Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir (Mongolian: ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ, Kölün buyir, Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, Khölönbuir; Chinese: 呼伦贝尔市, Hūlúnbèi'ěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in China. Its administrative center is located at Hailar District, its largest urban area. Major scenic features are the high steppes of the Hulun Buir grasslands, the Hulun and Buir lakes (the latter partially in Mongolia), and the Khingan range. Hulun Buir borders Russia to the north and west, Mongolia to the south and west, Heilongjiang province to the east and Hinggan League to the direct south. Hulunbuir is a linguistically diverse area: next to Mandarin Chinese, Mongolian dialects such as Khorchin and Buryat, the Mongolic language Dagur, and some Tungusic languages are spoken there.
呼伦贝尔市 • ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Hulunbuir (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
|Municipal seat||Hailar District|
|• Total||263,953 km2 (101,913 sq mi)|
|• Density||9.7/km2 (25/sq mi)|
|• Major nationalities||Han - 81.85%
Mongols - 8.6%
Manchu - 4.13%
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Mongolian Cyrillic||Хөлөнбуйр хот|
|Mongolian script||ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ|
During the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), Hulunbuir was part of the Liaodong Commandery. During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), Hulunbuir was part of Heilongjiang province. The 1858 Treaty of Aigun established today's approximate Sino-Russian border, at a great loss to Heilongjiang's territory. In 1901, the Chinese Eastern Railway linked Hulunbuir to the rest of northeast China and to Russian Far East. From 1912-1949, during the Republic of China (ROC) period, Hulunbuir was part of Xing'an and Heilongjiang provinces. A treaty between the Russian Empire and the ROC on November 7/October 24, 1915 designated Hulunbuir a "special" region under Chinese sovereignty, but in practice Russia had partial control over day-to-day administration. In 1929, the Soviet Union broke this agreement and invaded Hulunbuir. After the Japanese occupation of China, Hulunbuir became part of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, which was not recognized by the Chinese. In the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China gained the support of Inner Mongol leaders like Ulanhu by promising the irredentist expansion of Inner Mongolia into areas that had majorities of Han and Manchu peoples.
After the 1949 Communist revolution, Hulunbuir was annexed into Inner Mongolia, but the region kept economic ties to the rest of the northeast via the Chinese Eastern Railway. During the Cultural Revolution, the parts of historical Manchuria inside Inner Mongolia were briefly restored to their original provinces; Hulunbuir was given back to Heilongjiang from 1969 to 1979. Until October 10, 2001, Hulunbuir was administered as a League. The area is 263,953 km2 (101,913 sq mi) and had a population of 2.710 million in 2004, while the gross domestic product was RMB 21.326 billion. The jurisdiction area of the city is larger than all but 8 Chinese province-level divisions (and 42 U.S. states), although the actual urban agglomeration is just a very small part of the region, and the average population density of the area is very low.
|Hailar District||ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
|Jalainur District||ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠢᠳᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
|Manzhouli City||ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
|Zhalantun City||ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Jalan Ayil qota)
|Yakeshi City||ᠶᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
|ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Gegen Ɣool qota)
|Ergun City||ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
|Arun Banner||ᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
|New Barag Right Banner
(Xin Barag Barun Banner)
|ᠰᠢᠨᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Sin-e Barɣu Baraɣun qosiɣu)
|新巴尔虎右旗||Xīnbā'ěrhǔ Yòu Qí||36,356||25,102||1|
|New Barag Left Banner
(Xin Barag Jun Banner)
|ᠰᠢᠨᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Sin-e Barɣu Jegün qosiɣu)
|新巴尔虎左旗||Xīnbā'ěrhǔ Zuǒ Qí||40,258||22,000||2|
|Old Barag Banner
(Huqin Barag Banner)
|ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qaɣučin Barɣu qosiɣu)
|Oroqen Autonomous Banner||ᠣᠷᠴᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Orčon-u öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
|Evenk Autonomous Banner||ᠡᠸᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Eveŋki öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
|Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner||ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Morin Dabaɣ-a Daɣur öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
|莫力达瓦达斡尔族自治旗||Mòlìdáwǎ Dáwò'ěrzú Zìzhìqí||276,912||10,500||30|
|Part of Oroqin Autonomous Banner is subordinate to Daxing'anling Prefecture in Heilongjiang.|
Hulunbuir is the largest city-named administrative division in the world based on land surface area. However, the continuous central urban and metropolitan area is limited to only Hailar District, which is almost 200 times smaller than prefecture-city boundary. Hulun Bur is the grassland area between the lakes Ulun, and Bur
Geography and climateEdit
Hulunbuir itself (Hailar) has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dwc). Winters are long, very dry and severe, due to the semi−permanent Siberian High, while summers are short, though very warm, and rather wet, due to the East Asian monsoon. At Hailar, the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −25.1 °C (−13.2 °F) in January to 20.0 °C (68 °F) in July, while the annual mean is −0.96 °C (30.3 °F). With at least 55% of possible sunshine in all months and an annual total greater than 2,700 hours, sunny weather dominates year-round. Approximately 70% of the annual rainfall occurs during the three summer months.
|Climate data for Hailar District (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−19.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−30.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||3.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||7.6||5.9||5.6||5.9||7.0||12.9||14.5||12.4||9.5||6.2||7.1||9.6||104.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||79||69||53||46||61||71||73||68||63||74||80||68.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||167.0||195.6||244.1||246.2||298.0||285.9||279.8||268.7||218.6||210.1||165.3||139.4||2,718.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||63||69||67||60||63||59||58||60||58||63||60||55||61.3|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
|ethnic group||population in 2000||share|
- Tang, P. S. H. (1959). Russian and Soviet policy in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia 1911-1931. Durham, N.C. p.81
- Tang, Peter SH. "Sino-Soviet Territorial Disputes: Past and Present." Russian Review (1969). p. 406.
- Bulag, Uradyn (2005). "Inner Mongolia". In Rossabi, Morris. Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers. University of Washington Press. pp. 90–91.
- Shabad, Theodore (1972). China's Changing Map: National and Regional Development, 1949-71. Taylor & Francis. pp. 237–239.
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971−2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- Jinri Nei Menggu: Hulun Bei'er 今日内蒙古: 呼伦贝尔 (Inner Mongolia today: Hulun Buir). 内蒙古人民出版社 (Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House), 呼和浩特 Hohhot 1997, ISBN 7-204-03545-3, 9+129 pages
Hulunbeier minzu wenwu kaogu daxi. Elunchun Zizhiqi juan = Hulunbuir Ethnic Cultural Relics and Archaeology Series. Oroqen Autonomous Banner. Beijing : Wenwu chubanshe, 2014. 255 p., ill. (chiefly col.), maps, biblio. ISBN 9787501039517.
Möngkedalai. Hulunbeier samanjiao yu lamajiao shilüe = Kölün Boyir-un böge-yin śasin kiged lama-yin śasin-u tobci teüke. Beijing : Minzu chubanshe, 2014. 5, 4, 545 p., ill., biblio., index. ISBN 9787105130573.