Xichang, formerly known as Jiandu[a] and Jianchang,[b] is a city in and the seat of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, in the south of Sichuan, China. In 2012 it had a population of 481,796.[citation needed]

Xichang
西昌市 · ꀒꎂꏃ
00 Xichang Qionghai Lake.jpg
Location of Xichang City jurisdiction (red) within Liangshan Prefecture (yellow) and Sichuan
Location of Xichang City jurisdiction (red) within Liangshan Prefecture (yellow) and Sichuan
Xichang is located in Sichuan
Xichang
Xichang
Location in Sichuan
Coordinates: 27°53′40″N 102°15′52″E / 27.89444°N 102.26444°E / 27.89444; 102.26444Coordinates: 27°53′40″N 102°15′52″E / 27.89444°N 102.26444°E / 27.89444; 102.26444
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceSichuan
PrefectureLiangshan
Municipal seatBeicheng Subdistrict (北城街道)
Area
 • Total2,655 km2 (1,025 sq mi)
Elevation
1,542 m (5,059 ft)
Population
 (2012)
 • Total481,796
 • Density180/km2 (470/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
615000
Area code(s)0834
Xichang
XC name.svg
Chinese name
Chinese西昌
Literal meaningWestern Prosperity
Yi name
Yiꀒꎂ
Romanisation: Op Rro
Former names
Jiandu
Chinese建都
Literal meaningEstablishing Capital
Jianchang
Chinese建昌
Literal meaningEstablishing Prosperity

GeographyEdit

 
Xichang (labelled as HSI-CH'ANG (NING-YÜAN) 西昌 (寧遠)) (1954)

Xichang lies in a mountainous region of far southern Sichuan. The city is just northeast of the prefecture-level city of Panzhihua. The Anning River is the main river in the area. It is an affluent of the Yalong, Jinsha, and Yangtze rivers. It lies near Qiong Lake.

ClimateEdit

Owing to its low latitude and high elevation, Xichang has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) milder and far sunnier than the Sichuan Basin, with mild, very sunny and dry winters, and very warm, rainy summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 9.9 °C (49.8 °F) in January to 22.6 °C (72.7 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 17.15 °C (62.9 °F). Over 60% of the 1,025 mm (40.4 in) annual precipitation occurs from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 36% in September to 72% in January, the city receives 2,367 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Xichang (1981−2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.0
(78.8)
28.7
(83.7)
33.5
(92.3)
35.5
(95.9)
36.6
(97.9)
36.0
(96.8)
35.5
(95.9)
35.1
(95.2)
34.9
(94.8)
30.9
(87.6)
27.8
(82.0)
24.8
(76.6)
36.6
(97.9)
Average high °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
19.9
(67.8)
23.8
(74.8)
26.9
(80.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.1
(80.8)
27.9
(82.2)
28.0
(82.4)
25.3
(77.5)
22.5
(72.5)
19.6
(67.3)
16.8
(62.2)
23.6
(74.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.9
(49.8)
12.6
(54.7)
16.1
(61.0)
19.2
(66.6)
21.2
(70.2)
21.7
(71.1)
22.6
(72.7)
22.3
(72.1)
19.9
(67.8)
17.0
(62.6)
13.3
(55.9)
10.0
(50.0)
17.2
(62.9)
Average low °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
6.7
(44.1)
10.0
(50.0)
13.2
(55.8)
16.0
(60.8)
18.0
(64.4)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
16.6
(61.9)
13.6
(56.5)
9.1
(48.4)
5.3
(41.5)
12.5
(54.6)
Record low °C (°F) −3.1
(26.4)
−3.5
(25.7)
0.3
(32.5)
3.0
(37.4)
7.1
(44.8)
11.4
(52.5)
12.7
(54.9)
13.0
(55.4)
8.9
(48.0)
6.4
(43.5)
−1.8
(28.8)
−2.8
(27.0)
−3.5
(25.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.6
(0.18)
5.9
(0.23)
14.1
(0.56)
30.4
(1.20)
86.4
(3.40)
211.0
(8.31)
236.9
(9.33)
183.3
(7.22)
154.0
(6.06)
74.1
(2.92)
19.4
(0.76)
4.8
(0.19)
1,024.9
(40.36)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.2 3.0 4.7 8.7 14.7 19.2 18.6 16.3 17.0 12.9 5.7 2.7 125.7
Average relative humidity (%) 52 45 42 47 56 71 74 73 75 72 65 60 61
Mean monthly sunshine hours 234.5 221.8 257.1 247.7 221.7 152.3 167.1 191.1 133.4 153.2 181.0 205.7 2,366.6
Percent possible sunshine 72 70 69 65 53 37 39 47 36 43 56 64 53
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)[3][4]

HistoryEdit

The Qiongdu were the local people at the time of contact with China. The county of Qiongdu is attested in the area from the Han dynasty. Under the Song dynasty, a local lord was given the title of "King of the Qiongdu" (Qiongdu Wang). The area formed part of the medieval Kingdom of Dali and was subdued by the Mongolians from 1272–4, after which it was incorporated into Yunnan of the Yuan dynasty. It was organized as the Jiandu Ningyuan duhufu, qianhufu, or wanhufu but continued to be often known as Jiandu.[5] In the book of his travels, Marco Polo recorded that the people of Jiandu and its hinterland used no coins but rods of gold bullion reckoned in saggi. Small change was made using half-catty pieces of molded salt, each reckoned as one-eightieth of a saggio of pure gold.[6] Under the Qing, it was officially known as Ningyuan Commandery[5] but also continued to be referenced under the old name Jianchang. In the 19th century, it was the center of Sichuan's production of "white wax".[2]

Xichang was devastated by a magnitude 7.5 earthquake in 1850, which killed more than 20,000 people.[7]

TransportationEdit

Xichang Railway Station (西昌站) is a main station on the Chengdu–Kunming railway. Construction of a fast express train line has been completed, and has considerably shortenened travelling times to Panzhihua, Chengdu and Guangyuan. There are also some other stations in the city, including the Xichang North railway station and Xichang South railway station.

The city possesses its own airport, Xichang Qingshan Airport, which is attached to the spaceport by a railroad line and a motorway directly.

Xichang lies on the G5 Beijing–Kunming Expressway.

SpaceportEdit

Xichang's spaceport is located about 64 kilometres (40 mi) northwest of the city and went into operation in 1984. Communications satellites are the most common payload to be inserted into orbit from the Xichang spaceport.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also formerly romanized as Caindu, Gaindu, and Kaindu.[1]
  2. ^ Also formerly romanized as Keen-chang.[2]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Vogel 2012, p. 290.
  2. ^ a b EB (1878), Vol. V, "China".
  3. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  4. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  5. ^ a b Haw 2006, p. 99–100.
  6. ^ Polo (1903), Vol. II, p. 54.
  7. ^ "Significant Earthquake Information". ngdc.noaa.gov. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved 18 October 2021.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit