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China National Highways

The China National Highways (CNH/Guodao) (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国国道; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國國道; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guódào) is a network of trunk roads across mainland China. Although they are called "highways" (e.g., the Jingbao Highway), they are not necessarily freeways. However, like expressways, a toll is sometimes charged.[citation needed]

China National Highways
Kokudou (China).svg
CNH (Guodao) trunk road marker
China National Highway Plan (2013-2030).png
CNH Trunk roads in China
Highway names
CNH:GXXX (red)
System links
China National Highways

HistoryEdit

 
G318, the longest China National Highway, in Qüxü County, Tibet.

The building of highways is seen as key to accelerating infrastructure construction. In 2003, completed investment in highway construction was 350 billion yuan and 219 key highway projects progressed, focusing mainly on the five north-south and seven east-west national arterial highways as well as highways in western China and in rural areas. By the end of 2004, the total length of highways open to traffic reached 1.871 million km, including 34,300 km (21,300 mi) of expressways up to advanced modern transportation standard, ranking second in the world. The nation's highway density has now reached 19.5 km per 100 km2.

With the completion in 2008 of the five north-south and the seven east-west national arterial highways, totaling 35,000 km (22,000 mi), Beijing and Shanghai were linked by major highways, chiefly expressways, to the capitals of all provinces and autonomous regions of China, creating highway connections between over 200 cities.

The aim of the National Expressway Network Plan approved in early 2005 is an expressway system connecting all capitals of provinces and autonomous regions with Beijing and with each other, linking major cities and important counties. The network will have a total length of about 85,000 km (53,000 mi), including seven originating in Beijing; the Beijing-Shanghai, Beijing-Taipei, Beijing-Hong Kong-Macau, Beijing-Kunming, Beijing-Lhasa, Beijing-Ürümqi, and Beijing-Harbin expressways. Half of the projects are already completed.

In 2013 the Ministry of Transport announced the "National Highway Network Planning (2013 - 2030)", which will bring the total number of highways to 119, with 81 connecting highways between them. The total mileage will be increased to 265,000 km (165,000 mi), with increased focus on the western and less developed regions.[1]

RegulationEdit

 
Toll plaza on the combined G106/G316 in the center of the town of Futu, in Huangshi Municipality, Hubei

Although an accepted speed limit on China National Highways is 100 km/h, it is common to see cars pass other by in well in excess of 100 km/h. The lack of speed detection cameras on some routes, lack of a posted speed limit outside of localities and tremendous distances of road mileage, means that enforcing this speed limit is rather herculean. In addition there is a notable shortage of traffic police in mainland China.

Nationwide highways often begin with the letter GXXX, followed by three numerals, e.g.: G107. It is said that the GXXX stands for 国家 (guójiā), or national.[2]

The numbering of the highways is as follows:

  • Five vertical and seven horizontal main routes were labelled in the former 000 series (the so-called "five downs and seven acrosses"), although these have been deprecated in favour of the "NTHS" (7, 11, 18) system.
  • Highways in the 100 series (e.g. 102, 106) begin from Beijing - the capital city of the People's Republic of China - and spread out in all compass directions, except for China National Highway 112, which originates in Xuanhua as it is a ring around Beijing.
  • Highways in the 200 series stretch from north to south (e.g., from Hohhot in Inner Mongolia through to Beihai in Guangxi province);
  • Highways in the 300 series stretch from east to west (e.g., from Shanghai through to Ruili in Yunnan province);
  • Highways in the 500 series are connecting roads between other national highways.

In major cities, there is usually a gap in the road within the city.

List of all China National HighwaysEdit

 
Typical kilometer marker: 1,284 km (798 mi) from Beijing on G106
 
Road sign using GZXX format on the old G025 (new G109) near Qinghai Lake

Highways listed in red are under construction or still in planning. Those listed in yellow are currently partially finished. Those listed in grey were planned but never built, or have been abandoned or redesignated.

Former 000 SeriesEdit

Note: 000 Series China National Highways pointed to five specific vertical routes, as well as seven specific horizontal routes. Routes ending in "0" were north-south (vertical) routes; routes ending in "5" were east-west (horizontal) routes. The new system with two to four numbers that indicate the "NTHS" (7918) system is now in use instead of the 000 Series. For the expressways' new numbering system, see Expressways of China.

It seems that the old 0xx numbers are still signposted using the format GZXX, e.g. in the Qinghai province, there are signs at the G109 (old G025) showing the number GZ25.

Number Name English Name Startpoint Endpoint Length Notes
G010 010国道 China National Highway 010 Tongjiang Sanya 5,700 km (3,500 mi) Was the longest China National Highway overall. Now G1011 and part of G1, G15, G1503 and G98.
G015 015国道 China National Highway 015 Suifenhe Manzhouli 2,540 km (1,580 mi) Now G10.
G020 020国道 China National Highway 020 Beijing Fuzhou 2,540 km (1,580 mi) Now part of G3.
G025 025国道 China National Highway 025 Dandong Lhasa 4,590 km (2,850 mi) Now part of G1113, G1 and G6.
G030 030国道 China National Highway 030 Beijing Zhuhai 2,310 km (1,440 mi) Now part of G4 and G0425.
G035 035国道 China National Highway 035 Qingdao Yinchuan 1,610 km (1,000 mi) Now G20.
G040 040国道 China National Highway 040 Erenhot Hekou 3,610 km (2,240 mi) Now part of G55, G5 and G80, and all of G8011.
G045 045国道 China National Highway 045 Lianyungang Khorgas 3,980 km (2,470 mi) Now G30.
G050 050国道 China National Highway 050 Chongqing Zhanjiang 1,430 km (890 mi) Now part of G15 and G75.
G055 055国道 China National Highway 055 Shanghai Chengdu 2,970 km (1,850 mi) Now G42.
G065 065国道 China National Highway 065 Shanghai Ruili 4,090 km (2,540 mi) Now G60 and part of G56.
G075 075国道 China National Highway 075 Hengyang Kunming 1,980 km (1,230 mi) Now part of G72, G80 and G78.

100 SeriesEdit

Number Name English Name Startpoint Endpoint Final Endpoint Current Length Notes
  101国道 China National Highway 101 Beijing Shenyang 1,969 km (1,223 mi)
  102国道 China National Highway 102 Beijing Harbin Fuyuan 2,897 km (1,800 mi)
  103国道 China National Highway 103 Beijing Tianjin 149 km (93 mi) The shortest China National Highway overall.
  104国道 China National Highway 104 Beijing Fuzhou Pingtan 2,390 km (1,490 mi)
  105国道 China National Highway 105 Beijing Zhuhai Macau 2,717 km (1,688 mi)
  106国道 China National Highway 106 Beijing Guangzhou 2,466 km (1,532 mi)
  107国道 China National Highway 107 Beijing Shenzhen Hong Kong 2,698 km (1,676 mi)
  108国道 China National Highway 108 Beijing Kunming 3,331 km (2,070 mi)
  109国道 China National Highway 109 Beijing Lhasa 3,901 km (2,424 mi) The longest China National Highway from Beijing. Includes the Qinghai-Tibet Highway.
  110国道 China National Highway 110 Beijing Yinchuan Qingtongxia 2,757 km (1,713 mi)
  111国道 China National Highway 111 Beijing Jiagedaqi Mohe 2,123 km (1,319 mi)
  112国道 China National Highway 112 Xuanhua N/A 1,228 km (763 mi) Ring road around Beijing.

200 SeriesEdit

Number Name English Name Startpoint Final Startpoint Endpoint Final Endpoint Current Length Notes
  201国道 China National Highway 201 Hegang Dalian 1,964 km (1,220 mi)
  202国道 China National Highway 202 Heihe Dalian 1,818 km (1,130 mi)
  203国道 China National Highway 203 Mingshui Suihua Shenyang 720 km (450 mi)
  204国道 China National Highway 204 Yantai Shanghai 1,031 km (641 mi)
  205国道 China National Highway 205 Qinhuangdao Shanhai Pass Shenzhen 3,160 km (1,960 mi)
  206国道 China National Highway 206 Yantai Weihai Shantou 2,375 km (1,476 mi)
  207国道 China National Highway 207 Xilinhot Ulanhot Hai'an 3,738 km (2,323 mi) The longest north-south China National Highway.
  208国道 China National Highway 208 Erenhot Changzhi Xichuan 990 km (620 mi)
  209国道 China National Highway 209 Hohhot Sonid Left Banner Beihai 3,435 km (2,134 mi)
  210国道 China National Highway 210 Baotou Mandula Nanning Fangchenggang 3,097 km (1,924 mi)
  211国道 China National Highway 211 Yinchuan Xi'an Rongjiang 691 km (429 mi)
  212国道 China National Highway 212 Lanzhou Chongqing Longbon 1,302 km (809 mi)
  213国道 China National Highway 213 Lanzhou Ceke Mohan 2,877 km (1,788 mi)
  214国道 China National Highway 214 Xining Jinghong Lancang 3,256 km (2,023 mi)
  215国道 China National Highway 215 Hongliuyuan Mazongshan Golmud Ning'er 641 km (398 mi)
  216国道 China National Highway 216 Altay Hongshanzui Baluntai Gyirong 857 km (533 mi)
  217国道 China National Highway 217 Altay Karakax Tashkurgan 1,753 km (1,089 mi)
  218国道 China National Highway 218 Yining Khorgas Ruoqiang 1,067 km (663 mi)
  219国道 China National Highway 219 Yecheng Kanas Lake Lhatse Dongxing 2,086 km (1,296 mi) Will become the longest China National Highway overall.
  220国道 China National Highway 220 Binzhou Dongying Zhengzhou Shenzhen 585 km (364 mi)
  221国道 China National Highway 221 Tongjiang Harbin 668 km (415 mi)
  222国道 China National Highway 222 Yichun Jiayin Harbin Linjiang 363 km (226 mi)
  223国道 China National Highway 223 Haikou Eastern Sanya 323 km (201 mi)
  224国道 China National Highway 224 Haikou Central Sanya 309 km (192 mi) The shortest north-south China National Highway.
  225国道 China National Highway 225 Haikou Western Sanya 429 km (267 mi)
  226国道 China National Highway 226 Chuxiong Mojiang 288 km (179 mi) Planned but cancelled. Eventually built as S218.
  227国道 China National Highway 227 Zhangye Xining Menglian 347 km (216 mi)
  228国道 China National Highway 228 Taipei N/A 956 km (594 mi) This highway was never meant to be newly built in

Taiwan outside PRC's control, but a recognition of the ring part of Taiwan's highway as of national importance. As of 2000s maps depict G228 as "Converted to Provicial Highways" (together with G226/G315 that were really converted to provicial highways). Designation abandoned in 2013 in favour of a ring around mainland instead(see below).

  228国道 China National Highway 228 Dandong Dongxing
  229国道 China National Highway 229 Raohe Gaizhou
  230国道 China National Highway 230 Tonghua Wuhan
  231国道 China National Highway 231 Nenjiang Shuangliao
  232国道 China National Highway 232 Yakeshi Siping
  233国道 China National Highway 233 Hexigten Huangshan
  234国道 China National Highway 234 Xinglong Yangjiang
  235国道 China National Highway 235 Xinyi Haifeng
  236国道 China National Highway 236 Wuhu Shanwei
  237国道 China National Highway 237 Canal Power Plant, Jining Ningde
  238国道 China National Highway 238 Nanchang Hualai
  239国道 China National Highway 239 Xulun Hoh Yangquan
  240国道 China National Highway 240 Baoding Taishan
  241国道 China National Highway 241 Hohhot Beihai
  242国道 China National Highway 242 Ganqimaodu Qinzhou
  243国道 China National Highway 243 Kai Pingxiang
  244国道 China National Highway 244 Wuhai Chongqing
  245国道 China National Highway 245 Bazhong Jinping
  246国道 China National Highway 246 Suining Malipo
  247国道 China National Highway 247 Jingtai Zhaotong
  248国道 China National Highway 248 Lanzhou Maguan

300 SeriesEdit

Number Name English Name Startpoint Final Startpoint Endpoint Final Endpoint Current Length Notes
  301国道 China National Highway 301 Suifenhe Manzhouli 1,680 km (1,040 mi)
  302国道 China National Highway 302 Hunchun Ulanhot Arxan 1,028 km (639 mi)
  303国道 China National Highway 303 Ji'an Xilinhot Abag 1,263 km (785 mi)
  304国道 China National Highway 304 Dandong Holingol 889 km (552 mi)
  305国道 China National Highway 305 Zhuanghe Bairin Left Banner West Ujimqin Banner 815 km (506 mi)
  306国道 China National Highway 306 Suizhong Hexigten Zhu'engadabuqi 497 km (309 mi)
  307国道 China National Highway 307 Huanghua Yinchuan Shandan 1,351 km (839 mi)
  308国道 China National Highway 308 Qingdao Weihai Shijiazhuang 637 km (396 mi)
  309国道 China National Highway 309 Rongcheng Lanzhou 2,208 km (1,372 mi)
  310国道 China National Highway 310 Lianyungang Tianshui Gonghe 1,613 km (1,002 mi)
  311国道 China National Highway 311 Xuzhou Lianyungang Xixia Luanchuan 748 km (465 mi)
  312国道 China National Highway 312 Shanghai Khorgas 4,967 km (3,086 mi)
  313国道 China National Highway 313 Guazhou Ruoqiang 821 km (510 mi) Now part of S314, G215 and S313, as well as partially abandoned.
  314国道 China National Highway 314 Ürümqi Khunjerab Pass 1,948 km (1,210 mi) Includes the Chinese part of the Karakoram Highway.
  315国道 China National Highway 315 Xining Kashgar Turugart 3,063 km (1,903 mi)
  316国道 China National Highway 316 Fuzhou Changle Lanzhou Tongren 2,915 km (1,811 mi)
  317国道 China National Highway 317 Chengdu Nagqu Gar 2,043 km (1,269 mi)
  318国道 China National Highway 318 Shanghai Zhangmu 5,476 km (3,403 mi) The longest China National Highway overall.
  319国道 China National Highway 319 Xiamen Kaohsiung Chengdu 2,984 km (1,854 mi)
  320国道 China National Highway 320 Shanghai Ruili 3,695 km (2,296 mi)
  321国道 China National Highway 321 Guangzhou Chengdu 2,220 km (1,380 mi)
  322国道 China National Highway 322 Hengyang Rui'an Friendship Pass 1,039 km (646 mi)
 
 
323国道 China National Highway 323 Ruijin Lincang 2,915 km (1,811 mi)
  324国道 China National Highway 324 Fuzhou Kunming 2,712 km (1,685 mi)
  325国道 China National Highway 325 Guangzhou Nanning 868 km (539 mi)
  326国道 China National Highway 326 Xiushan Hekou 1,562 km (971 mi)
  327国道 China National Highway 327 Lianyungang Heze, Jining Geting Coal Mine Guyuan 2,024 km (1,258 mi)
  328国道 China National Highway 328 Hai'an Qidong Nanjing Laohekou 224 km (139 mi) The shortest east-west China National Highway.
  329国道 China National Highway 329 Zhoushan Hangzhou Lushan 292 km (181 mi)
  330国道 China National Highway 330 Wenzhou Shouchang Hefei 327 km (203 mi)
  331国道 China National Highway 331 Dandong Altay
  332国道 China National Highway 332 Luobei Ebuduge
  333国道 China National Highway 333 Heminghu Morin Dawa
  334国道 China National Highway 334 Longjing East Ujimqin Banner
  335国道 China National Highway 335 Chengde Tacheng
  336国道 China National Highway 336 Tianjin Shenmu
  337国道 China National Highway 337 Huanghua Yulin
  338国道 China National Highway 338 Haixing Tianjun
  339国道 China National Highway 339 Binzhou Yulin
  340国道 China National Highway 340 Dongying Zichang
  341国道 China National Highway 341 Jiaonan Haiyan Section between Lanzhou New Area and Baiyin to be opened end of 2019[3]
  342国道 China National Highway 342 Rizhao Feng
  343国道 China National Highway 343 Dafeng Lushi
  344国道 China National Highway 344 Dongtai Lingwu
  345国道 China National Highway 345 Qidong Nagqu
  346国道 China National Highway 346 Shanghai Ankang
  347国道 China National Highway 347 Nanjing Delingha
  348国道 China National Highway 348 Wuhan Dali
  349国道 China National Highway 349 Donghua Saga
  350国道 China National Highway 350 Lichuan Luhuo
  351国道 China National Highway 351 Taizhou Xiaojin
  352国道 China National Highway 352 Zhangjiajie Qiaojia
  353国道 China National Highway 353 Ningde Fugong
  354国道 China National Highway 354 Nanchang Xingyi
  355国道 China National Highway 355 Fuzhou Bama
  356国道 China National Highway 356 Meizhou Xichang
  357国道 China National Highway 357 Dongshan Lushui
  358国道 China National Highway 358 Shishi Shuikou
  359国道 China National Highway 359 Foshan Funing
  360国道 China National Highway 360 Wenchang Lingao
  361国道 China National Highway 361 Lingshui Changjiang

500 SeriesEdit

Number Name English Name Startpoint Final Startpoint Endpoint Final Endpoint Current Length Notes
  501国道 China National Highway 501 Jixian Dangbizhen
  502国道 China National Highway 502 Kedong Qiqihar
  503国道 China National Highway 503 Wuchang Tongyu
  504国道 China National Highway 504 Fusong Gongzhuling
  505国道 China National Highway 505 Kaiyuan Naiman
  506国道 China National Highway 506 Ji'an Benxi
  507国道 China National Highway 507 Changhai Changxing Island
  508国道 China National Highway 508 Chifeng Caofeidian
  509国道 China National Highway 509 Jingtang Tongzhou
  510国道 China National Highway 510 Weichang Chahar Right Back Banner
  511国道 China National Highway 511 Sonid Right Banner Zhangbei
  512国道 China National Highway 512 Wanquan Dalad
  513国道 China National Highway 513 Linyi Dezhou
  514国道 China National Highway 514 Qihe Handan
  515国道 China National Highway 515 Dingzhou Xun
  516国道 China National Highway 516 Zhanhua Qingzhou
  517国道 China National Highway 517 Changdao Laixi
  518国道 China National Highway 518 Rizhao Dingtao
  519国道 China National Highway 519 Yushe Lucheng
  520国道 China National Highway 520 Linfen Yan'an
  521国道 China National Highway 521 Yuncheng Tongguan
  522国道 China National Highway 522 Yuanqu Tongguan
  523国道 China National Highway 523 Taizhou Danyang
  524国道 China National Highway 524 Changshu Haining
  525国道 China National Highway 525 Pinghu Hangzhou
  526国道 China National Highway 526 Shengsi Connecting Road
  527国道 China National Highway 527 Xiangshan Yiwu
  528国道 China National Highway 528 Longyou Guangchang
  529国道 China National Highway 529 Jinzhai Yuexi
  530国道 China National Highway 530 Huangshan Hukou
  531国道 China National Highway 531 Duchang Connecting Road
  532国道 China National Highway 532 Jiujiang De'an
  533国道 China National Highway 533 Zhangshu Fenyi
  534国道 China National Highway 534 Fuqing Changting
  535国道 China National Highway 535 Dingnan Yizhang
  536国道 China National Highway 536 Taojiang Xupu
  537国道 China National Highway 537 Ningyuan Lianzhou
  538国道 China National Highway 538 Jiangyong Zhongshan
  539国道 China National Highway 539 Jiedong Nan'ao
  540国道 China National Highway 540 Mao Yang Jiusuo
  541国道 China National Highway 541 Shiquan Wuxi
  542国道 China National Highway 542 Guangyuan Wanzhou
  543国道 China National Highway 543 Qingchuan Pingwu
  544国道 China National Highway 544 Jiuzhaigou Chuanzhusi
  545国道 China National Highway 545 Mao Deyang
  546国道 China National Highway 546 Naxi Xishui
  547国道 China National Highway 547 Yibin Xingwen
  548国道 China National Highway 548 Banma Sêrtar
  549国道 China National Highway 549 Shimian Dêrong
  550国道 China National Highway 550 Yuexi Mianning
  551国道 China National Highway 551 Zhenyuan Fuquan
  552国道 China National Highway 552 Libo Anlong
  553国道 China National Highway 553 Mengzi Yuanjiang
  554国道 China National Highway 554 Yongsheng Xiangyun
  555国道 China National Highway 555 Shidian Connecting Road
  556国道 China National Highway 556 Zhen'an Ruili
  557国道 China National Highway 557 Gonjo Connecting Road
  558国道 China National Highway 558 Biru Banbar
  559国道 China National Highway 559 Zayü Mêdog
  560国道 China National Highway 560 Mainling Cona
  561国道 China National Highway 561 Damxung Lhasa
  562国道 China National Highway 562 Baingoin Yadong
  563国道 China National Highway 563 Sa'gya Connecting Road
  564国道 China National Highway 564 Burang Connecting Road
  565国道 China National Highway 565 Zanda Connecting Road
  566国道 China National Highway 566 Xiji Tianshui
  567国道 China National Highway 567 Li Kang
  568国道 China National Highway 568 Lanzhou Luqu
  569国道 China National Highway 569 Mandela Sumu Datong
  570国道 China National Highway 570 Yongchang Connecting Road
  571国道 China National Highway 571 Subei Connecting Road
  572国道 China National Highway 572 Guinan Ulan
  573国道 China National Highway 573 Zêkog Xinghai
  574国道 China National Highway 574 Chindu Connecting Road
  575国道 China National Highway 575 Laoyemiao Hami
  576国道 China National Highway 576 Beitun Shihezi
  577国道 China National Highway 577 Jinghe Zhaosu
  578国道 China National Highway 578 Xinyuan Nilka
  579国道 China National Highway 579 Baicheng Connecting Road
  580国道 China National Highway 580 Aksu Kangxiwa
  581国道 China National Highway 581 Kashgar Erkeshtam

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2015-04-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ China's Highroad to Highway Success Bot generated title
  3. ^ "兰州新区至白银一级公路(G341线)明年10月具备通车条件". 知乎专栏.

External linksEdit