Tongliao (Chinese: 通辽市; Mongolian: Tongliyao.png Hot.svg Tüŋliyou qota, Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. The area is 59,535 square kilometres (22,987 sq mi) and as of the 2020 census, its population was 2,873,168 (3,139,153 in 2010). However, the city proper made of Horqin district, had 921,808 inhabitants.[4] The city was the administrative centre of the defunct Jirem League (哲里木盟; ᠵᠢᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ Jirim ayimaɣ).

Tongliao
通辽市
ᠲᠦᠩᠯᠢᠶᠣᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
哲里木大桥 - Zhelimu Bridge - 2011.07 - panoramio (1).jpg
Location of Tongliao City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia
Location of Tongliao City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia
Tongliao is located in Inner Mongolia
Tongliao
Tongliao
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
Coordinates (Tongliao municipal government): 43°39′14″N 122°14′35″E / 43.654°N 122.243°E / 43.654; 122.243Coordinates: 43°39′14″N 122°14′35″E / 43.654°N 122.243°E / 43.654; 122.243
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Autonomous regionInner Mongolia
Municipal seatHorqin District
Area
 • Prefecture-level city58,863 km2 (22,727 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2017)[1]
3,487 km2 (1,346 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,487 km2 (1,346 sq mi)
Elevation179 m (587 ft)
Highest elevation
1,444.2 m (4,738.2 ft)
Population
 (2020 census[4])
 • Prefecture-level city2,873,168
 • Density49/km2 (130/sq mi)
 • Urban
 [1]
921,808
 • Urban density260/km2 (680/sq mi)
 • Metro
921,808
 • Metro density260/km2 (680/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
ISO 3166 codeCN-NM-05
Websitetongliao.gov.cn
Tongliao
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese通辽
Traditional Chinese通遼
Literal meaning"Through Liao"
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicБайшинт хот
Mongolian scriptᠲᠦᠩᠯᠢᠶᠣᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ

The original Mongolian name for Tongliao city proper (i.e. Horqin District) is Bayisingtu (Chinese: 白音泰赉; pinyin: Báiyīntàilài; lit. 'having buildings'), while the original name of the prefecture-level city is Jirem. The Mongolian dialect spoken in this area is Khorchin Mongolian.

HistoryEdit

Human settlement in Tongliao and surrounding Khorchin area dates from at least 1000 BC. The Donghu people, a tribe who spoke a proto-Mongolian language, settled in today's Tongliao area, north of Yan during Warring States period.[5] their culture was associated with the Upper Xiajiadian culture, characterized by the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry supplemented by handicrafts and bronze art.[6] Later, the Tongliao area was controlled by Xiongnu, Xianbei, and Khitan tribes.

After the Mongolian Khanate had established the Yuan Dynasty in Chinese territory, Tongliao was put under the jurisdiction of Liaoyang province, whose provincial capital was in today's Liaoning Province. In the early Qing period, Khorchin, Dörbod, Jalaid and Gorlos tribes met in Jirem to establish an alliance, and the Jirem League was founded in 1636 to administer Khorchin territory. The Jirem League had jurisdiction over six Khorchin banners, two Gorlos banners, one Dorbod banner and one Jalaid banner. During the Republican period, the Jirem League and the surrounding Khorchin area was controlled by the Fengtian and Liaoning provinces.

In 1918, Tongliao County was first established under the administration of the Jirem League and Fengtian province. After the Japanese Kwantung Army invaded Manchuria in 1931, a Japanese-controlled puppet state Manchukuo was established in Hsinking, 280 kilometers away from today's Tongliao urban area. The Manchukuo government set up Xing'an Province and soon divided it into four parts, in order to govern the western part of former Heilongjiang, Jilin and Fengtian provinces. These Xing'an provinces roughly overlap today's eastern part of Inner Mongolia, including today's Hulunbuir League, Xingan League, Chifeng and Tongliao. After the dissolution of the Manchukuo state, the Jirem League was governed by Liaoning and Liaobei provinces until Ulanhu established Inner Mongolia in Ulanhot, governing eastern Mongolian areas including the Hulunbuir, Jirem and Ju'ud leagues. After 1969, the Jirem League was put under the administration of Jilin province administration for 10 years until 1979. In 1999, the Jirem League became defunct and changed its name to Tongliao city, which was set up a prefecture-level city.

In 1924, Oomoto leader Onisaburo Deguchi, Aikido founder Morihei Ueshiba, and Lu Zhankui were arrested by Chinese authorities in Tongliao. Lu and his men were executed by firing squad, but Deguchi and Ueshiba were released into the customer of the Japanese consul.

Geography and climateEdit

Tongliao spans latitude 42°15' – 45°41' and longitude 119°15' – 123°43',[7] and borders Jilin province to the east, Liaoning to the south, Chifeng to the southwest, the Xilin Gol League to the west, and the Hinggan League to the north. Not far from Tongliao are silica sands. Tongliao has a total area of 59,535 square kilometres (22,987 sq mi), accounting for 5.4% of Inner Mongolia's total.[8]

Tongliao's topography primarily consists of plains,[7] though the northern stretch of the prefecture extends into the eastern foothills of the southern Greater Khingan.[7] The central and eastern parts of the prefecture are marked by the plains of the Xiliao, Xinkai River (新开河), and Jiaolai rivers (教来河), collectively forming the Sanhe Plain (三河平原; 'three rivers' plain').[7] The highest point in the prefecture is Tunte'er Peak (吞特尔峰), at 1,444.2 m (4,738 ft).[2][3]

Tongliao has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, continental steppe climate (Köppen BSk), with long, cold, windy, but dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Monthly mean temperatures range from −13.0 °C (8.6 °F) in January to 24.2 °C (75.6 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 7.11 °C (44.8 °F). Much of the year's rainfall occurs from June to August, and even then dry and sunny weather dominates in the city. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 57% in July to 78% in January, sunshine is abundant year-round, with 3,054 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Tongliao (1981−2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −6.6
(20.1)
−1.5
(29.3)
6.1
(43.0)
16.2
(61.2)
23.3
(73.9)
27.8
(82.0)
29.3
(84.7)
28.4
(83.1)
23.5
(74.3)
15.1
(59.2)
3.5
(38.3)
−4.5
(23.9)
13.4
(56.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −13.0
(8.6)
−8.3
(17.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
9.4
(48.9)
16.9
(62.4)
21.9
(71.4)
24.2
(75.6)
22.9
(73.2)
16.7
(62.1)
8.2
(46.8)
−2.6
(27.3)
−10.4
(13.3)
7.1
(44.8)
Average low °C (°F) −18.2
(−0.8)
−14.0
(6.8)
−6.6
(20.1)
2.9
(37.2)
10.3
(50.5)
15.9
(60.6)
19.4
(66.9)
17.8
(64.0)
10.5
(50.9)
2.4
(36.3)
−7.5
(18.5)
−15.2
(4.6)
1.5
(34.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.6
(0.06)
1.2
(0.05)
6.2
(0.24)
17.7
(0.70)
30.0
(1.18)
70.4
(2.77)
97.8
(3.85)
90.6
(3.57)
26.8
(1.06)
16.3
(0.64)
6.9
(0.27)
2.0
(0.08)
367.5
(14.47)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.6 2.3 3.4 4.6 7.4 11.0 11.6 9.4 7.2 4.3 2.6 2.4 67.8
Average relative humidity (%) 52 44 41 41 45 60 73 72 62 53 52 54 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours 224.7 225.3 272.7 272.0 293.1 284.2 267.2 272.8 268.1 251.3 216.2 206.0 3,053.6
Percent possible sunshine 78 77 74 68 65 62 57 63 72 74 74 74 69
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)[9][10]

SubdivisionsEdit

Map
Name Mongolian Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
Horqin District ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Qorčin toɣoriɣ)
科尔沁区 Kē'ěrqìn Qū 898,895 3,212 252
Holingol city ᠬᠣᠣᠯᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Qoolin Ɣool qota)
霍林郭勒市 Huòlínguōlè Shì 102,214 585 120
Kailu County ᠺᠠᠶᠢᠯᠦ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Ḵayilü siyan)
开鲁县 Kāilǔ Xiàn 396,166 4,488 87
Hure Banner ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Küriy-e qosiɣu)
库伦旗 Kùlún Qí 167,020 4,650 39
Naiman Banner ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Naiman qosiɣu)
奈曼旗 Nàimàn Qí 401,509 8,120 53
Jarud Banner ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Jarud qosiɣu)
扎鲁特旗 Zālǔtè Qí 279,371 17,193 17
Horqin Left Middle Banner
(Horqin Jun Garun Dundad Banner)
ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qorčin Jegün Ɣarun Dumdadu qosiɣu)
科尔沁左翼中旗 Kē'ěrqìn Zuǒyì
Zhōng Qí
514,741 9,811 54
Horqin Left Back Banner
(Horqin Jun Garun Hoit Banner)
ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qorčin Jegün Ɣarun Qoyitu qosiɣu)
科尔沁左翼后旗 Kē'ěrqìn Zuǒyì
Hòu Qí
379,237 11,476 35

DemographicsEdit

Ethnic groups in Tongliao, 2000 census.

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han Chinese 1.548.721 51,14%
Mongol 1.373.470 45,35%
Manchu 88.654 2,93%
Hui Chinese 12.447 0,41%
Korean 2.709 0,09%
Xibe 781 0,03%
Daur 492 0,02%

TransportEdit

Tongliao railway station is a railway hub in both Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. Tongliao-Beijing Railway conveniently connects the city with Beijing. There are also rails connect Tongliao with Shenyang, Daqing and Jining. State Highway 111, State Highway 303, State Highway 304 and State Highway 204 run through the city and extend to harbor cities such as Tianjin, Dalian, and Qinhuangdao. The city is served by Tongliao Airport.

EducationEdit

Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities (内蒙古民族大学)and Inner Mongolia College of Farming and Animal Husbandry(merged into Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities) are among the educational institutions of Tongliao.

Additionally Tongliao Mongolian Middle School (通辽蒙古族中学) is there.[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 46. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b 秋天的特金罕山,美的像幅油画,值得一游!. 通辽旅游 [Tongliao Tourism]. 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2020-05-10 – via Sohu.
  3. ^ a b 建置沿革. CASS Nationalities Studies Research Institute (中国社会科学院民族文学研究所).
  4. ^ a b https://www.citypopulation.de/en/china/neimenggu/admin/[bare URL]
  5. ^ Watson (1993), p. 132.
  6. ^ Lin (2007)[page needed]
  7. ^ a b c d 通辽概览概况地图_行政区划网(区划地名网) www.xzqh.org. XZQH.org. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  8. ^ "HKTDC Research". research.hktdc.com.
  9. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  10. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  11. ^ "Culture war: Inner Mongolia seethes as China presses Mandarin at school". Bangkok Post. 2020-09-15. Retrieved 2020-09-22.

External linksEdit