|Possible time of origin||36,800 [95% CI 34,300–39,300] years before present (YFull)|
44,700 or 38,300 ybp depending on mutation rate
41,900 [95% CI 40,175-43,591] ybp
|Coalescence age||22,100 [95% CI 20,000–24,400] ybp (YFull)|
25,313 [95% CI 21,722-28,956] ybp
|Possible place of origin||East Asia|
|Highest frequencies||Nganassan 92%, Yakuts 75-84% (Xu 2015), Nenets 75%, Finns 51-61% (Purps 2014), Tuvans 27.2-54.5% (Kharkov 2013), Estonian 40% (Purps 2014), Saami 40%, Buryats 34.5% (20.2%, 25.0%, 30.9%, 48.0%), Latvian 30% (Purps 2014), Lithuanian 25% (Purps 2014), Nanai 17.8% (Xue 2006), Swedish 9-22% (Purps 2014), Sibe 17.1%-18.0%, Mongols 11%, Kalmyks 10.4% (Torguud 3.4%, Derbet 5.1%, Buzava 5.3%, Khoshut 38.2%), Manchus 10% (5.8%, 9.1%, 11.6%, 12.5%, 14.3%), Han Chinese 6.77% (0% to 21.4%), Ulchi 5.8%, Tibetans 5.65%, Kazakhs 5.33% (Suan 0%, Qangly 0%, Oshaqty 0%, Jetyru 1.2%, Naiman 1.3%, Dulat 1.6%, Argyn 2.0%, Alimuly 2.5%, Ysty 3.5%, Kerey 3.6%, Baiuly 3.9%, Alban 4.3%, Qongyrat 7.4%, Qypshaq 10.3%, Jalair 10.9%, Qozha 16.7%, Syrgeli 65.6%), Uyghurs 4.89% (2.8%, 4.8%, 4.99%, 6.0%, 8.6%), Koreans 4% (1.8% Seoul-Gyeonggi, 3.0% Daejeon, 4.0% Seoul, 4.2% Chungcheong, 4.4% Jeolla, 4.8% Gyeongsang, 6.3% Gangwon, 6.9% Jeju), Japanese 1.9% (0%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1.7%, 2.5%, 4.3%, 4.8%, 6.4%)|
It is most commonly found in males originating from northern Eurasia. It also has been observed at lower frequencies in populations native to other regions, including the Balkans, Central Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific.
It is generally considered that N-M231 arose in East Asia approximately 19,400 (±4,800) years ago and re-populated northern Eurasia after the Last Glacial Maximum. Males carrying the marker apparently moved northwards as the climate warmed in the Holocene, migrating in a counter-clockwise path (through modern China and Mongolia), to eventually become concentrated in areas as far away as Fennoscandia and the Baltic.(Rootsi 2006). The apparent dearth of haplogroup N-M231 amongst Native American peoples indicates that it spread after Beringia was submerged (Chiaroni 2009), about 11,000 years ago.
Haplogroup N has a wide geographic distribution throughout northern Eurasia, and it also has been observed occasionally in other areas, including South-East Asia, the Pacific, Central Asia and the Balkans.
It has been found with greatest frequency among indigenous peoples of Russia, including Uralic peoples, Turkic peoples (Yakuts, Dolgans, Khakasses, Tuvans, Tatars, Chuvashes, etc.), Buryats, Tungusic peoples (Evenks, Evens, Negidals, etc.), Yukaghirs, Luoravetlans (Chukchis, Koryaks), and Siberian Eskimos, but certain subclades are very common in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and other subclades are quite common in China (Yi, Naxi, Lhoba, Han Chinese, etc.). Especially in ethnic Finnic peoples and Baltic-speaking peoples of northern Europe, the Ob-Ugric-speaking and Northern Samoyed peoples of western Siberia, the Siberian Turkic-speaking Yakuts (McDonald 2005), Altaians and Shors. Nearly all members of haplogroup N among these populations of northern Eurasia belong to subclades of N1a-F1206/M2013/S11466.
Y-chromosomes belonging to N1b-F2930/M1881/V3743, or N1*-CTS11499/L735/M2291(xN1a-F1206/M2013/S11466), have been found at relatively high levels in South China and adjoining areas of southeastern Asia.
N2-Y6503, the other primary subclade of haplogroup N, is extremely rare and is mainly represented among extant humans by a recently formed subclade that is virtually restricted to the countries making up the former Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro), Hungaria and Austria. Other members of N2-Y6503 include a Hungarian with recent ancestry from Suceava in Bukovina, a Slovakian, a few British individuals, and an Altaian.
Y-chromosomes that display the M231 mutation that defines Haplogroup N-M231, but do not display the CTS11499, L735, M2291 mutations that define Haplogroup N1 are said to belong to paragroup N-M231*.
N-M231* has been found at low levels in China and Cambodia. Out of a sample of 165 Han males from China, two individuals (1.2%) were found to belong to N*.(Karafet 2010).[Footnote 1] One originated from Guangdong and one from Shaanxi.
N1 (CTS11499, Z4762, CTS3750)Edit
In 2014, there was a major change in the definition of subclade N1, when LLY22g was retired as the main defining SNP for N1 because of reports of LLY22g's unreliability. According to ISOGG, LLY22g is problematic because it is a "palindromic marker and can easily be misinterpreted." Since then, the name N1 has been applied to a clade marked by a great number of SNPs, including CTS11499, Z4762, and CTS3750. N1 is the most recent common ancestor of all extant members of Haplogroup N-M231 except members of the rare N2-Y6503 (N2-B482) subclade. The TMRCA of N1 is estimated to be 18,000 years before present (16,300–19,700 BP; 95% CI). The modern populations with the greatest proprtions of N-CTS11499 (or N-Z4762) are concentrated in China.
Since the revision of 2014, the position of many examples of "N1-LLY22g" within haplogroup N have become unclear. N-LLY22g has been reported to reach a frequency of up to 30% (13/43) among the Yi people of Butuo County, Sichuan in Southwest China (Hammer 2005, Karafet 2001, and Wen2004b). It is also found in 34.6% of Lhoba people (Wen 2004, Bo Wen 2004). N1-LLY22g* has been found in samples of Han Chinese, but with widely varying frequency:
- 15.0% (6/40) Guangdong Han (Hammer 2005 and Karafet 2001)
- 6.8% (3/44) Shaanxi Han (Hammer 2005 and Karafet 2001)
- 6.7% (2/30) Han from Lanzhou (Xue 2006)
- 3.6% (3/84) Taiwanese Han (Hammer 2005)
- 2.9% (1/34) Han from Chengdu (Xue 2006)
- 2.9% (1/35) Han from Harbin (Xue 2006)
- 2.9% (1/35) Han from Meixian District (Xue 2006)
- 0% (0/32) Han from Yining City (Xue 2006)
Other populations in which representatives of N1*-LLY22g have been found include:
- Hani people (4/34 = 11.8%) (Xue 2006)
- Sibe people (4/41 = 9.8%) (Xue 2006)
- Tujia people (2/49 = 4.1%) (Hammer 2005)
- Manchu people (2/52 = 3.8% (Hammer 2005) to 2/35 = 5.7% (Xue 2006)
- Bit people (1/28 = 3.6%) (Cai 2011)
- Uyghurs (2/70 = 2.9% (Xue 2006) to 2/67 = 3.0%) (Hammer 2005)
- Tibetan people (3/105 = 2.9% (Hammer 2005) to 3/35 = 8.6% (Xue 2006))
- Koreans (0/106 = 0.0% – 2/25 = 8% (Rootsi 2006, Xue 2006, and Kim 2007)
- Vietnamese people (2/70 = 2.9%) (Hammer 2005)
- Japanese people (0/70 Tokushima – 2/26 = 7.7% Aomori) (Hammer 2005)
- Manchurian Evenks (0/26 = 0.0% (Xue 2006) to 1/41 = 2.4%(Hammer 2005))
- Altai people (0/50 Northern to 5/96 = 5.2% Southern, or 0/43 Beshpeltir to 5/46 = 10.9% Kulada),(Hammer 2005)(Kharkov 2007)
- Shors (2/23 = 8.7%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Khakas people (5/181 = 2.8%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Tuvans (5/311 = 1.6%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Southern Borneo (1/40 = 2.5%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Forest Nenets (1/89 = 1.1%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Yakuts (0/215 – 1/121 = 0.8%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Turkish people (1/523 = 0.2%) (Rootsi 2006) In Turkey, the total of subclades of haplogroup N-M231 amounts to 4% of the male population.
- One individual who belongs either to N* or N1* has been found in a sample of 77 males from Kathmandu, Nepal (1/77 = 1.3% N-M231(xM128,P43,Tat)) (Gayden 2007).
- Niuheliang (Hongshan Culture, 6500–5000 BP) 66.7%(=4/6)
- Halahaigou (Xiaoheyan Culture, 5000–4200 BP) 100.0%(=12/12)
- Dadianzi (Lower Xiajiadian culture, 4200–3600 BP) 60.0%(=3/5)
The N1a2-F1008/L666 clade and N1a1-M46/Page70/Tat are estimated to share a most recent common ancestor in N1a-F1206/M2013/S11466 approximately 15,900 [95% CI 13,900 <-> 17,900] years before present or 17,621 [95% CI 14,952 <-> 20,282] years before present.
N1a1 (M46/Page70/Tat, L395/M2080)Edit
The mutations that define the subclade N-M46[Phylogenetics 2] are M46/Tat and P105. This is the most frequent subclade of N. It arose probably in the region of present-day China, and subsequently experienced serial bottlenecks in Siberia and secondary expansions in eastern Europe (Rootsi 2006). Haplogroup N-M46 is approximately 14,000 years old.
In Siberia, haplogroup N-M46 reaches a maximum frequency of approximately 90% among the Yakuts, a Turkic people who live mainly in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. However, N-M46 is present with much lower frequency among many of the Yakuts' neighbors, such as Evenks and Evens. It also has been detected in 5.9% (3/51) of a sample of Hmong Daw from Laos (Cai 2011), 2.4% (2/85) of a sample from Seoul, South Korea (Katoh 2004), and in 1.4% (1/70) of a sample from Tokushima, Japan (Hammer 2005).
The haplogroup N-M46 has a low diversity among Yakuts suggestive of a population bottleneck or founder effect ( & Pakendorf 2002). This was confirmed by a study of ancient DNA which traced the origins of the male Yakut lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baikal area (Crubézy 2010).
The subclade N-M178[Phylogenetics 3] is defined by the presence of markers M178 and P298. N-M178* has higher average frequency in Northern Europe than in Siberia, reaching frequencies of approximately 60% among Finns and approximately 40% among Latvians, Lithuanians & 35% among Estonians (Derenko 2007 and Lappalainen 2008).
Miroslava Derenko and her colleagues noted that there are two subclusters within this haplogroup, both present in Siberia and Northern Europe, with different histories. The one that they labelled N3a1 first expanded in south Siberia and spread into Northern Europe. Meanwhile, the younger subcluster, which they labelled N3a2, originated in south Siberia (probably in the Baikal region)(Derenko 2007).
N1a2a-M128 and N1a2b-B523/P43 are estimated to share a most recent common ancestor in N1a2-F1008/L666 approximately 8,600 [95% CI 7,500 <-> 9,800] years before present or 9,314 [95% CI 7,419 <-> 11,264] years before present.
At least three of six tested male specimens from the "Early Neolithic" (ceramic-using hunter-gatherer of approximately 7200–6200 years before present) layer at the Shamanka archaeological site near the southern end of Lake Baikal have been found to belong to N1a2-L666.
|Possible place of origin||Asia|
This subclade is defined by the presence of the marker M128.[Phylogenetics 4] N-M128 was first identified in a sample from Japan (1/23 = 4.3%) and in a sample from Central Asia and Siberia (1/184 = 0.5%) in a preliminary survey of worldwide Y-DNA variation. Subsequently, it has been found with low frequency in some samples of the Manchu people, Sibe people, Evenks, Koreans, Han Chinese, Hui, Tibetans, Vietnamese, Bouyei people, Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Uyghurs, Salars, Tu, Mongols, the Buzava tribe of Kalmyks, Khakas, and Komis.
Haplogroup N-P43[Phylogenetics 5] is defined by the presence of the marker P43. It has been estimated to be about five thousand years old (TMRCA 4,700 [95% CI 3,800 <-> 5,600] ybp or 4,727 [95% CI 3,824 <-> 5,693] years before present). It has been found very frequently among Northern Samoyedic peoples and Ob-Ugric peoples, and it also has been observed with low to moderate frequency among some other Uralic peoples, Turkic peoples, Mongolic peoples, Tungusic peoples, and Siberian Yupik people.
The highest frequencies of N-P43 are observed among north-west Siberian populations: 92% (35/38) in a sample of Nganasan, 78% (7/9) in a sample of Enets, 78% (21/27) in a sample of Khants, 75% (44/59) in a sample of Tundra Nenets, 69% (29/42) in another sample of Nenets, 60% (15/25) in a sample of Mansi, 57% (64/112) in another sample of Khants, 54% (27/50) in another sample of Nganasan, 45% (40/89) in a sample of Forest Nenets, 38% (18/47) in a third sample of Khants, and 25% (7/28) in a fourth sample of Khants. In Europe, the N-P43 types have their highest frequency of 20% among Volga-Uralic populations. The extreme western border of the spread of N-P43 is Finland, where this haplogroup occurs only at marginal frequency – 0.4%. Yet N-P43 is quite frequent among Vepsas (17.9%), a small Finnic population living in immediate proximity to Finns, Karelians and Estonians.
The TMRCA of N-B478 has been estimated to be 3,007 [95% CI 2,171 <-> 3,970] years before present. It is one of the most prevalent Y-DNA haplogroups among indigenous populations of northwestern Siberia: 69.0% (29/42) Nenets, 50.0% (25/50) Nganasan, 22.2% (12/54) Dolgan from Taymyr, 7.0% (3/43) Selkup, 1.6% (1/63) Ob-Ugrian. It is also quite prevalent among populations of Central Siberia, Southern Siberia, Mongolia, and Kyrgyzstan: 17.9% (17/95) Tuvan, 15.5% (27/174) Khakas, 13.0% (6/46) Tozhu Tuvans, 8.7% (2/23) Shor, 8.3% (2/24) Even, 8.2% (5/61) Altaian, 5.3% (3/57) Evenk, 5.0% (19/381) Mongol, 4.9% (3/61) Sart-Kalmak (Kyrgyzstan), 4.2% (9/216) Yakut, 2.1% (1/47) Torgut (Mongolia), 1.4% (1/69) Derbet (Kalmykia), 0.9% (1/111) Buryat. A geographically outlying member has been found in a sample of Chuvash (1/114 = 0.88%).
Haplogroup N1b has been predominantly found in populations of southwestern China. However, it also has been found in people all over China as well as in Poland, India, Bhutan, Japan, Vietnam, and Cambodia.
N2 (Y6503/FGC28528; B482/FGC28394/Y6584) – a primary branch of haplogroup N-M231, is now represented mainly by a subclade, N-FGC28435, that has spread probably some time in the first half of the second millennium CE and that has been found in individuals from Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Turkey (Istanbul).
N-Y7310 (or N-F14667) subsumes N-FGC28435 and likewise probably descends from a common ancestor who has lived some time in the first half of the last millennium. However, members of N-Y7310(xFGC28435) exhibit a greater geographic range, including an individual from Rostov Oblast of Russia and a Hungarian individual with ancestry from Suceava, Bukovina.
Other branches of N-P189 include members from Italy, Romania, Slovakia, and England (Devon). The most recent common ancestor of all the aforementioned extant N-P189 lineages dates back to some time in the second, third, or even as early as the latter half of the fourth millennium BCE. An archaeological specimen attributed to the Botai culture of northern Kazakhstan of the fourth millennium BCE may belong to a pre-N-P189 branch.
Lineages that belong to N-Y6503(xP189) and are only distantly related (with a time to most recent common ancestor estimated to be greater than 10,000 years before present) to the aforementioned members of N-P189 have been found in an individual from the present-day Altai Republic and probably also in an archaeological specimen attributed to the Iron Age Mezőcsát culture of what is now Hungary (approx. 2,900 years before present) and in an archaeological specimen attributed to the Kitoi culture of ceramic-using foragers of the area around Lake Baikal (approx. 6,700 years before present).
Most samples from the Liao civilization in northeastern China and northern Korea belonged to y-DNA N. N has been found in many samples of Neolithic human remains exhumed from northeastern China and the circum-Baikal area of southern Siberia. It is thus suggested that the ancestors of the Uralic-peoples and of the Turkic-Yakut peoples may have originated in this region about 8000-6000 years ago.
In the following tree the nomenclature of three sources is separated by slashes: ISOGG Tree 10 December 2017 (ver.12.317)
- N M231/Page91, M232/M2188
- N1a1a2-Y23747 Japan, Daur, China, Tibet (Shigatse)
- N1a1a1a2-B211 Udmurt, Komi, Chuvash, Ob-Ugrians, Mari, Mordva, Altaian, Belarusian, Karanogay, Karelian, Bashkir, Tatar, Russian, Khakas
- N1a1a1a1a1c-B479 Nanai, Ulchi
- N1a1a1a1a1a-CTS2929/VL29 Found with high frequency among Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, northwestern Russians, Swedish Saami, Karelians, Nenetses, Finns, and Maris, moderate frequency among other Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, and Poles, and low frequency among Komis, Mordva, Tatars, Chuvashes, Dolgans, Vepsa, Selkups, Karanogays, and Bashkirs
- N1a1a1a1a2-Z1936,CTS10082 Found with high frequency among Finns, Vepsa, Karelians, Swedish Saami, northwestern Russians, Bashkirs, and Volga Tatars, moderate frequency among other Russians, Komis, Nenetses, Ob-Ugrians, Dolgans, and Siberian Tatars, and low frequency among Mordva, Nganasans, Chuvashes, Estonians, Latvians, Ukrainians, and Karanogays
- N1a1a1a1a3a-F4205 Found with high frequency among Buryats and Tsaatans, moderate frequency among Karanogays, Tuvans, Todjins, and Mongols, and low frequency among Altaians, Siberian Tatars, Kazakhs, Evenks, Crimean Tatars, Karakalpaks, Uzbeks, and Ukrainians
- N1a1a1a1a3b-B202 Found with high frequency among Chukchis, Koryaks, and Siberian Eskimos
- N-F1101* Shandong
- N1a2b-Y126204, VL67/Z35079, BY29083
- N1a2b1-B478 (P63) Nenets, Nganasans, Dolgans, Tuvans, Todzhins, Khakasses, Shorians, Evens, Altaians, Selkups, Evenks, Mongols (Sart-Kalmak, Torgut, Derbet, Buryat), Yakuts, Ob-Ugrians, Chuvashes
- N1a2b3-B525 Turkey, Tatars, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Mongols (Xinjiang Kalmyk, Mongolian Torgut), Slovakia, Bulgaria, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, Afghanistan, Arabs
- N1a2b2a-FGC10847/Y3185 (L1419) Vepsas, Maris, Russians (Arkhangelsk Oblast), Komis, Perm Krai, Komi Republic, Ob-Ugrians, Chuvashes, Tatars, Bashkirs, Karelians, Western Finland Province, Tuvans, Buryats, Khakasses, Nganasans, Asian Eskimos
- N1a2b-Y126204, VL67/Z35079, BY29083
- N1b2*-M1819 China
- N2-Y6503* Altai Republic
- N2a-P189.2* United Kingdom (Devon)
- N M231/Page91, M232/M2188
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
Sources The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.
Unreliable mutations (SNPs and UEPs)
The b2/b3 deletion in the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome appears to have occurred independently on at least four different occasions. Therefore, this deletion should not be taken as a unique event polymorphism defining this branch of the Y-chromosome tree (ISOGG 2012).
- genetic genealogy
- Genetic history of Europe
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- molecular phylogeny
- Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world
- Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe
- Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of East and Southeast Asia
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic group
Y-DNA N subcladesEdit
Y-DNA backbone treeEdit
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|
- In Karafet 2010
- YFull Haplogroup YTree v6.05.11 at 25 September 2018.
- G. David Poznik, Yali Xue, Fernando L. Mendez, et al. (2016), "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences." Nature Genetics 2016 June ; 48(6): 593–599. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.
- Ilumäe 2016
- ISOGG, 2016, Y-DNA Haplogroup N and its Subclades – 2016 22 August 2016).
- (Rootsi 2006)
- Miroslava Derenko, Boris Malyarchuk, Galina A. Denisova, et al., "Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions." Hum Genet (2006) 118: 591–604. DOI 10.1007/s00439-005-0076-y
- Soon-Hee Kim, Ki-Cheol Kim, Dong-Jik Shin, Han-Jun Jin, Kyoung-Don Kwak, Myun-Soo Han, Joon-Myong Song, Won Kim, and Wook Kim, "High frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroup O2b-SRY465 lineages in Korea: a genetic perspective on the peopling of Korea." Investigative Genetics 2011, 2:10. http://www.investigativegenetics.com/content/2/1/10
- Michael F. Hammer, Tatiana M. Karafet, Hwayong Park, Keiichi Omoto, Shinji Harihara, Mark Stoneking, and Satoshi Horai, "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes." J Hum Genet (2006) 51:47–58. DOI 10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0
- V. N. Kharkov, K. V. Khamina, O. F. Medvedeva, K. V. Simonova, E. R. Eremina, and V. A. Stepanov, "Gene Pool of Buryats: Clinal Variability and Territorial Subdivision Based on Data of Y-Chromosome Markers." ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 180–190. DOI: 10.1134/S1022795413110082
- Yali Xue, Tatiana Zerjal, Weidong Bao, Suling Zhu, Qunfang Shu, Jiujin Xu, Ruofu Du, Songbin Fu, Pu Li, Matthew E. Hurles, Huanming Yang, and Chris Tyler-Smith, "Male Demography in East Asia: A North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times." Genetics 172: 2431–2439 (April 2006). DOI: 10.1534/genetics.105.054270
- Hua Zhong, Hong Shi, Xue-Bin Qi, Zi-Yuan Duan, Ping-Ping Tan, Li Jin, Bing Su, and Runlin Z. Ma (2011), "Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route." Mol. Biol. Evol. 28(1):717–727. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq247
- Toru Katoh, Batmunkh Munkhbat, Kenichi Tounai, et al., "Genetic features of Mongolian ethnic groups revealed by Y-chromosomal analysis." Gene 346 (2005) 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.10.023
- Di Cristofaro J, Pennarun E, Mazières S, Myres NM, Lin AA, et al. (2013), "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge." PLoS ONE 8(10): e76748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748
- Natalia Balinova, Helen Post, Siiri Rootsi, et al. (2019), "Y-chromosomal analysis of clan structure of Kalmyks, the only European Mongol people, and their relationship to Oirat-Mongols of Inner Asia." European Journal of Human Genetics https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0399-0
- Boris Malyarchuk, Miroslava Derenko, Galina Denisova, Sanj Khoyt, Marcin Woźniak, Tomasz Grzybowski, and Ilya Zakharov, "Y-chromosome diversity in the Kalmyks at the ethnical and tribal levels." Journal of Human Genetics (2013) 58, 804–811; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.108; published online 17 October 2013.
- E. V. Balanovska, Y. V. Bogunov, E. N. Kamenshikova, et al. (2018), "Demographic and Genetic Portraits of the Ulchi Population." Russian Journal of Genetics, 2018, Vol. 54, No. 10, pp. 1245–1253. ISSN 1022-7954.
- Xuebin Qi, Chaoying Cui, Yi Peng, et al., "Genetic Evidence of Paleolithic Colonization and Neolithic Expansion of Modern Humans on the Tibetan Plateau." Mol. Biol. Evol. 30(8):1761–1778. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst093
- E. E. Ashirbekov, D. M. Botbaev, A. M. Belkozhaev, A. O. Abayldaev, A. S. Neupokoeva, J. E. Mukhataev, B. Alzhanuly, D. A. Sharafutdinova, D. D. Mukushkina, M. B. Rakhymgozhin, A. K. Khanseitova, S. A. Limborska, N. A. Aytkhozhina, "Distribution of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups of the Kazakh from the South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl, and Almaty Regions." Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, ISSN 2224-5227, Volume 6, Number 316 (2017), 85 - 95.
- Cite error: The named reference
Liu2018was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Lu Yan (2011), "Genetic Mixture of Populations in Western China." Shanghai: Fudan University, 2011: 1-84. (Doctoral dissertation in Chinese: 陆艳, “中国西部人群的遗传混合”, 上海：复旦大学，2011: 1-84.)
- Park, M.J., Lee, H.Y., Yang, W.I., et al., "Understanding the Y chromosome variation in Korea—relevance of combined haplogroup and haplotype analyses." Int J Legal Med (2012) 126: 589. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-012-0703-9
- I. Nonaka, K. Minaguchi, and N. Takezaki, "Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms." Annals of Human Genetics (2007) 71, 480–495. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00343.x
- Yuta Harayama, Sayako Kamei, Noriko Sato, Tokutaro Hayashi, Tetsuya Shiozaki, Masao Ota, and Hideki Asamura, "Analysis of Y chromosome haplogroups in Japanese population using short amplicons and its application in forensic analysis." Legal Medicine 16 (2014) 20–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2013.10.005
- Ochiai E, Minaguchi K, Nambiar P, Kakimoto Y, Satoh F, Nakatome M, Miyashita K, Osawa M (September 2016). "Evaluation of Y chromosomal SNP haplogrouping in the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel". Legal Medicine. 22: 58–61. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.08.001. PMID 27591541.
- Peter A. Underhill, Peidong Shen, Alice A. Lin et al., "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations," Nature Genetics • Volume 26 • November 2000
- Shi, H; Qi, X; Zhong, H; Peng, Y; Zhang, X; et al. (2013). "Genetic Evidence of an East Asian Origin and Paleolithic Northward Migration of Y-chromosome Haplogroup N". PLoS ONE. 8 (6): e66102. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...866102S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066102. PMC 3688714. PMID 23840409.
- Karmin, Monika; Saag, Lauri; Vicente, Mário; et al. (2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459–466. doi:10.1101/gr.186684.114. PMC 4381518. PMID 25770088.
- The dichotomy structure of Y chromosome Haplogroup N, Kang Hu et al. Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Computational Biology
- Bo Wen 2004, Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans
- Yinqiu Cui, Hongjie Li, Chao Ning, Ye Zhang, Lu Chen, Xin Zhao, Erika Hagelberg and Hui Zhou (2013）"Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China. " BMC 13:216
- Duggan, AT; Whitten, M; Wiebe, V; Crawford, M; Butthof, A; et al. (2013). "Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e83570. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...883570D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083570. PMC 3861515. PMID 24349531.
- Peter de Barros Damgaard, Rui Martiniano, Jack Kamm, et al. (2018), "The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia." Science 10.1126/science.aar7711 (2018).
- Siiri Rootsi, Lev A Zhivotovsky, Marian Baldovič, et al., "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe." European Journal of Human Genetics (2007) 15, 204–211. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748; published online 6 December 2006.
- Kang Hu 2015
- Siiri Rootsi, Lev A Zhivotovsky, Marian Baldovič, et al. (2007), "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe." European Journal of Human Genetics (2007) 15, 204–211.
- Tatiana M. Karafet, Ludmila P. Osipova, Marina A. Gubina, Olga L. Posukh, Stephen L. Zegura, and Michael F. Hammer, "High Levels of Y-Chromosome Differentiation among Native Siberian Populations and the Genetic Signature of a Boreal Hunter-Gatherer Way of Life." Human Biology, December 2002, v. 74, no. 6, pp. 761–789.
- Kristiina Tambets, Bayazit Yunusbayev, Georgi Hudjashov, et al., "Genes reveal traces of common recent demographic history for most of the Uralic-speaking populations." Genome Biology (2018) 19:139. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-018-1522-1
- Sheyla Mirabal, Maria Regueiro, Alicia M Cadenas, L Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Peter A Underhill, Dmitry A Verbenko, Svetlana A Limborska, and Rene J Herrera, "Y-Chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia." European Journal of Human Genetics (2009) 17, 1260–1273; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.6.
- Ville N Pimenoff, David Comas, Jukka U Palo, Galina Vershubsky, Andrew Kozlov, and Antti Sajantila, "Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers." European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 1254–1264; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.101.
- KHARKOV, Vladimir Nikolaevich, "СТРУКТУРА И ФИЛОГЕОГРАФИЯ ГЕНОФОНДА КОРЕННОГО НАСЕЛЕНИЯ СИБИРИ ПО МАРКЕРАМ Y-ХРОМОСОМЫ," Genetika 03.02.07 and "АВТОРЕФЕРАТ диссертации на соискание учёной степени доктора биологических наук, Tomsk 2012
- Kristiina Tambets, Siiri Rootsi, Toomas Kivisild, et al. (2004), "The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami—the Story of Genetic “Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes." American Journal of Human Genetics 74:661–682.
- Hu, et al. 2015. The dichotomy structure of Y chromosome Haplogroup N. arXiv:1504.06463
- YFull, 2018, N-P189.2 (24 June 2018).
- ISOGG, 2018, Y-DNA Haplogroup N and its Subclades - 2018 (24 June 2018).
- Y-DNA Haplotree at Family Tree DNA
- Peter de Barros Damgaard, Nina Marchi, Simon Rasmussen, et al. (2018), "137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes." Nature, volume 557, pages 369–374 (2018).
- Cite error: The named reference
Gamba2014was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Hongjie; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Hagelberg, Erika; Zhou, Hui (2013-09-30). "Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13 (1): 216. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-216. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 3850526. PMID 24079706.
- Haplogroup N North Eurasian YDNA Project at Family Tree DNA
- Sebastian Lippold, Hongyang Xu, Albert Ko, Mingkun Li, Gabriel Renaud, Anne Butthof, Roland Schröder, and Mark Stoneking, "Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences." Investigative Genetics 2014, 5:13. http://www.investigativegenetics.com/content/5/1/13
- Wang, LX., Lu, Y., Zhang, C., et al., "Reconstruction of Y-chromosome phylogeny reveals two neolithic expansions of Tibeto-Burman populations." Molecular Genetics and Genomics (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00438-018-1461-2
- Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; et al. (2011). O'Rourke, Dennis (ed.). "Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes". PLoS ONE. 6 (8): e24282. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...624282C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282. PMC 3164178. PMID 21904623.
- Chiaroni, Jacques; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L. (2009). "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (48): 20174–79. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10620174C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106. PMC 2787129. PMID 19920170.
- Crubézy, Eric; Amory, Sylvain; Keyser, Christine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Bodner, Martin; Gibert, Morgane; Röck, Alexander; Parson, Walther; Alexeev, Anatoly; Ludes, Bertrand (2010). "Human evolution in Siberia: From frozen bodies to ancient DNA". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10: 25. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-25. PMC 2829035. PMID 20100333.
- Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia (2007). "Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe". Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (9): 763–70. doi:10.1007/s10038-007-0179-5. PMID 17703276.
- Gayden, Tenzin; Cadenas, Alicia M.; Regueiro, Maria; Singh, Nanda B.; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L.; Herrera, Rene J. (2007). "The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (5): 884–94. doi:10.1086/516757. PMC 1852741. PMID 17436243.
- Hammer, Michael F.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Park, Hwayong; Omoto, Keiichi; Harihara, Shinji; Stoneking, Mark; Horai, Satoshi (2005). "Dual origins of the Japanese: Common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- Ilumäe (2016). "Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup N: A Non-trivial Time-Resolved Phylogeography that Cuts across Language Families". American Journal of Human Genetics. 99 (1): 163–73. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.05.025. PMC 5005449. PMID 27392075.
- Kang Hu (2015). "The dichotomy structure of Haplogroup N". arXiv:1504.06463 [q-bio.PE].
- Karafet, Tatiana; Xu, Liping; Du, Ruofu; Wang, William; Feng, Shi; Wells, R.S.; Redd, Alan J.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F. (2001). "Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (3): 615–28. doi:10.1086/323299. PMC 1235490. PMID 11481588. In this article, the "Southern Han" sample of Karafet and Hammer's research group is described as originating from Guangdong, and the "Northern Han" sample is described as originating from Shaanxi.
- Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–38. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
- Karafet, T. M.; Hallmark, B.; Cox, M. P.; Sudoyo, H.; Downey, S.; Lansing, J. S.; Hammer, M. F. (2010). "Major East-West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification across Indonesia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27 (8): 1833–44. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq063. PMID 20207712.
- Katoh, Toru; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Tounai, Kenichi; Mano, Shuhei; Ando, Harue; Oyungerel, Ganjuur; Chae, Gue-Tae; Han, Huun; Jia, Guan-Jun; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Munkhtuvshin, Namid; Tamiya, Gen; Inoko, Hidetoshi (2005). "Genetic features of Mongolian ethnic groups revealed by Y-chromosomal analysis". Gene. 346: 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.10.023. PMID 15716011.
- Kharkov, V. N.; Stepanov, V. A.; Medvedeva, O. F.; Spiridonova, M. G.; Voevoda, M. I.; Tadinova, V. N.; Puzyrev, V. P. (2007). "Gene pool differences between Northern and Southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups". Russian Journal of Genetics. 43 (5): 551–62. doi:10.1134/S1022795407050110.
- Kim, Wook; Yoo, Tag-Keun; Kim, Sung-Joo; Shin, Dong-Jik; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Kim, Eun-Tak; Bae, Yoon-Sun (2007). Blagosklonny, Mikhail (ed.). "Lack of Association between Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups and Prostate Cancer in the Korean Population". PLoS ONE. 2 (1): e172. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..172K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000172. PMC 1766463. PMID 17245448.
- Lappalainen, T.; Laitinen, V.; Salmela, E.; Andersen, P.; Huoponen, K.; Savontaus, M.-L.; Lahermo, P. (2008). "Migration Waves to the Baltic Sea Region". Annals of Human Genetics. 72 (3): 337–48. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00429.x. PMID 18294359.
- Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Lunkina, Arina; Czarny, Jakub; Rychkov, Serge; Morozova, Irina; Denisova, Galina; Miscicka-Sliwka, Danuta (2004). "Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes in Russian Populations". Human Biology. 76 (6): 877–900. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0021. PMID 15974299.
- Pakendorf, Brigitte; Morar, Bharti; Tarskaia, Larissa; Kayser, Manfred; Soodyall, Himla; Rodewald, Alexander; Stoneking, Mark (2002). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a strong reduction in male population size of Yakuts". Human Genetics. 110 (2): 198–200. doi:10.1007/s00439-001-0664-4. PMID 11935328.
- Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; et al. (2006). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (2): 204–11. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. PMID 17149388.
- Wen, Bo; Xie, Xuanhua; Gao, Song; Li, Hui; Shi, Hong; Song, Xiufeng; Qian, Tingzhi; Xiao, Chunjie; et al. (2004b). "Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 856–65. doi:10.1086/386292. PMC 1181980. PMID 15042512.
- Xue, Y.; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S; et al. (2005). "Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times". Genetics. 172 (4): 2431–39. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223.
- ISOGG (2012). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2012".
- McDonald, Doug. "Macdonald Y Haplogroups of the World" (PDF).
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2012)
- ISOGG (2006). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2006".
- ISOGG (2007). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2007".
- ISOGG (2008). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2008".
- ISOGG (2009). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2009".
- ISOGG (2010). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2010".
- ISOGG (2011). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2011".
- ISOGG (2014). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2014".
- YFull. "YFull Experimental YTree".
- The b2/b3 deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y-chromosome is a characteristic of Haplogroup N-M231 haplotypes. This deletion, however, appears to have occurred independently on four different occasions. Therefore this deletion should not be thought as a unique event polymorphism contributing to the definition of this branch of the Y-chromosome tree (ISOGG 2012).
- This table shows historic names for N-M46 (AKA N-Tat) from peer reviewed literature.
YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) N-M46/N-TAT Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 12 Underhill 2000 VIII Hammer 2001 1I Karafet 2001 26 Semino 2000 Eu13 Su 1999 H5 Capelli 2001 F YCC 2002 (Longhand) N3* YCC 2005 (Longhand) N3 YCC 2008 (Longhand) N1c YCC 2010r (Longhand) N1c
- This table shows historic names for N-M178 from peer reviewed literature.
YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) N-M178 Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 16 Underhill 2000 VIII Hammer 2001 1I Karafet 2001 26 Semino 2000 Eu14 Su 1999 H5 Capelli 2001 F YCC 2002 (Longhand) N3a* YCC 2005 (Longhand) M178 YCC 2008 (Longhand) N1c1 YCC 2010r (Longhand) N1c1
- This table shows historic names for N-M128 from peer reviewed literature.
YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) N-M128 Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 12 Underhill 2000 VIII Hammer 2001 1U Karafet 2001 25 Semino 2000 Eu16 Su 1999 H5 Capelli 2001 F YCC 2002 (Longhand) N1 YCC 2005 (Longhand) N1 YCC 2008 (Longhand) N1a YCC 2010r (Longhand) N1a
- This branch is sometimes called N1b in early trees.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haplogroup N of Y-DNA.|
- Spread of Haplogroup N, from The Genographic Project, National Geographic
- N North Eurasian YDNA Project at FamilyTreeDNA
- N Y-DNA Haplogroup Project at FamilyTreeDNA
- N1c1 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project at FamilyTreeDNA
- Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe
- Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project at FamilyTreeDNA
- Russian Nobility DNA Project at FamilyTreeDNA