/krčar [ˈkʰr̥t͡ʃar] 'horns' Allophone of /r/ between voiceless obstruents
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[4] geer [ɣeːr̥] 'odour' Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be uvular [ʀ̥] instead.[5]
Moksha нархне [ˈnar̥nʲæ] 'these grasses' Contrasts with /r/: нарня [ˈnarnʲæ] "short grass". It has the palatalized counterpart /r̥ʲ/: марьхне [ˈmar̥ʲnʲæ] "these apples", but марьня [ˈmarʲnʲæ] "little apple"
Nivkh р̌ы [r̥ɨ] 'door' Contrasts with /r/
Northern Qiang [example needed] Contrasts with /r/
Polish krtań [ˈkr̥täɲ̟] 'larynx' Allophone of /r/ when surrounded by voiceless consonants, or word finally after voiceless consonants. See Polish phonology
Ukrainian[6] центр [t̪͡s̪ɛn̪t̪r̥] 'centre' Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t/.[6] See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh Rhagfyr [ˈr̥aɡvɨr] 'December' Contrasts with /r/. See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Quiegolani[7] rsil [r̥sil] 'early' Allophone of /r/.[7]

Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill Edit

Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill
r̝̊
IPA number 122 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA r_0_r

The voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill is not known to occur as a phoneme in any language. However, it occurs allophonically in Czech.

FeaturesEdit

Features of the voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative trill, which means it is a non-sibilant fricative and a trill pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge,
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech[8][9] třista [ˈt̪r̝̊ɪs̪t̪ä] 'three hundred' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants;[10][9] may be a flap fricative instead.[9] See Czech phonology
Norwegian Areas around Narvik[11] norsk [nɔr̝̊k] 'Norwegian' Allophone of the sequence /ɾs/ before voiceless consonants.[11]
Some subdialects of Trøndersk[11]
Polish Some dialects przyjść [ˈpr̝̊ɘjɕt͡ɕ] 'to come' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that don't merge it with /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork and those south, west and northwest of them, area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo, south and east from Wieleń, around Wołomin, southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka and west from Siedlce, from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them, and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ. Most speakers, as well as standard Polish pronounce it the same as /ʂ/, and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do that too.
Silesian Gmina Istebna [example needed] Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants. It's pronounced the same as /ʂ/ in most Polish dialects
Jablunkov [example needed]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:228)
  2. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  3. ^ Haspelmath (1993:35)
  4. ^ Peters (2006)
  5. ^ While Peters (2006) does not state that explicitly, he uses the symbol ⟨⟩ for many instances of the word-final /r/.
  6. ^ a b Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995:8)
  7. ^ a b Regnier (1993:11)
  8. ^ Dankovičová (1999:70-71)
  9. ^ a b c Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012:226)
  10. ^ Dankovičová (1999:70)
  11. ^ a b c Fabiánová (2011:34-35)

BibliographyEdit