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Changzhi (simplified Chinese: 长治; traditional Chinese: 長治; pinyin: Chángzhì; literally: 'long rule') is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi Province, China, bordering the provinces of Hebei and Henan to the northeast and east, respectively. Historically, the city was one of the 36 administrative areas (see Administrative Divisions of Qin Dynasty) extant under the reign of the first emperor of a unified China (see Qin Shi Huang).

Changzhi

长治市
Skyline of Changzhi
Location of Changzhi City jurisdiction in Shanxi
Location of Changzhi City jurisdiction in Shanxi
Changzhi is located in Shanxi
Changzhi
Changzhi
Location of the city center in Shanxi
Coordinates (Changzhi government): 36°11′42″N 113°07′01″E / 36.195°N 113.117°E / 36.195; 113.117Coordinates: 36°11′42″N 113°07′01″E / 36.195°N 113.117°E / 36.195; 113.117
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShanxi
County-level divisions13
Incorporated (city)1945.10
Municipal seatChengqu (Urban District)
Government
 • TypePrefecture-level city
 • Communist Party Committee Secretary of Changzhi CityMa, Tianrong (马天荣)
 • MayorXi, Xiaojun (席小军)
Area
 • Total13,864 km2 (5,353 sq mi)
Population
 (2005)
 • Total3,234,100
 • Density230/km2 (600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
046000
Area code(s)0355
ISO 3166 codeCN-SX-04
Licence Plate Prefix晋D
Administrative division code140400
WebsiteOfficial website

Nowadays, Changzhi is a transportation centre in Shanxi. Transportations is facilitated by: four controlled-access highways, (Taiyuan-Changzhi, Changzhi-Jincheng, Changzhi-Linfen, and Changzhi-Handan); two railways, (Taiyuan–Jiaozuo Railway and Handan–Changzhi Railway ); three national highways, China National Highway 207, 208 and 309; and Changzhi Wangcun Airport (ITAT Code: CIH, ICAO Code: ZBCZ). Internal transportation also includes a bus and taxi network.

The city is a rising commercial and industrial centre in the southeastern area of Shanxi. In 2011, its GDP ranked 1st out of 11 prefecture-level cities in the province.[1] According to the 6th National Population Census, in 2010 the city was home to 3,334,564 residents.[2]

The local environment, especially the air quality index, is monitored by China's Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP)[3] and city government. A record of daily air quality is published by the local government.[4]

Contents

HistoryEdit

In ancient times the area around Changzhi (Including Jincheng) was known as Shangdang.[5] Changzhi was the site of the Shangdang Campaign, the first battle between the Kuomintang and the People's Liberation Army after the end of World War II. The campaign began in August 1945 and lasted until October. It began when the local Shanxi warlord, Yan Xishan, attempted to retake the region from Communist forces. Yan's forces were eventually defeated by an army led by Liu Bocheng, who was later named one of China's Ten Great Marshals. Liu's political commissar was Deng Xiaoping, who later became China's "paramount leader". The campaign ended with the complete destruction of Yan's army, most of which joined the Communists after surrendering. Following the Shangdang Campaign, the Communists remained in control of the region until they won the civil war in 1949.[5]

Administrative divisionsEdit

The area under the control of People's Government of Changzhi City is divided into 13 local government districts. They are 4 districts Luzhou, Lucheng, Shangdang, and Tunliu; and 8 counties Xiangyuan County, Pingshun County, Licheng County, Huguan County, Zhangzi County, Wuxiang County, Qin County, and Qinyuan County.

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Luzhou District 潞州区 Lùzhōu Qū 706,000 340.6 2072.8
Lucheng District 潞城区 Lùchéng Qū 210,000 615 341
Shangdang District 上党区 Shàngdǎng Qū 320,000 483 663
Tunliu District 屯留区 Túnliú Qū 240,000 1,042 230
Xiangyuan County 襄垣县 Xiāngyuán Xiàn 250,000 1,158 216
Pingshun County 平顺县 Píngshùn Xiàn 160,000 1,550 103
Licheng County 黎城县 Líchéng Xiàn 160,000 1,166 137
Huguan County 壶关县 Húguān Xiàn 280,000 1,013 276
Zhangzi County 长子县 Zhǎngzǐ Xiàn 340,000 1,029 330
Wuxiang County 武乡县 Wǔxiāng Xiàn 210,000 1,610 130
Qin County 沁县 Qìn Xiàn 170,000 1,297 131
Qinyuan County 沁源县 Qìnyuán Xiàn 150,000 2,556 59
  • Defunct - Jiao District (Chinese: 郊区; pinyin: Jiāoqū) is largely made up of suburban surround the city center of the metropolitan area.

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Changzhi (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.2
(36.0)
5.3
(41.5)
10.9
(51.6)
19.0
(66.2)
24.1
(75.4)
27.6
(81.7)
28.2
(82.8)
26.7
(80.1)
22.7
(72.9)
17.2
(63.0)
10.0
(50.0)
3.7
(38.7)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.7
(23.5)
−1.4
(29.5)
4.2
(39.6)
11.9
(53.4)
17.3
(63.1)
21.1
(70.0)
22.5
(72.5)
20.8
(69.4)
16.2
(61.2)
10.5
(50.9)
3.3
(37.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
9.9
(49.8)
Average low °C (°F) −9.9
(14.2)
−6.4
(20.5)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.7
(42.3)
11.1
(52.0)
15.1
(59.2)
17.6
(63.7)
16.2
(61.2)
10.9
(51.6)
4.8
(40.6)
−2.0
(28.4)
−8.0
(17.6)
4.5
(40.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.2
(0.20)
9.0
(0.35)
18.2
(0.72)
24.7
(0.97)
52.9
(2.08)
72.1
(2.84)
123.2
(4.85)
119.0
(4.69)
65.1
(2.56)
35.9
(1.41)
16.0
(0.63)
5.9
(0.23)
547.2
(21.53)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.3 4.4 6.7 5.3 8.8 10.5 13.8 12.1 6.7 6.3 4.5 3.1 85.5
Average relative humidity (%) 53 54 53 49 55 61 76 79 74 65 58 54 61
Source #1: China Meteorological Administration[6]
Source #2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971–2000)[7]

EducationEdit

Higher educationEdit

Changzhi Medical College
Changzhi College

High schoolsEdit

Changzhi No.1 Middle School
Changzhi No.2 Middle School
Changzhi No.3 Middle School
Changzhi No.4 Middle School
Changzhi No.5 Middle School
Changzhi No.6 Middle School
Changzhi No.7 Middle School
Changzhi No.8 Middle School
Changzhi No.9 Middle School
Changzhi No.10 Middle School
Changzhi Experimental Middle School
Changzhi No.12 Middle School
Changzhi No.13 Middle School
Changzhi No.14 Middle School
Changzhi No.15 Middle School
Changzhi No.16 Middle School
Changzhi No.17 Middle School
Changzhi No.18 Middle School
Changzhi No.19 Middle School
Tai-Hang Middle School (Subsidiary Middle School of Changzhi College)

TransportationEdit

National HighwayEdit

Controlled-access HighwayEdit

  • Controlled-access Highway Taiyuan-Changzhi
  • Controlled-access Highway Changzhi-Jincheng
  • Controlled-access Highway Changzhi-Linfen
  • Controlled-access Highway Changzhi-Handan

RailwayEdit

AirportEdit

External linksEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Statistics Report of Changzhi Economy in 2011 (In Chinese)
  2. ^ Population Data of Changzhi in Shanxi Province (the 6th National Population Census) in Chinese Archived February 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Air Quality Database of Key Cities in China, in Chinese". Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
  4. ^ Changzhi City Environmental Protection Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b Lew, Christopher R. The Third Chinese Revolutionary War, 1945-1949: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership. The USA and Canada: Routelage. 2009, p.22–23. ISBN 0-415-77730-5
  6. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  7. ^ 长治城市介绍以及气候背景分析. weather.com.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 27 July 2015.