The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki based on their endonym Ewenkī(l))[note 1] are a Tungusic people of North Asia. In Russia, the Evenks are recognised as one of the Indigenous peoples of the Russian North, with a population of 38,396 (2010 census). In China, the Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised by the People's Republic of China, with a population of 30,875 (2010 census).[2] There are 537 Evenks in Mongolia (2015 census), called Khamnigan in the Mongolian language.[3]

An Evenk family in the early 1900s
Total population
c. 69,856[1][2][3][4]
Regions with significant populations


Evenki, Yakut, Russian, Chinese
Shamanism, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Tibetan Buddhism[5][6][7]
Related ethnic groups
Evens, Oroqens, Oroch
Settlement of Evenks in the Siberian Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Settlement of Evenks in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census

Origin edit

The Evenks or Ewenki are sometimes conjectured to be connected to the Shiwei people who inhabited the Greater Khingan Range in the 5th to 9th centuries[citation needed], although the native land of the majority of Evenki people is in the vast regions of Siberia between Lake Baikal and the Amur River. The Evenki language forms the northern branch of the Manchu-Tungusic language group and is closely related to Even and Negidal in Siberia. By 1600 the Evenks or Ewenki of the Lena and Yenisey river valleys were successful reindeer herders. By contrast the Solons (ancestors of the Evenkis in China) and the Khamnigans (Ewenkis of Transbaikalia) had picked up horse breeding and the Mongolian deel from the Mongols. The Solons nomadized along the Amur River. They were closely related to the Daur people. To the west the Khamnigan were another group of horse-breeding Evenks in the Transbaikalia area. Also in the Amur valley a body of Siberian Evenki-speaking people were called Orochen by the Manchus.

Historical distribution edit

The ancestors of the south-eastern Evenks most likely lived in the Baikal region of Southern Siberia (near the modern-day Mongolian border) since the Neolithic era.

Considering the north-western Evenks, Vasilevich claims: "The origin of the Evenks is the result of complex processes, different in time, involving the mixing of different ancient aboriginal tribes from the north of Siberia with tribes related in language to the Turks and Mongols. The language of these tribes took precedence over the languages of the aboriginal population". Elements of more modern Evenk culture, including conical tent dwellings, bone fish-lures, and birch-bark boats, were all present in sites that are believed to be Neolithic. From Lake Baikal, "they spread to the Amur and Okhotsk Sea…the Lena Basin…and the Yenisey Basin".[8]

Contact with Russians edit

In the 17th century, the Russian empire made contact with the Evenks. Cossacks, who served as a kind of "border-guard" for the tsarist government, imposed a fur tax on the Siberian tribes. The Cossacks exploited the Evenk clan hierarchy, taking hostages from the highest members to ensure payment of the tax. Although there was some rebellion against local officials, the Evenks generally recognized the need for peaceful cultural relations with the Russians.[9] The Russians and their constant demands for fur taxes pushed the Evenks east all the way to Sakhalin island, where some still live today. In the 19th century some groups migrated south and east into Mongolia and Manchuria.[10] Today there are still Evenk populations in Sakhalin, Mongolia, and Manchuria, and to a lesser extent, their traditional Baikal region. Russian invasion of the Evenks caused them (and other indigenous peoples) language erosion, a decline in traditions, and identity loss, among others. This was especially true during the Soviet regime. Soviet policies of collectivization, forced sedentarization (sometimes referred to as sedentism), "unpromising villages", and Russification of the education system compromised social, cultural, and mental well-being of the Evenks.[11][12] Today, few people can speak the Evenki language, reindeer herding is in significant decline, the suicide rate is extremely high, and alcoholism is a serious issue.[citation needed]

Traditional life edit

Evenks in 1912

Traditionally they were a mixture of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers—they relied on their domesticated reindeer for milk and transport and hunted other large game for meat.[13] Today "[t]he Evenks are divided into two large groups…engaging in different types of economy. These are the hunting and reindeer-breeding Evenks…and the horse and cattle pastoral Evenks as well as some farming Evenks".[14] The Evenks lived mostly in taiga, or boreal forest. They lived in conical tents made from birch bark or reindeer skin tied to birch poles. When they moved camp, the Evenks would leave these frameworks and carry only the more portable coverings. During winter, the hunting season, most camps consisted of one or two tents while spring encampments had up to 10 households [15]

Their skill at riding their domesticated reindeer allowed the Evenks to "colonize vast areas of the eastern taiga which had previously been impenetrable" [16] The Evenks used a saddle unique to their culture, placed on the shoulders of the reindeer to lessen the strain on the animal, and used a stick rather than stirrups to balance.[17] Evenks did not develop reindeer sledges until comparatively recent times [18] They instead used their reindeer as pack animals and often traversed great distances on foot, using snowshoes or skis.[19] The Evenki people did hunt and eat wild reindeer, but not their domesticated reindeer, which they kept for milk.[20]

Evenki cradle
Evenks in 1862

Large herds of reindeer were very uncommon. Most Evenks had around 25 head of reindeer, because they were generally bred for transportation. Unlike in several other neighboring tribes Evenk reindeer-breeding did not include "herding of reindeer by dogs nor any other specific features".[21] Very early in the spring season, winter camps broke up and moved to places suitable for calving. Several households pastured their animals together throughout the summer, being careful to keep "[s]pecial areas…fenced off…to guard the newborn calves against being trampled on in a large herd" [22]

Clothing edit

The Evenks wore a characteristic garb "adapted to the cold but rather dry climate of the Central Siberia and to a life of mobility…they wore brief garments of soft reindeer or elk skin around their hips, along with leggings and moccasins, or else long supple boots reaching to the thigh" (49). They also wore a deerskin coat that did not close in front but was instead covered with an apron-like cloth. Some Evenkis decorated their clothing with fringes or embroidery (50). The Evenki traditional costume always consisted of these elements: a loincloth made of animal hide, leggings, and boots of varying lengths [23] Facial tattooing was also very common.

Headgear of Evenki women, China

Hunting edit

The traditional Evenk economy was a mix of pastoralism (horses or reindeer), fishing, and hunting. The Evenk who lived near the Okhotsk Sea hunted seal, but for most of the taiga-dwellers, elk, wild reindeer, and fowl were the most important game animals. Other animals included "roe deer, bear, wolverine, lynx, wolf, Siberian marmot, fox, and sable" [24] Trapping did not become important until the imposition of the fur tax by the tsarist government. Before they acquired guns in the 18th century, Evenks used steel bows and arrows. Along with their main hunting implements, hunters always carried a "pike"—"which was a large knife on a long handle used instead of an axe when passing through thick taiga, or as a spear when hunting bear".[25] The Evenks have deep respect for animals and all elements of nature: "It is forbidden to torment an animal, bird, or insect, and a wounded animal must be finished off immediately. It is forbidden to spill the blood of a killed animal or defile it. It is forbidden to kill animals or birds that were saved from pursuit by predators or came to a person for help in a natural disaster."[26]

Evenks of Russia edit

Evenks domicile, chum – Evenks' home in ethnographic museum in Ulan Ude, Russia

The Evenks were formerly known as tungus. This designation was spread by the Russians, who acquired it from the Yakuts (in the Yakut language tongus) in the 17th century. The Evenks have several self-designations, of which the best known is evenk. This became the official designation for the people in 1931. Some groups call themselves orochen ('an inhabitant of the River Oro'), orochon ('a rearer of reindeer'), ile ('a human being'), etc. At one time or another tribal designations and place names have also been used as self-designations, for instance manjagir, birachen, solon, etc. Several of these have even been taken for separate ethnic entities.

There is also a similarly named Siberian group called the Evens (formerly known as Lamuts). Although related to the Evenks, the Evens are now considered to be a separate ethnic group.

Evenks in Sakha Republic

The Evenks are spread over a huge territory of the Siberian taiga from the River Ob in the west to the Okhotsk Sea in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to Manchuria and Sakhalin in the south. The total area of their habitat is about 2,500,000 km2. In all of Russia only the Russians inhabit a larger territory. According to the administrative structure, the Evenks live, from west to east, in:

However, the territory where they are a titular nation is confined solely to Evenk Autonomous Okrug, where 3,802 of the 35,527 Evenks live (according to the 2002 census). More than 18,200 Evenks live in the Sakha Republic.

Evenki is the largest of the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages, a group which also includes Even and Negidal.

Many Evenks in Russia still engage in a traditional lifestyle of raising reindeer, fishing, and hunting.[27]

Russian Federation edit

According to the 2021 census 39,226 Evenki lived in Russia.

Evenk settlement in Russia by municipal areas and urban districts in percents of the total number of this nation in the Russian Federation. According to the 2010 census
Evenki in Russia
Administrative unit Evenki population (2021 Census) [28]
Sakha (Yakutia) Republic 24,334
Krasnoyarsk Krai (including Evenkia) 3,612
Evenk Autonomous Okrug (Evenkia) 3,118
Krasnoyarsk Krai (excluding Evenkia) 494
Khabarovsk Krai 3,709
Amur Oblast 1,405
Sakhalin Oblast 171
Republic of Buryatia 2,995
Irkutsk Oblast 1,144
Zabaykalsky Krai 957

Evenks of China edit

The lands of the Solons (Solonen) near Hailar (Chailar) in the late Qing Empire
Evenki Museum in the Evenki Autonomous Banner

At the 2000 census, there were 30,505 Evenks in China, mainly made up of the Solons and the Khamnigans. 88.8% of China's Evenks live in the Hulunbuir region in the north of the Inner Mongolia Province, near the city of Hailar. The Evenk Autonomous Banner is also located near Hulunbuir. There are also around 3,000 Evenks in neighbouring Heilongjiang Province.

Evenki dwelling made from birch bark, Heilongjiang

The Manchu Emperor Hong Taiji conquered the Evenks in 1640, and executed their leader Bombogor. After the Manchu conquest, the Evenks were incorporated into the Eight Banners.

In 1763, the Qing government moved 500 Solon Evenk and 500 Daur families to the Tacheng and Ghulja areas of Xinjiang, in order to strengthen the empire's western border. Another 1020 Xibe families (some 4000 persons) also came the following year. Since then, however, the Solons of Xinjiang have assimilated into other ethnic groups, and are not identified as such anymore.[29][30]

The Japanese occupation led to many murders of Evenkis, and Evenki men were conscripted as scouts and rangers by the Japanese secret service in 1942.[31] Some Evenkis fled to Soviet Siberia across the Amur river after murdering a Japanese officer to avoid punishment from the Japanese.

The Evenks of China today tend to be settled pastoralists and farmers.[27]

Map of Evenk-designated autonomous prefectures and counties in China.

By county edit

County-level distribution of the Evenk

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.1% of China's Evenk population.)

Provincial-level administrative division Prefecture-level division County-level division Evenk Population % of China's Evenk Population
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Evenki Autonomous Banner 9,733 31.91%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner 5,126 16.8%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Oroqen Autonomous Banner 3.155 10.34%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Arun Banner 2,144 7.03%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Old Barag Banner 1,906 6.25%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Zhalantun 1,201 3.94%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Hailar District 971 3.18%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Nehe 778 2.55%
Heilongjiang Heihe Nenjiang 678 2.22%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Yakeshi 405 1.33%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Genhe 369 1.21%
Inner Mongolia AR Hohhot Saihan District 158 0.52%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Manzhouli 141 0.46%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Meilisi Daur District 135 0.44%
Heilongjiang Daxing'anling Jagdaqi 129 0.42%
Inner Mongolia AR Hohhot Xincheng District 128 0.42%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Fuyu 111 0.36%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir Ergun 110 0.36%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir New Barag Left Banner 103 0.34%
Beijing Municipality Haidian District 68 0.22%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Jianhua 65 0.21%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Tiefeng 65 0.21%
Inner Mongolia AR Hinggan League Ulanhot 60 0.20%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Gangnan District 59 0.19%
Heilongjiang Daxing'anling Mohe 55 0.18%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Hulan Ergi 54 0.18%
Inner Mongolia AR Hulunbuir New Barag Right Banner 54 0.18%
Heilongjiang Daxing'anling Huma 52 0.17%
Inner Mongolia AR Hohhot Huimin District 48 0.16%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Longjiang 44 0.14%
Heilongjiang Qiqihar Longsha 36 0.12%
Inner Mongolia AR Baotou Qingshan 35 0.11%
Inner Mongolia AR Tongliao Horqin District 35 0.11%
Inner Mongolia AR Hinggan League Jalaid Banner 34 0.11%
Inner Mongolia AR Heihe Wudalianchi 32 0.10%
Other 2,228 7.33%

Evenks of Ukraine edit

According to the 2001 census, there were 48 Evenks living in Ukraine. The majority (35) stated that their native language was Russian; four indicated Evenk as their native language, and three that it was Ukrainian.[32]

Religion edit

Prior to contact with the Russians, the belief system of the Evenks was animistic. Many have adopted Tibetan Buddhism.[5][6][7]

The Evenki, like most nomadic, pastoral, and subsistence agrarian peoples, spend most of their lives in very close contact with nature. Because of this, they develop what A. A. Sirina calls an "ecological ethic". By this she means "a system of responsibility of people to nature and her spirit masters, and of nature to people"(9). Sirina interviewed many Evenks who until very recently spent much of their time as reindeer herders in the taiga, just like their ancestors. The Evenki people also spoke along the same lines: their respect for nature and their belief that nature is a living being.

This idea, "[t]he embodiment, animation, and personification of nature—what is still called the animistic worldview—is the key component of the traditional worldview of hunter-gatherers" [33] Although most of the Evenkis have been "sedentarized"—that is, made to live in settled communities instead of following their traditional nomadic way of life [34]—"[m]any scholars think that the worldview characteristic of hunter-gatherer societies is preserved, even if they make the transition to new economic models.[35]

Although nominally Christianized in the 18th century, the Evenki people maintain many of their historical beliefs—especially shamanism [36] The Christian traditions were "confined to the formal performance of Orthodox rites which were usually timed for the arrival of the priest in the taiga" [37]

Costume of Evenki shaman in Krasnoyarsk

The religious beliefs and practices of the Evenks are of great historical interest since they retain some archaic forms of belief. Among the most ancient ideas are spiritualization and personification of all natural phenomena, belief in an upper, middle, and lower world, belief in the soul (omi) and certain totemistic concepts. There were also various magical rituals associated with hunting and guarding herds. Later on, these rituals were conducted by shamans. Shamanism brought about the development of the views of spirit-masters [38]

There are few sources on the shamanism of the Evenki peoples below the Amur/Helongkiang river in Northern China. There is a brief report of fieldwork conducted by Richard Noll and Kun Shi in 1994 of the life of the shamaness Dula'r (Evenki name), also known as Ao Yun Hua (her Han Chinese name).[39] She was born in 1920 and was living in the village of Yiming Gatsa in the Evenki Banner (county) of the Hulunbuir Prefecture, in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. While not a particularly good informant, she described her initiatory illness, her multiyear apprenticeship with a Mongol shaman before being allowed to heal at the age of 25 or 26, and the torments she experienced during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s when most of her shamanic paraphernalia was destroyed. Mongol and Buddhist Lamaist influences on her indigenous practice of shamansim were evident. She hid her prize possession—an Abagaldi (bear spirit) shaman mask, which has also been documented among the Mongols and Dauer peoples in the region. The field report and color photographs of this shaman are available online.[40]

Olga Kudrina (c. 1890–1944) was a shaman among the Reindeer Evenki of northern Inner Mongolia along the Amur River's Great Bend (today under the jurisdiction of Genhe, Hulunbuir).[41]

Genetics edit

40 percent of Evenki men carry haplogroup C-M217. Their second most common Y-DNA haplogroup is N (34 %). 18 percent belong to its subgroup N1b-P43 and 16 percent belong to subgroup N1c. Other paternal haplogroups found among them are R1a (14 %), R1b (6 %), F (4 %) and I (2 %).[42]

Notable Evenks edit

Gallery edit

See also edit

Bibliography edit

  • D. O. Chaoke (an Evenk), WANG Lizhen (2002). 鄂温克族宗教信仰与文化 (Zipped NLC (Modified JBIG)). Beijing: Minzu University of China. ISBN 978-7-81056-700-8.
  • "Altaic." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 4 Nov. 2009.
  • Anderson, David G. "Is Siberian Reindeer Herding in Crisis? Living with Reindeer Fifteen Years after the End of State Socialism." Nomadic Peoples NS 10.2 (2006): 87-103. EBSCO. Web. 6 Nov. 2009.
  • Bulatova, Nadezhda, and Lenore Grenoble. Evenki. Munchen: LINCOM Europa, 1999. Print. Languages of the World.
  • "Evenki." Cassell's Peoples, Nations, and Cultures. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005. EBSCO. Web. 4 Nov. 2009.
  • "Evenki." Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth Edition. Ed. Paul M. Lewis. SIL International, 2009. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.[43]
  • Fondahl, Gail. Gaining ground? Evenkis, land and reform in southeastern Siberia. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. Print.
  • Forsyth, James. History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony, 1581-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992. Print.
  • Georg, Stefan, Peter A. Michalove, Alexis M. Ramer, and Paul J. Sidwell. "Telling general linguists about Altaic." Journal of Linguistics 35.1 (1999): 65-98. JSTOR. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.
  • Hallen, Cynthia L. "A Brief Exploration of the Altaic Hypothesis." Department of Linguistics. Brigham Young University, 6 Sept. 1999. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.[44]
  • Janhunen, Juha. "Evenki." Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. Ed. Christopher Moseley. UNESCO Culture Sector, 31 Mar. 2009. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.[45]
  • Nedjalkov, Igor. Evenki. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. Descriptive Grammars.
  • Sirina, Anna A. Katanga Evenkis in the 20th Century and the Ordering of their Life-world, transl. from 2nd Russian edn (2002), Northern Hunter-Gatherers Research Series 2, Edmonton: CCI Press and Baikal Archaeology Project, 2006.
  • Sirina, Anna A. "People Who Feel the Land: The Ecological Ethic of the Evenki and Eveny." Trans. James E. Walker. Anthropology & Archaeology of Eurasia 3rd ser. 47.Winter 2008-9 (2009): 9-37. EBSCOHost. Web. 27 November 2009.
  • Turov, Mikhail G. Evenki Economy in the Central Siberian Taiga at the Turn of the 20th Century: Principles of Land Use, transl. from 2nd Russian edn (1990), Northern Hunter-Gatherers Research Series 5, Edmonton: CCI Press and the Baikal Archaeology Project, 2010.
  • Vasilevich, G. M., and A. V. Smolyak. "Evenki." The Peoples of Siberia. Ed. Stephen Dunn. Trans. Scripta Technica, Inc. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1964. 620-54. Print.
  • Vitebsky, Piers. Reindeer people: Living with Animals and Spirits in Siberia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Print.
  • Wood, Alan, and R. A. French, eds. Development of Siberia: People and Resources. New York: St. Martin's, 1989. Print.

The Evenki in literature edit

  • Chi, Zijian (2013). 《额尔古纳河右岸》 [The Last Quarter of the Moon]. Translated by Humes, Bruce. Harvill Secker..[46]
  • The Moose of Ewenki 《鄂温克的驼鹿》, picture book written by Gerelchimeg Blackcrane (格日勒其木格·黑鹤), illustrated by Jiu Er (九儿), translated by Helen Mixter . (Greystone Kids, 2019)[47]

Notes edit

  1. ^ Autonym: ᠧᠸᠧᠩᠺᠢ Эвэнкил (Evenkīl); Russian: Эвенки (Evenki); Chinese: 鄂温克族 (Èwēnkè Zú); formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Mongolian: Хамниган (Khamnigan) or Aiwenji (Chinese: 埃文基族; pinyin: Āiwénjī Zú)

References edit

  1. ^ a b Ethnic groups in Russia Archived 2021-12-23 at the Wayback Machine, 2010 census, Rosstat. Retrieved 15 February 2012 (in Russian)
  2. ^ a b c "Evenk Archives - Intercontinental Cry". Intercontinental Cry. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
  3. ^ a b c "2015 POPULATION AND HOUSING BY-CENSUS OF MONGOLIA: NATIONAL REPORT". National Statistics Office of Mongolia. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  4. ^ a b "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Ewenki, Solon" (PDF). Retrieved 17 August 2018.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ a b "Ewenki, Tungus" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  7. ^ a b Шубин А. Ц. Краткий очерк этнической истории эвенков Забайкалья (XVIII-XX век). Улан-Удэ: Бурят. кн. изд-во, 1973. С. 64, 65 (in Russian)
  8. ^ Vasilevich (623)
  9. ^ (Vasilevich, 624)
  10. ^ (Vasilevich, 625)
  11. ^ Klokov, K.B., Khrushchev, S.A. (2010). Demographic dynamics of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the Russian North, 1897-2002. Sibirica, 9, 41-65
  12. ^ Vakhtin, N. (1992). Native peoples of the Russian Far North. London
  13. ^ (Vasilevich, 620-1)
  14. ^ (620)
  15. ^ (Vasilevich, 637).
  16. ^ (Vitebsky, 31).
  17. ^ (31-32)
  18. ^ (32).
  19. ^ (Vasilevich, 627)
  20. ^ (Forsyth, 49-50).
  21. ^ (Vasilevich, 629)
  22. ^ (629).
  23. ^ (Vasilevich, 641).
  24. ^ (Vasilevich, 626).
  25. ^ (626)
  26. ^ (Sirina, 24).
  27. ^ a b Winston, Robert, ed. (2004). Human: The Definitive Visual Guide. New York: Dorling Kindersley. p. 428. ISBN 0-7566-0520-2.
  28. ^ "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  29. ^ Herold J. Wiens "Change in the Ethnography and Land Use of the Ili Valley and Region, Chinese Turkestan", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Dec., 1969), pp. 753-775 (JSTOR access required)
  30. ^ Tianshannet / Окно в Синьцзян / Народности, не относящиеся к тюркской группе Tianshannet Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine (Window to Xinjiang / Non-Turkic peoples) (in Russian)
  31. ^ Kolås, Åshild; Xie, Yuanyuan, eds. (2005). Reclaiming the Forest: The Ewenki Reindeer Herders of Aoluguya. Berghahn Books. p. 2. ISBN 1-78238-631-9.
  32. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  33. ^ (Sirina, 13).
  34. ^ (Fondahl, 5)
  35. ^ (Sirina, 30, quoting Barnard 1998, Lee 1999, Peterson 1999)
  36. ^ (Vasilevich, 624).
  37. ^ (647).
  38. ^ (Vasilevich 647).
  39. ^ Richard Noll and Kun Shi, A Solon Evenki shaman and her Abgaldi Shaman mask. Shaman, 2007, 15 (1-2):167-174
  40. ^ Noll, Richard. ""A Solon Ewenki shaman and her Abagaldai mask," Shaman (2007), 15 (1-2)". Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  41. ^ Heyne, F. Georg (2007), "Notes on Blood Revenge among the Reindeer Evenki of Manchuria" (PDF), Asian Folklore Studies, 66 (1/2): 165–178, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-20, retrieved 2014-11-12
  42. ^ Tambets, Kristiina; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Hudjashov, Georgi; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Rootsi, Siiri; Honkola, Terhi; Vesakoski, Outi; Atkinson, Quentin; Skoglund, Pontus; Kushniarevich, Alena; Litvinov, Sergey; Reidla, Maere; Metspalu, Ene; Saag, Lehti; Rantanen, Timo (2018). "Genes reveal traces of common recent demographic history for most of the Uralic-speaking populations". Genome Biology. 19 (1): 139. doi:10.1186/s13059-018-1522-1. ISSN 1474-760X. PMC 6151024. PMID 30241495.
  43. ^ "Evenki". Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  44. ^ "A Brief Exploration of the Altaic Hypothesis". Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  45. ^ "UNESCO Culture Sector - Intangible Heritage - 2003 Convention: UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". 22 February 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-02-22. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  46. ^ Humes, Bruce (2018-02-01). "Chi Zijian's "Last Quarter of the Moon": Guide to Related Links". Fei Piao - Transitioning from China to Africa. Archived from the original on 2019-08-28. Retrieved 2019-08-28.
  47. ^ anguche (2019-08-27). "85. The Moose of Ewenki". Chinese books for young readers. Retrieved 2019-08-28.

External links edit