Yakut language

Yakut, also known as Yakutian, Sakha, Saqa or Saxa (Yakut: саха тыла), is a Turkic language spoken by around 450,000 native speakers, primarily the ethnic Yakuts and one of the official languages of Sakha (Yakutia), a federal republic in the Russian Federation.

Yakut
Sakha tyla
саха тыла sakha tïla
Pronunciation[saχa tɯla]
Native toRussia
RegionYakutia, Magadan Oblast, Amur Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai (Evenkiysky District)
EthnicityYakuts
Native speakers
450,000[1] (2010 census)
Turkic
Cyrillic (formerly Latin and Cyrillic-based)
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
ISO 639-2sah
ISO 639-3sah
Glottologyaku1245
ELPYakut
Yakut and Dolgan languages.png
  Sakha language
Lang Status 80-VU.svg
Yakut is classified as Vulnerable by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Yakut language differs from all other Turkic languages in the presence of a layer of vocabulary of unclear origin (possibly Paleo-Siberian). There is also a large number of words of Mongolian origin related to ancient borrowings, as well as numerous recent borrowings from Russian. Like other Turkic languages and their ancestor Proto-Turkic, Yakut is an agglutinative language and features vowel harmony.

ClassificationEdit

Yakut is a member of the Northeastern Common Turkic family of languages, which also includes Shor, Tuvan and Dolgan. Like most Turkic languages, Yakut has vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually subject–object–verb. Yakut has been influenced by Tungusic and Mongolian languages.[2]

Historically, Yakut left the community of Common Turkic speakers relatively early.[3] Due to this, it diverges in many ways from other Turkic languages and mutual intelligibility between Yakut and other Turkic languages is low.[4] Nevertheless, Yakut contains many features which are important for the reconstruction of Proto-Turkic, such as the preservation of long vowels.[5]

Geographic distributionEdit

Yakut is spoken mainly in the Sakha Republic. It is also used by ethnic Yakuts in Khabarovsk Region and a small diaspora in other parts of the Russian Federation, Turkey, and other parts of the world. Dolgan, a close relative of Yakut, considered by some a dialect of Yakut,[6] is spoken by Dolgans in Krasnoyarsk Region. Yakut is widely used as a lingua franca by other ethnic minorities in the Sakha Republic – more Dolgans, Evenks, Evens and Yukagirs speak Yakut than their own languages. About 8% of the people of other ethnicities than Yakut living in Sakha claimed knowledge of the Yakut language during the 2002 census.[7]

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Yakut has the following consonants phonemes,[8] where the IPA value is provided in slashes '//' and the native script value is provided in bold followed by the romanization in parentheses.

Consonant phonemes of Yakut
Bilabial Dental/
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/
м (m)
/n/
н (n)
/ɲ/
нь (ń)
/ŋ/
ҥ (ŋ)
Plosive /
affricate
voiceless /p/
п (p)
/t/
т (t)
/t͡ʃ/
ч (č)
/k/
к (k)
voiced /b/
б (b)
/d/
д (d)
/d͡ʑ/
дь (ǰ)
/ɡ/
г (g)
Fricative voiceless /s/
с (s)
/χ/
х (x)
/h/
һ (h)
voiced /ʁ/
ҕ (ɣ)
Approximant plain /l/
л (l)
/j/
й (y)
nasalized /ȷ̃/
й ()
Flap /ɾ/
р (r)
  • /n, t, d/ are laminal denti-alveolar [, , ], whereas /s, l, ɾ/ are alveolar [s, l, ɾ].
  • The nasal glide /ȷ̃/ is not distinguished from /j/ in the orthography, where both are written as <й>. Thus айыы can be ayïï [ajiː] 'deed, creation, work' or aỹïï [aȷ̃iː] 'sin, transgression.'[9] The nasal glide /ȷ̃/ has a very restricted distribution, appearing in very few words.[10]
  • /ɾ/ is pronounced as a flap /ɾ/ between vowels, e.g. орон (oron) [oɾon] 'place', and as a trill at the end of words, e.g. тур (tur) [tur] 'stand'.[11][12]
    • /ɾ/ does not occur at the beginning of words in native Yakut words; borrowed Russian words with onset /ɾ/ are usually rendered with an epenthetic vowel, e.g. Russian рама (rama) > Yakut араама (araama) 'frame'.

Yakut is in many ways phonologically unique among the Turkic languages. Yakut and the closely related Dolgan language are the only Turkic languages without hushing sibilants. Additionally, no known Turkic languages other than Yakut and Khorasani Turkic have the palatal nasal /ɲ/.

Consonant assimilationEdit

Consonants at morpheme boundaries undergo extensive assimilation, both progressive and regressive.[13][14] All suffixes possess numerous allomorphs. For suffixes which begin with a consonant, the surface form of the consonant is conditioned on the stem-final segment. There are four such archiphonemic consonants: G, B, T, and L. Examples of each are provided in the following table for the suffixes -GIt (second-person plural possessive suffix, oɣoɣut 'y'all's child'), -BIt (first-person plural possessive suffix, oɣobut, 'our child'), -TA (partitive case suffix, tiiste 'some teeth'), -LARA (third-person plural possessive suffix, oɣoloro 'their child'). Note that the alternation in the vowels is governed by vowel harmony (see the main article and the below section).

Yakut consonant assimilation in suffixes
Consonant
archiphoneme
Immediately preceding sound (example)
High vowel
i, u, ï, ü
(kihi)
Low vowel
a, e, o, ö
(oɣo)
/l/
(uol)
/j,ɾ/
(kötör)
Voiceless
consonants
(tiis)
/χ/
(ïnaχ)
Nasal
(oron)
G
-GIt
[g]
kihigit
[ɣ]
oɣoɣut
[g]
uolgut
[g]
kötörgüt
[k]
tiiskit
[χ]
ïnaχχït
[ŋ]
oroŋŋut[a]
B
-BIt
[b]
kihibit
[b]
oɣobut
[b]
uolbut
[b]
kötörbüt
[p]
tiispit
[p]
ïnaχpït
[m]
orommut[b]
T
-TA
[t]
kihite
[t]
oɣoto
[l]
uolla
[d]
kötördö
[t]
tiiste
[t]
ïnaχta
[n]
oronnut
L
-LARA
[l]
kihilere
[l]
oɣoloro
[l]
uollara
[d]
kötördörö
[t]
tiistere
[t]
ïnaχtara
[n]
oronnoro
'person' 'child' 'boy' 'bird' 'tooth' 'cow' 'bed'
  1. ^ Regressive velarization.
  2. ^ Regressive labialization.

There is an additional regular morphophonological pattern for [t]-final stems: they assimilate in place of articulation with an immediately following labial or velar. For example at 'horse' > akkït 'y'all's horse', > appït 'our horse'.

DebuccalizationEdit

Yakut initial s- corresponds to initial h- in Dolgan and played an important operative rule in the development of proto-Yakut, ultimately resulting in initial Ø- < *h- < *s- (example: Dolgan huoq and Yakut suox, both meaning "not").[clarification needed] The historical change of *s > h, known as debuccalization, is a common sound-change across the world's languages, being characteristic of such languages as Greek and Indo-Iranian in their development from Proto-Indo-European, as well as such Turkic languages as Bashkir, e.g. höt 'milk' < *süt.[15] Debuccalization of /s/ to /h/ is also found as a diachronic change from Proto-Celtic to Brittonic, and has actually become a synchronic grammaticalised feature called lenition in the related Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish, and Manx).

Debuccalization is also an active phonological process in modern Yakut. Intervocalically the phoneme /s/ becomes [h]. For example the /s/ in кыыс (kïïs) 'girl' becomes [h] between vowels:[16]

a.

kïïs

girl

>

>

kïïh-ïm

girl-POSS.1SG

kïïs > kïïh-ïm

girl > girl-POSS.1SG

'girl; daughter' > 'my daughter'

VowelsEdit

Yakut has twenty phonemic vowels: eight short vowels, eight long vowels,[a] and four diphthongs. The following table give broad transcriptions for each vowel phoneme,[b] as well as the native script bold and romanization in italics:

Vowel phonemes of Yakut
Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close short /i/
и (i)
/y/
ү (ü)
/ɯ/
ы (ï[c])
/u/
у (u)
long[d] //
ии (ii)
//
үү (üü)
/ɯː/
ыы (ïï)
//
уу (uu)
Diphthong /ie/
иэ (ie)
//
үө (üö)
/ɯa/
ыа (ïa)
//
уо (uo)
Open short /e/
э (e)
/ø/
ө (ö)
/a/
а (a)
/ɔ/
о (o)
long //
ээ (ee)
/øː/
өө (öö)
//
аа (aa)
/ɔː/
оо (oo)
  1. ^ The long vowel phonemes /eː/, /oː/, and /øː/ appear in very few words and are thus considered marginal phonemes.[17]
  2. ^ Note that these vowels are extremely broad. Narrower transcriptions[18] transcribe the high back non-front vowel ы as central /ɨ/. The front non-high unrounded open vowel in э, ээ, and иэ are more accurately [ɛ], [ɛː], [iɛ], respectively.
  3. ^ ы is occasionally Romanized as y,[19] consistent with the BGN/PCGN romanization of Russian Cyrillic. Turkologists and Altaicists tend to transcribe the vowel as ï,[20] or as ɨ.[21]
  4. ^ Some authors romanize long vowels with a macron (e.g. /iː/ ī, /yː/ ǖ)[4] or with a colon (e.g. /iː/ i:/, /yː/, ü:/üː).[22]


Vowel harmonyEdit

Like other Turkic languages, a characteristic feature of Yakut is progressive vowel harmony. Most root words obey vowel harmony, for example in кэлин (kelin) 'back', all the vowels are front and unrounded. Yakut's vowel harmony in suffixes is the most complex system in the Turkic family.[23] Vowel harmony is an assimilation process where vowels in one syllable take on certain features of vowels in the preceding syllable. In Yakut, subsequent vowels all take on frontness and all non-low vowels take on lip rounding of preceding syllables' vowels.[24] There are two main rules of vowel harmony:

  1. Frontness/backness harmony:
    1. Front vowels are always followed by front vowels.
    2. Back vowels are always followed by back vowels.
  2. Rounding harmony:
    1. Unrounded vowels are always followed by unrounded vowels.
    2. Close rounded vowels always occur after close rounded vowels.
    3. Open unrounded vowels do not assimilate in rounding with close rounded vowels.

The quality of the diphthongs /ie, ïa, uo, üö/ for the purposes of vowel harmony is determined by the first segment in the diphthong. Taken together, these rules mean that the pattern of subsequent syllables in Yakut is entirely predictable, and all words will follow the following pattern:[25] Like the consonant assimilation rules above, suffixes display numerous allomorphs determined by the stem they attach to. There are two archiphoneme vowels I (an underlyingly high vowel) and A (an underlyingly low vowel).

Yakut vowel harmony
Category Final vowel
in stem
Suffix vowels
Unrounded, back a, aa, ï, ïï, ïa a, aa, ï, ïï, ïa
Unrounded, front e, ee, i, ii, ie e, ee, i, ii, ie
Rounded back u, uu, uo a, u, uo
Rounded, front, close ü, üü, üö e, ee, ü, üü, üö
Rounded, back o, oo o, oo, u, uu, uo
Rounded, open, low ö, öö ö, öö, ü, üü, üö
Vowel harmony of archiphonemic vowels
Archiphonemic
vowel
Preceding vowel
Front Back
unrounded
(i, ii, ie, e, ee)
rounded unrounded
(ï, ïï, ïa, a, aa)
rounded
high
(ü, üü, üö)
low
(ö, öö)
high
(u, uu, uo)
low
(o, oo)
I i ü ï u
A e ö a o

Examples of I can be seen in the first-person singular possessive agreement suffix -(I)m:[26] as in (a):

a.

aat-ïm

name-POSS.1SG

aat-ïm

name-POSS.1SG

'my name'

et-im

meat-POSS.1SG

et-im

meat-POSS.1SG

'my meat'

uol-um

son-POSS.1SG

uol-um

son-POSS.1SG

'my son'

üüt-üm

milk-POSS.1SG

üüt-üm

milk-POSS.1SG

'my milk'

The underlyingly low vowel phoneme A is represented through the third-person singular agreement suffix -(t)A[27] in (b):

b.

aɣa-ta

father-POSS.3SG

aɣa-ta

father-POSS.3SG

'his/her father'

iỹe-te

mother-POSS.3SG

iỹe-te

mother-POSS.3SG

'his/her mother'

oɣo-to

child-POSS.3SG

oɣo-to

child-POSS.3SG

'his/her child'

töbö-

top-POSS.3SG

töbö-

top-POSS.3SG

'his/her top'

uol-a

son-POSS.3SG

uol-a

son-POSS.3SG

'his/her son'

OrthographyEdit

After three earlier phases of development, Yakut is currently written using the Cyrillic script: the modern Yakut alphabet, established in 1939 by the Soviet Union, consists of all the Russian characters with five additional letters for phonemes not present in Russian: Ҕҕ, Ҥҥ, Өө, Һһ, Үү, as follows:

Yakut Cyrillic alphabet (Сахалыы сурук-бичик, Saxalïï suruk-bičik)
А а Б б В в Г г Ҕ ҕ Д д Дь дь Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ҥ ҥ
Нь нь О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Һ һ Т т У у
Ү ү Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы
Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
Yakut alphabet, letter names, IPA values
Letter А Б В Г Ҕ Д Дь Е Ё Ж З И Й К Л М Н Ҥ Нь О Ө П Р С Һ Т У Ү Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю Я
Name а бэ вэ гэ ҕэ дэ дьэ е ё жэ зэ и ый кы эл эм эн ҥэ ньэ о ө пэ эр эс һэ тэ у ү эф хэ цэ че ша ща [a] ы [b] э ю я
IPA /a/ /b/ /v/ /g/ /ɣ/ /d/ /d͡ʒ/ /(j)e/ /jo/ /ʒ/ /z/ /i/ /j/, /ȷ̃/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɲ/ /ɔ/ /ø/ /p/ /ɾ/ /s/ /h/ /t/ /u/ /y/ /f/ /χ/ /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ/ /ʃ/ /ɕː/ /◌.j/ /ɯ/ /◌ʲ/ /e/ /ju/ /ja/
  1. ^ кытаанах бэлиэ
  2. ^ сымнатар бэлиэ.

Long vowels are represented through the doubling of vowels, e.g. үүт (üüt) /yːt/ 'milk,' a practice that many scholars follow in Romanizations of the language.[28][29][30]

The full Yakut alphabet contains letters for consonant phonemes not present in native words (and thus not indicated in the phonology tables above): the letters В /v/, Е /(j)e/, Ё /jo|/, Ж /ʒ/, З /z/, Ф /f/, Ц /t͡s/, Ш /ʃ/, Щ /ɕː/, Ъ, Ю /ju/, Я /ja/ are used exclusively in Russian loanwords. In addition, in native Yakut words, the soft sign <Ь> is used exclusively in the digraphs <дь> and <нь>.

TransliterationEdit

There are numerous conventions for the Romanization of Yakut. Bibliographic sources and libraries typically use the ALA-LC Romanization tables for non-Slavic languages in Cyrillic script.[31] Linguists often employ Turkological standards for transliteration,[32] or a mixture of Turkological standards and the IPA.[21] In addition, others employ Turkish orthography.[33] Comparison of some of these systems can be seen in the following:

(a)

дьон

/d͡ʒon/

people

дьон

/d͡ʒon/

people

'people'[34]

(b)

айыы

/ajɯː/

creation

айыы

/ajɯː/

creation

'creation'[35]

(c)

бу

/bu

DEM

ыт

ɯt

dog

аттааҕар

at.taːɣar

horse-CMPR

түргэнник

tyrgɛn.nɪk

fast-ADV

сүүрэр

syːrɛr/

run-PRES

бу ыт аттааҕар түргэнник сүүрэр

/bu ɯt at.taːɣar tyrgɛn.nɪk syːrɛr/

DEM dog horse-CMPR fast-ADV run-PRES

'This dog runs faster than a horse'[36]

(d)

эһэ

/ɛhɛ

bear

бөрөтөөҕөр

bøɾøtøːɣør

wolf-CMPR

күүстээх

kystɛːχ/

strong-have

эһэ бөрөтөөҕөр күүстээх

/ɛhɛ bøɾøtøːɣør kystɛːχ/

bear wolf-CMPR strong-have

'A bear is stronger than a wolf'[36]

Comparison of different conventions for transcribing Yakut
дьон айыы бу ыт аттааҕар түгэнник сүүрэр эһэ бөрөтөөҕөр күүстээх
IPA /d͡ʒon/ /ajɯː/ /bu/ /ɯt/ /at.taːɣar/ /tyrgɛn.nɪk/ /syːrɛr/ /ɛhɛ/ /bøɾøtøːɣør/ /kystɛːχ/
Turkological Krueger ǰon ajıı bu ıt attaaɣar türgennik süürer ehe böröötööɣör küüsteeχ
Johanson ǰon ayï: bu ït atta:ɣar türgännik sü:rär ähä börötö:ɣör kü:stä:χ
Robbeets
& Savalyev
ʤon ïyïː bu ït attaːɣar türgennik süːrer ehe börötöːɣör kü:steːχ
ALA-LC[31] d'on aĭyy bu yt attaaghar tu̇rgennik su̇u̇rer eḣe bȯrȯtȯȯghȯr ku̇u̇steekh
KNAB[37] djon ajy: bu yt atta:ǧar türgennik sü:rer eḩe börötö:ǧör kü:ste:h
Turkish orthography con ayıı bu ıt attaağar türgennik süürer ehe börötööğör küsteex


GrammarEdit

SyntaxEdit

The typical word order can be summarized as subjectadverbobjectverb; possessorpossessed; adjectivenoun.

NounsEdit

Nouns have plural and singular forms. The plural is formed with the suffix /-LAr/, which may surface as -лар (-lar), -лэр (-ler), -лөр (-lör), -лор (-lor), -тар (-tar), -тэр (-ter), -төр (-tör), -тор (-tor), -дар (-dar), -дэр (-der), -дөр (-dör), -дор (-dor), -нар (-nar), -нэр (-ner), -нөр (-nör), or -нор (-nor), depending on the preceding consonants and vowels. The plural is used only when referring to a number of things collectively, not when specifying an amount. Nouns have no gender.

Final sound basics Plural affix options Examples
Vowels, /l/ -lar, -ler, -lor, -lör kïïllar 'beasts', eheler 'bears', oɣolor 'children', börölör 'wolves'
/k, p, s, t, χ/ -tar, -ter, -tor, -tör attar 'horses', külükter 'shadows', ottor, 'herbs', bölöxtör 'groups'
/y, r/ -dar, -der, -dor, -dör baaydar 'rich people', ederder 'young people'[a] xotoydor 'eagles', kötördör 'eagles'
/m, n, ŋ/ -nar, -ner, -nor, -nör kïïmnar 'sparks', ilimner 'fishing nets', oronnor 'beds', bödöŋnör 'large ones'
  1. ^ baydar 'rich people' and ederder 'young' people are examples of predicative adjectives (i.e. baay 'rich', eder 'young') being pluralized

There is a handful of irregular plural nouns, e.g. уол (uol) 'boy; son' > уолаттар (uolattar), кыыс (kïïs) 'girl; daughter' > кыыргыттар (kïïrgïttar).

Yakut has eight grammatical cases: nominative (unmarked), accusative -(n)I, dative -GA, partitive -TA, ablative -(t)tan, instrumental -(I)nAn, comitative -LIIn, and comparative -TAAɣAr.[38] Examples of these are shown in the following table for a vowel-final stem eye 'peace' and a consonant-final stem uot 'fire':

eye 'peace' uot 'fire'
Nominative eye uot
Accusative eyeni uotu
Dative eyeɣe uotka
Partitive eyete uotta
Ablative[a] eyetten uottan
Instrumental eyenen uotunan
Comitative eyeliin uottuun
Comparative eteteeɣer uottaaɣar
  1. ^ The Ablative suffix appears as -TAn following a consonant and -TTAn following a vowel. Clear examples of the former are ox 'arrow' → oxto 'from an/the arrow', oxtorton 'from (the) arrows'.

A notable detail about Yakut case is the absence of the genitive,[39] a feature which some argue is due to historical contact with Tungusic languages.[40] Possessors are unmarked, with the possessive relationship only being realized on the possessive suffix on the possessed noun.[41] For example, in (a) the first-person pronouns are not marked for genitive case; neither do full nominal possessors receive any marking (b):

a.

min

1SG.NOM/GEN

oɣo-m

child-POSS.1SG

/

/

bihigi

1PL.NOM/GEN

oɣo-but

child-POSS.1PL

min oɣo-m / bihigi oɣo-but

1SG.NOM/GEN child-POSS.1SG / 1PL.NOM/GEN child-POSS.1PL

'my son' / 'our child'

b.

Masha

Masha.NOM/GEN

aɣa-ta

father-POSS.3SG

Masha aɣa-ta

Masha.NOM/GEN father-POSS.3SG

'Masha's father'

PronounsEdit

Personal pronouns in Yakut distinguish between first, second, and third persons and singular and plural number.

Singular Plural
1st person мин (min) биһиги (bihigi)
2nd person эн (en) эһиги (ehigi)
3rd person human кини (kini) кинилэр (kiniler)
non-human ол (ol) олор (olor)

Although nouns have no gender, the pronoun system distinguishes between human and non-human in the third person, using кини (kini, 'he/she') to refer to human beings and ол (ol, 'it') to refer to all other things.[42]

QuestionsEdit

Question words in Yakut remain in-situ; they do not move to the front of the sentence. Sample question words include: туох (tuox) 'what', ким (kim) 'who', хайдах (xajdax) 'how', хас (xas) 'how much; how many', ханна (xanna) 'where', and ханнык (xannïk) 'which'.

VocabularyEdit

Yakut Tuvan Turkish Uzbek English Classical Mongolian
Cyrillic Latin Cyrillic Latin
аччыктааһын aččïktahïn аштаар aštaar açlık ochlik hunger ölüsgüleŋ ᠥᠯᠥᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ
аччык aččïk аш och hungry
аат aat ат at ad ot name
балык balïk балык balïk balık baliq fish
балыксыт balïksït балыкчы balïkčï balıkçı baliqchi fisherman jiğasuçi ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤᠴᠢ
yy uu суг sug su suv water usu ᠤᠰᠤ
тимир timir демир demir demir temir iron temür ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ
күөл küöl хөл khöl göl ko‘l lake na'ur ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ
атах atax adaḳ ayak oyoq foot
мурун murun думчук dumčuk burun burun nose
баттах battax дүк dük saç soch hair üsü ᠦᠰᠦ
илии ilii хол khol el qo‘l hand
күн kün хүн khün gün kun day, sun
муус muus дош doš buz muz ice mösü ᠮᠥᠰᠥ
ыт ït ыт ït it it dog
сүрэх sürex чүрек čürek yürek yurak heart jirüke ᠵᠢᠷᠦᠬᠡ
сарсын sarsïn даарта,
эртен
daarta,
erten
yarın ertaga tomorrow
бүгүн bügün бөгүн bögün bugün bugun today
былыт bïlït булут bulut bulut bulut cloud
хаар xaar хар khar kar qor snow
хаан xaan хан khan kan qon blood
эт et эът èt et et meat
тиис tiis диш tiš diş tish tooth
ат at аът àt at ot horse
таас taas даш daš taş tosh stone
үүт üüt сүт süt süt sut milk sün ᠰᠦᠨ
ынах ïnax инек inek inek inak/sigir cow
хара xara кара kara kara qora black qar-a ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ
сыттык sïttïk сыртык sïrtïk yastık yostiq pillow
быһах bïhax бижек bižek bıçak pichoq knife
бытык bïtïk bıyık mo‘ylov mustache
кыс, кыһын kïs, kïhïn кыш kïš kış, kışın qish winter
туус tuus дус dus tuz tuz salt
тыл tïl дыл dïl dil til tongue, language kele ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
cаха тылa saxa tïla Саха дыл,
Якут дыл
Sakha dïl,
Yakut dïl
saha dili,
sahaca
yoqut tili,
yoqutcha
Yakut language
кыыс kïïs кыс kïs kız qiz girl, daughter
уол uol оол,
оглу
ool,
oglu
oğul,
oğlan
o‘g‘il son, boy
үөрэтээччи üöreteečči башкы baškï öğretici,
öğretmen
o‘qituvchi teacher
үөрэнээччи üöreneečči өөреникчи öörenikči öğrenci,
talebe
o‘quvchi,
talaba
student
уһун uhun узун uzun uzun uzun long, tall
кулгаах kulgaax кулак kulak kulak quloq ear
сыл sïl чыл,
хар
čïl,
khar
yıl yil year jil ᠵᠢᠯ
киһи kihi кижи kiži kişi kishi human, man kümün ᠬᠥᠮᠦᠨ
суол suol орук oruk yol yo‘l road, way
асчыт asčït белеткээр beletkeer aşçı oshchi, oshpaz cook
тараах taraax дыргак dïrgak tarak taroq comb
орто orto орта orta orta o‘rta middle
күн ортото kün ortoto дүш, дүъш,
дүъште
düš, dǜš,
dǜšte
gün ortası kun o‘rtasi midday, noon
күл kül хүлүмзүрүүр khülümzürüür gülmek kulmoq to laugh; to smile
өл öl өлүр ölür ölmek o‘lmoq to die
ис is ижер ižer içmek ichmoq to drink
бил bil билир bilir bilmek bilmoq to know
көр kör көөр (көр-) köör (kör-) görmek ko‘rmoq to see qara ᠬᠠᠷᠠ
үөрэн üören өөренир öörenir öğrenmek o‘rganmoq to learn
үөрэт üöret өөредир ööredir öğretmek o‘rgatmoq to teach
ытыр ïtïr ызырар ïzïrar ısırmak tishlamoq to bite
хас xas казар kazar kazmak qozmoq,
qazmoq
to dig
тик tik даараар daaraar dikiş dikmek,
dikmek
tikmoq to sew
кэл kel келир kelir gelmek kelmoq to come
салаа salaa чылгаар čïlgaar yalamak yalamoq to lick
тараа taraa taramak taramoq to comb
биэр bier бээр beer vermek bermoq to give
бул bul тывар tïvar bulmak topmoq to find
диэ die дe-, дi- de-, di- demek demoq,
aytmoq
to say
киир kiir кирер kirer girmek kirmoq to enter
иһит ihit дыңнаар dïŋnaar işitmek eshitmoq to hear
ас as ажар ažar açmak ochmoq to open
тут tut тудар tudar tutmak tutmoq to hold
ый ïy ай ay ay oy moon
ыйытыы ïyïtïï айтырыг aytïrïg soru savol question
кыайыы kïayïï тиилелге tiilelge zafer g‘alaba victory


NumeralsEdit

Old Turkic Turkish Uzbek Tuvan Yakut English
bir bir bir bir biir one
eki iki ikki iyi ikki two
üç üç uch üş üs three
tört dört tŏrt dört tüört four
beş beş besh beş bies five
altı altı olti aldı alta six
yeti yedi yetti çedi sette seven
sekiz sekiz sakkiz ses aɣïs eight
tokuz dokuz tŏqqiz tos toɣus nine
on on ŏn on uon ten

Oral and written literatureEdit

The Yakut have a tradition of oral epic in their language called "Olonkho", traditionally performed by skilled performers. The subject matter is based on Yakut mythology and legends. Versions of many Olonkho poems have been written down and translated since the 19th century, but only a very few older performers of the oral Olonkho tradition are still alive. They have begun a program to teach young people to sing this in their language and revive it, though in a modified form.[43]

The first printing in Yakut was a part of a book by Nicolaas Witsen published in 1692 in Amsterdam.[44]

In 2005, Marianne Beerle-Moor, director of the Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS, was awarded the Order of Civil Valour by the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) for the translation of the New Testament into Yakut.[45]

ExamplesEdit

Article 1 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Novgorodov's alphabet 1920–1929. (Latin alphabet/IPA) зɔn barɯta beje s ltatɯgar  nna bɯra:bɯgar teŋ b lan t ry:ller. kiniler
barɯ  rk :n  jd :q, s basta:q b lan t ry:ller,  nna beje bejeleriger
tɯlga ki:riniges bɯhɯ:lara dɔʃɔrdɔhu: tɯ:nna:q b l qta:q.
Latin alphabet 1929—1939. (Yañalif) Çon вarьta вeje suoltatьgar uonna вьraaвьgar teꞑ вuolan tɵryyller. Kiniler вarь ɵrkɵn ɵjdɵɵq, suoвastaaq вuolan tɵryyller, uonna вeje вejeleriger tьlga kiiriniges вьhььlara doƣordohuu tььnnaaq вuoluoqtaaq.
Modern Cyrillic 1939—present. Дьон барыта бэйэ суолтатыгар уонна быраабыгар тэҥ буолан төрүүллэр. Кинилэр бары өркөн өйдөөх, суобастаах буолан төрүүллэр, уонна бэйэ бэйэлэригэр тылга кииринигэс быһыылара доҕордоһуу тыыннаах буолуохтаах.
Romanization J̌on barïta beye suoltatïgar uonna bïraabïgar teŋ buolan törüüller. Kiniler barï örkön öydööx, suobastaax buolan törüüller, uonna beye beyeleriger tïlga kiiriniges bïsïïlara doɣordohuu tïïnnax buoluoxtaax.
English All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [1] Archived 2021-01-27 at the Wayback Machine, Russian census 2010
  2. ^ Forsyth 1994, p.56: "Their language...Turkic in its vocabulary and grammar, shows the influence of both Tungus and Mongolian.".
  3. ^ Johanson 2021, pp. 20, 24.
  4. ^ a b Stachowski & Menz 1998.
  5. ^ Johanson 2021, p. 19.
  6. ^ Antonov 1997.
  7. ^ Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации Archived 2006-11-04 at the Wayback Machine (Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Pakendorf & Stapert 2020.
  9. ^ Krueger 1962, p. 67.
  10. ^ Pakendorf & Stapert 2020, p. 432.
  11. ^ Krueger 1962, pp. 68–9.
  12. ^ Kharitonov 1947, p. 63.
  13. ^ Kharitonov 1947, p. 64.
  14. ^ Stachowski & Menz 1998, p. 420.
  15. ^ Ubrjatova, E. I. 1960 Opyt sravnitel'nogo izuc˙enija fonetic˙eskix osobennostej naselenija nekotoryx rajonov Jakutskoj ASSR. Moscow. 1985. Jazyk noril'skix dolgan. Novosibirsk: "Nauka" SO. In Tungusic Languages 2 (2): 1–32. Historical Aspects of Yakut (Saxa) Phonology. Gregory D. S. Anderson. University of Chicago.
  16. ^ Johanson 2021, p. 36.
  17. ^ Johanson 2021, p. 283.
  18. ^ Pakendorf & Stapert 2020, p. 433; Anderson 1998.
  19. ^ Vinokurova 2005; Baker & Vinokurova 2010.
  20. ^ Robbeets & Savalyev 2020, p. lxxxii; Johanson 2021; Krueger 1962; Stachowski & Menz 1998.
  21. ^ a b Anderson 1998.
  22. ^ Pakendorf 2007; Pakendorf & Stapert 2020
  23. ^ Johanson 2021, p. 315.
  24. ^ Krueger 1962, pp. 48–9; Stachowski & Menz 1998, p. 419.
  25. ^ Johanson 2021, p. 316.
  26. ^ -(I)m indicates that this suffix appears as -m in vowel-final words (e.g. oɣo 'child' > oɣom 'my child'.
  27. ^ Consonants in parentheses indicate that the suffix loses the consonant in consonant-final words, e.g. uol 'son' > uola 'his/her son.'
  28. ^ Krueger 1962.
  29. ^ Vinokurova 2005.
  30. ^ Petrova 2011.
  31. ^ a b "Non-Slavic languages (in Cyrillic Script)" (PDF). Library of Congress. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  32. ^ Krueger 1962; Stachowski & Menz 1998; Johanson 2021; Menz & Monastyrev 2022
  33. ^ Kirişçioğlu 1999.
  34. ^ "дьон". sakhatyla.ru. Retrieved April 2, 2022.
  35. ^ "айыы". sakhatyla.ru. Retrieved April 2, 2022.
  36. ^ a b Krueger 1962, p. 89.
  37. ^ "ROMANIZATION OF YAKUT" (PDF). August 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  38. ^ Krueger 1962; Stachowski & Menz 1998; Vinokurova 2005
  39. ^ Krueger 1962; Stachowski & Menz 1998; Baker & Vinokurova 2010; Johanson 2021.
  40. ^ Pakendorf 2007.
  41. ^ Baker & Vinokurova 2010.
  42. ^ Kirişçioğlu, M. Fatih (1999). Saha (Yakut) Türkçesi Grameri. Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu. ISBN 975-16-0587-3.
  43. ^ Robin Harris. 2012. Sitting "under the mouth": decline and revitalization in the Sakha epic tradition "Olonkho". Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia.
  44. ^ "Предпосылки возникновения якутской книги". Память Якутии. Retrieved 2014-10-29.
  45. ^ "People". Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS. Retrieved 5 October 2016.

BibliographyEdit

  • Anderson, Gregory D. S. (1998). "Historical Aspects of Yakut (Saxa) Phonology". Turkic Languages. Vol. 2, no. 2. pp. 1–32.
  • Antonov, N. K. (1997). Tenshev, E. R. (ed.). Yazyki mira (seriya knig). Indrik (izdatelstvo). pp. 513–524. ISBN 5-85759-061-2. (in Russian)
  • Baker, Mark C; Vinokurova, Nadya (2010). "Two modalities of case assignment: case in Sakha". Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. No. 28. p. 5930642.
  • Forsyth, James (1994). A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521477710.
  • Johanson, Lars (2021). Turkic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 20, 24.
  • Kharitonov, L. N. (1947). Samouchitel' jakutskogo jazyka. Jakutskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo. (in Russian)
  • Kirişçioğlu, M. Fatih (1999). Saha (Yakut) Türkçesi Grameri. Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu. ISBN 975-16-0587-3. (in Turkish)
  • Krueger, John R. (1962). Yakut Manual. Bloomington: Indiana U Press.
  • Menz, Astrid; Monastyrev, Vladimir (2022). "Yakut". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic Languages: Second Edition. Routledge. pp. 444–59. doi:10.4324/9781003243809. ISBN 978-0-415-73856-9. S2CID 243795171.
  • Robbeets, Martine; Savalyev, Alexander (2020). "Romanization Conventions". In Robbeets, Martine; Savalyev, Alexander (eds.). The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. lii–lxxxii.
  • Pakendorf, Brigitte (2007). Contact in the prehistory of the Sakha (Yakuts): Linguistic and genetic perspectives (Thesis). Universiteit Leiden.
  • Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stapert, Eugénie (2020). "Sakha and Dolgan, the North Siberian Turkic Languages". In Robbeets, Martine; Savalyev, Alexander (eds.). The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 430–45. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198804628.003.0027. ISBN 978-0-19-880462-8.
  • Petrova, Nyurguyana (2011). Lexicon and Clause-Linkage Properties of the Converbal Constructions in Sakha (Yakut) (Thesis). University of Buffalo.
  • Stachowski, Marek; Menz, Astrid (1998). "Yakut". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic Languages. Routledge.
  • Ubryatova, E.I., ed. (1980). Grammatika sovremennogo jakutskogo literaturnogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
  • Vinokurova, Nadezhda (2005). Lexical Categories and Argument Structure: A study with reference to Sakha (Thesis). Universiteit Utrecht.

External linksEdit

Language-relatedEdit

Content in YakutEdit