Paleosiberian languages

Paleosiberian (or Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian (Paleo-Asiatic) (from παλαιός palaios, "ancient") are several linguistic isolates and small families of languages spoken in parts of northeastern Siberia and the Russian Far East. They are not known to have any genetic relationship to each other; their only common link is that they are held to have antedated the more dominant languages, particularly Tungusic and latterly Turkic languages, that have largely displaced them. Even more recently, Turkic (at least in Siberia) and especially Tungusic have been displaced in their turn by Russian.

Paleosiberian
(geographic)
Geographic
distribution
North Asia, East Asia
Linguistic classificationNot a single family
Subdivisions

ClassificationsEdit

Four small language families and isolates are usually considered to be Paleo-Siberian languages:[1]

  1. The Chukotko-Kamchatkan family, sometimes known as Luoravetlan, includes Chukchi and its close relatives, Koryak, Alutor and Kerek. Itelmen, also known as Kamchadal, is also distantly related. Chukchi, Koryak and Alutor are spoken in easternmost Siberia by communities numbering in the thousands (Chukchi) or hundreds (Koryak and Alutor). Kerek is extinct, and Itelmen is now spoken by fewer than 5 people, mostly elderly, on the west coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
  2. Nivkh (Gilyak, Amuric) consists of two or three languages spoken in the lower Amur basin and on the northern half of Sakhalin island. It has a recent modern literature.
  3. The Yeniseian languages were a small family formerly spoken on the middle Yenisei River and its tributaries, but are now represented only by Ket, spoken in the Turukhansk district of Krasnoyarsk Krai by no more than 200 people.
  4. Yukaghir is spoken in two mutually unintelligible varieties in the lower Kolyma and Indigirka valleys. Other languages, including Chuvantsy, spoken further inland and further east, are now extinct. Yukaghir is held by some to be related to the Uralic languages.

On the basis of morphological, typological, and lexical evidence, Michael Fortescue suggests that Chukotko-Kamchatkan and Nivkh (Amuric) are related, forming a larger Chukotko-Kamchatkan-Amuric language family. Fortescue does not consider Yeniseian and Yukaghir to be genetically related to Chukotko-Kamchatkan-Amuric.[2]

RelationshipsEdit

The purpose of the existence of Paleosiberian itself lies in its practicability and remains a grouping of convenience for a variety of unclassifiable languages isolates located in Northeast Eurasia. Some proposals for the relationship of languages located within the Paleosiberian group have been made by some scholars, including Edward Vajda, who suggests them to be related to the Na-Dené and Eskimo–Aleut families of Alaska and northern Canada. This would correlate with the widespread idea that North America's aboriginal peoples migrated from present-day Siberia and other regions of Asia when the two continents were joined during the last ice age.

Ket, or more precisely the now largely extinct Yeniseian family, has been linked to the Na-Dené languages of North America.[3] Dené–Yeniseian has been called "the first demonstration of a genealogical link between Old World and New World language families that meets the standards of traditional comparative-historical linguistics".[4] In the past, attempts to connect it to Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian and Burushaski have been made.

Kim Bang-han proposed that placename glosses in the Samguk sagi reflect the original language of the Korean peninsula and a component in the formation of both Korean and Japanese. It is suggested that this language was related to Nivkh in some form.[5][6][7]Juha Janhunen suggests the possibility that similar consonant stop systems in Koreanic and Nivkh may be due to ancient contact.[8] Martine Robbeets suggests that Proto-Korean had a Nivkh substrate influence. Further parallel developments in their sound inventory (Old to Middle Korean and Proto-Nivkh to Nivkh) as well as commonalities in the syntax between Koreanic and Nivkh specifically have been observed.[9]

The Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic languages predate the spread of Turkic, Mongolic and Tungusic languages, but are part of the well established larger Uralic family, thus not Paleosiberian. Yukaghir has often been suggested as a more distant relative of Uralic as part of the Uralic-Yukaghir languages, as well as Eskimo-Aleut as part of the Uralo-Siberian languages.[10] However, these hypotheses are controversial and not universally accepted.

Vocabulary comparisonEdit

Below are selected basic vocabulary items in proto-languages reconstructed for Paleosiberian languages and language families. Proto-Yeniseian, Proto-Uralic, Proto-Ainu, Ainu, Proto-Korean and Proto-Japanese are also given for comparison.

gloss Proto-Yeniseian[11] Proto-Uralic[12] Proto-Eskimo[13] Proto-Yukaghir[14] Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan[15] Proto-Nivkh[16][17] Proto-Korean[18][19] Proto-Ainu[20] Ainu[17] Proto-Japanese[21]
head *cɨʔɢ-; *kəŕga- *ojwa *nay(ə)quʀ *joː C *læwət *d’oŋkr *matuy *pa; *sa pa *tumu-; *kàsìrà
hair *cəŋe *apte *nuyaʀ *manilə/*monilə C *kəðwir *ŋamrki *kar(ák); tǝrǝk *numa *ká-Ci
eye *de-s *śilmä *əðə *waŋ-/*woŋ-; *jöː- *ləlæ *n’(ə)ŋaɣ *nún *sik; *nuu shik *mà-n
ear *ʔɔqtʌ ~ *ʔɔgde *peljä *ciɣun *unemə *vilu *mla; *nor *kúj *kisAr kisar *mìmì
nose *ʔolk-; *xaŋ *nere (*nēre) *qəqaʀ *jöː- *qiN(qiN); C *jeqa *wiɣ *kóh *Etu etu *páná
tooth *piŋe *kəɣun *toð-; *sal’qəriː C *wannə *ŋaɣzər *ni(s) *nii; *ima(=)k nimaki *pà
tongue *ʔej *kele (*kēle) I *uqaq(-) *wonor *jilə(jil) ? *hilɣ *hyet/*hita *agu parumbe *sìtà
mouth *χowe *śuwe *qanəʀ(-) *aŋa *rəkərNə(n) *amɣ *ip/*kút *prAA= par *kútú-Ci
hand *pʌg- *käte *aðɣa(ʀ), *aðɣaɣ *ńuŋkən/*ńuŋen *kæɣ(ə) *damk *són/tar *tE(=)k tek *tà-Ci
foot *kiʔs; *bul *jalka *itəɣaʀ *noj-; *ar- *kətka *ŋazl *pál *urE; *kEma; *tikir ure *pànkì
breast *təga *poŋe *əvyaŋ(ŋ)iʀ *sis-; *mel- *loloʀ(ə) *məc(ɣ) *cǝc *tOO[C] *ti/*titi
meat *ʔise *pećä; *siwɜ-ĺɜ *kəməɣ; *uvinəɣ *čuː- C *kinuNi; C *tərɣətər *dur *kòkí *kam kam shishi
blood *sur *wire *aðuɣ, *kanuɣ *lep(k)-; *čeːmə *mullə(mul) cʰoχ; ŋær̥ *pVhi *kEm kem *tí
bone *ʔaʔd *luwe I *caunəq *am- *qətʀəm ŋɨɲf *sùpyé *ponE pone *pone
person *keʔt; *pixe *inše (*inguɣ; *taʁu 'shamanic') *köntə; *soromə *qəlavol ?; *qəlik 'male'; C *ʀoraNvərr(at)əlʀən *n’iɣvŋ *sarʌm *kur (ainu) *pítò̱
name *ʔiɢ *nime *atəʀ; *acciʀ- *ńuː; *kirijə C *nənnə *qa(-) *ìlh(kòt)tá/*na *dEE rei *ná
dog *čip ~ *čib *pene *qikmiʀ *laːmə *qətʀə(n) *ɢanŋ *kahi *gita seta *ìnù
fish *kala *iqałuɣ *an-/*wan-; *anjə ? *ənnə *co *mǝlkòkí *tiqEp chep *(d)íwó
louse *jog- ~ *jok 'nit' *täje *kumaɣ *peme/*pime *mə(l)məl *dar, *hirk; *amrak *ni *ki ki *sìrámí
tree *puwɜ *uqviɣ; *napa(ʀ)aqtuʀ *saː- *ut(tə) *d’iɣar *nàmò̱k(ó) *nii; *tiku= ni *kò̱- < *ko̱no̱r
leaf *jə̄pe *lešte; *lȣ̈pɜ (*lepɜ) *pəłu *pöɣ- *wətwət *blaŋ(q), *d’omr *nip *hrA= ham *pá
flower *ćȣrɜ (Mansi) *polčičə ɤŋvk *kòcʌ́ *Epuy epuige *páná
water *xur *wete *imaqtəq- *law- *(m)iməl ? *caʀ *mǝí *hdak=ka wakka *mí
fire *boʔk *tule *ək(ə)nəʀ *loč- *jən ?; *milɣə(mil) *tuɣ(u)r *pɨr *apE abe *pò-Ci
stone *čɨʔs *kiwe *qaluʀ; *uyaʀaɣ *söj-/*sej- *ɣəv(ɣəv) *baʀ *tərək *suma; *pOqina shuma *(d)ísò
earth *baʔŋ *maγe *nuna, *nunałit- *luk-; *öninč’ə *nutæ ? 'land' *miv *nu(r)i *tOy toi *tùtì 'land'
salt *čəʔ *salɜ (*sala) *taʀ(ə)yuʀ *davc(iŋ) *sokom *sippO shippo
road *qoʔt *teje *čuɣö; *jaw- *rəʀet; *təlanvə 'way' *d’iv *kil *truu ru *mítí < honorific prefix mi- + ti 'road'
eat *siɢ- *sewe- (*seγe-) *leɣ- *nu- *n’i- *mǝk- *EE ibe *kup-
die *qɔ- *kola- *tuqu(-) *am-/*wam- C *viʀ- *mu *cuk- *day rai *sín-
I *ʔadᶻ *mȣ̈ *uvaŋa; (*vi) *mət *kəm *n’i *na/uri *ku= kuani *bàn[u]
you *ʔaw ~ ʔu; *kʌ- ~ *ʔʌk- *tȣ̈ *əlpət, *əłvət *tit *kəð; *tur(i) *ci *ne *E= eani *si/*so̱-; *na

Notes: C = Proto-Chukotian; I = Proto-Inuit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Campbell, Lyle; Mixco, Mauricio J. (2007). A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-7486-2378-5.
  2. ^ Fortescue, Michael (2011). "The relationship of Nivkh to Chukotko-Kamchatkan revisited". Lingua. 121 (8): 1359–1376. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2011.03.001.
  3. ^ "The Dene–Yeniseian Connection". Alaska Native Language Center. 2010.
  4. ^ Bernard Comrie (2008) "Why the Dene-Yeniseic Hypothesis is Exciting". Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska: Dene-Yeniseic Symposium.
  5. ^ "원시한반도어(原始韓半島語) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  6. ^ Miyano, Satoshi. "Nivkh Loanwords in Japanese and Korean (English)". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ Beckwith, Christopher (2004), Koguryo, the Language of Japan's Continental Relatives, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-13949-7.
  8. ^ Janhunen, Juha (2016). "Reconstructio externa linguae Ghiliacorum". Studia Orientalia. 117: 3–27. Retrieved 15 May 2020. p. 8.
  9. ^ Miyano, Satoshi. "A Chronological Sketch of the Amuro-Koreanic Parallelism [slides]". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Fortescue, Michael. 1998. Language Relations across Bering Strait: Reappraising the Archaeological and Linguistic Evidence. London and New York: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-70330-3.
  11. ^ Starostin, Sergei A., and Merritt Ruhlen. (1994). Proto-Yeniseian Reconstructions, with Extra-Yeniseian Comparisons. In M. Ruhlen, On the Origin of Languages: Studies in Linguistic Taxonomy. Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 70–92. [Partial translation of Starostin 1982, with additional comparisons by Ruhlen.]
  12. ^ Uralic Etymological Database (UED)
  13. ^ Fortescue, Michael D., Steven A. Jacobson, and Lawrence D. Kaplan. 1994. Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. ISBN 1-55500-051-7
  14. ^ Nikolaeva, Irina. 2006. A Historical Dictionary of Yukaghir. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  15. ^ Fortescue, Michael. 2005. Comparative Chukotko–Kamchatkan Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics 23. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  16. ^ Fortescue, Michael. 2016. Comparative Nivkh Dictionary. Munich: Lincom Europa.
  17. ^ a b Dellert, J., Daneyko, T., Münch, A. et al. NorthEuraLex: a wide-coverage lexical database of Northern Eurasia. Lang Resources & Evaluation 54, 273–301 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-019-09480-6
  18. ^ Francis-Ratte, A. (2016). Proto-Korean–Japanese: A new reconstruction of the common origin of the Japanese and Korean languages. PhD dissertation, Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  19. ^ Tranter, Nicolas (2012). The Languages of Japan and Korea. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-46287-7.
  20. ^ Vovin, Alexander. 1993. A Reconstruction of Proto-Ainu. Leiden: Brill.
  21. ^ Vovin, Alexander. 1994. "Long-distance Relationships, Reconstruction Methodology, and the Origins of Japanese". Diachronica 11(1): 95–114.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit