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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Mandarin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-cmn}}, {{IPAc-cmn}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard Chinese phonology for more detail on the sounds of Mandarin Chinese.

Consonants
IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
f f fan
j y-/-i- yes
k g k skin
k k' kin
l l 來(来) leaf
m m moon
n n ㄋ,ㄣ,ㄢ noon
ŋ -ng ㄥ,ㄤ song
p b p 幫(帮) span
p p' pan
ɻ[a] r- j row
s s same
ʂ sh show
t d t stop
t t' top
ts z ts buds
tsʰ c ts' cats
j ch somewhat like jean[b]
tɕʰ q ch' somewhat like cheese[b]
ɕ x hs 曉(晓) somewhat like sheep[b]
ʈʂ zh ch jar
ʈʂʰ ch ch' church
w w-/-u- water
x h horror
ɥ yu-/-ü-[c] yü-/-ü- no English equivalent; like French huit
Vowels
IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
a a ㄚ,ㄢ,ㄤ 阿,安,盎 car
er êrh 二,兒(儿)
ɤ e ê / o[d] wood
ɛ or æ yan/-ian yen/-ien ㄧㄢ set or sat
yuan/-üan ㄩㄢ
e ye/-ie, yue/-üe eh 也,月 hey
ə en,[e] eng ên, êng ㄣ,ㄥ 本,冷 atop
ɚ er êrh 二,兒(儿) far [f]
i yi/-i city
o wo/-uo[g] o[h] boy
ɻ̩ zhi, chi, shi, ri ih [i] 之,吃,師(师),日 somewhat like American sir[j]
ɹ̩ zi, ci, si û 子,次,私 thousand, cousin
u wu/-u cool
ʊ -ong -ung ㄨㄥ,ㄩㄥ 冬,用 book
y yu/-ü[c] yü/-ü somewhat like meet, with lips rounded
Diphthongs
ai ai time
au ao somewhat like out
ei ei[e] face
ou ou[e] 歐(欧) show
Tones
IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example Tone number Description
á ā a1 tone 1 high level [˥]
ǎ á a2 ㄚˊ tone 2 mid rising [˧˥]
à ǎ a3 ㄚˇ tone 3 medially, low [˩]; initially, mid falling [˧˩]; finally, low rising [˩˧]; in isolation, dipping [˧˩˧]
â à a4 ㄚˋ tone 4 high falling [˥˩]
a a a0 ˙ㄚ tone 0 or 5
(toneless)
mid [˧] after all tones but 4, where it is low [˩]
Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also transcribed as ʐ in older literature.
  2. ^ a b c [ɕ, tɕ, tɕʰ] are always followed by [i], [j], [y], or [ɥ].
  3. ^ a b ü (/y/) is spelled u after j, q, x in pinyin since /u/ cannot occur after them.
  4. ^ This sound is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨k, k', h⟩ in Wade-Giles.
  5. ^ a b c wei, you/yu, wen/wên are spelled respectively ui, iu, un in Pinyin and Wade-Giles but are pronounced identically when they are preceded by a consonant.
  6. ^ The rhotic vowel also appears in erhua.
  7. ^ This sound is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨b, p, m, f⟩ in Pinyin.
  8. ^ ㄨㄛ is spelled as ⟨o⟩, except for ⟨k, k', h, sh⟩ (as ⟨kuo, k'uo, huo, shuo⟩) in Wade-Giles.
  9. ^ This symbol is rarely used and usually omitted during writing.
  10. ^ Voiced continuants (also transcribed [ɨ, ɯ] or [ʐ̩, z̩]) reflecting the character of the preceding consonant[clarification needed]

ReferencesEdit

  • Duanmu, San (2007). The Phonology of Standard Chinese (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (2003). "Standard Chinese (Beijing)" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 109–112. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001208.
  • Lin, Yen-Hwei (2007). The Sounds of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External linksEdit