Taiwan (// (listen), UK also /-
Republic of China
|Largest city||New Taipei|
|Official languages||Taiwanese Mandarin|
|Recognised national languages|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups||95% Han|
∟ 70% Hoklo
∟ 14% Hakka
∟ 14% Waisheng[a]
3.1% New immigrants
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|10 October 1911|
|1 January 1912|
|25 October 1945|
|25 December 1947|
|7 December 1949|
|36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)|
• 2018 estimate
• 2010 census
|650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (17th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2017)|| 0.907[c]|
very high · 21st
|Currency||New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (National Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||TW|
The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty. Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC continued to claim to be the legitimate government of China, its effective jurisdiction had, since the loss of Hainan in 1950, been limited to Taiwan and several small islands, with the main island making up 99% of its de facto territory. As a founding member of the United Nations, the ROC represented China at the UN until 1971, when it lost its seat to the PRC.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, healthcare, public education, economic freedom, and human development.[c] The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.
The PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China policy the PRC refuses diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC. Today, 17 countries maintain official ties with the ROC but many other states maintain unofficial ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Although Taiwan is fully self-governing, most international organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Internally, the major division in politics is between the aspirations of eventual Chinese unification or Taiwanese independence, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal. The PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible. The PRC and ROC standoff dates from the Chinese Civil War and has extended through the first, second and third Taiwan Strait crises to the present day.
|Traditional Chinese||臺灣 or 台灣|
|Republic of China|
|Literal meaning||Middle or Central State|
Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period. The name Formosa (福爾摩沙) dates from 1542,[verification needed] when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa ("beautiful island"). The name "Formosa" eventually "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century.
In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia (modern-day Anping, Tainan) on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, possibly Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Tayowan, Teijoan, etc. This name was also adopted into the Chinese vernacular (in particular, Hokkien, as Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tāi-oân/Tâi-oân) as the name of the sandbar and nearby area (Tainan). The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, which is seen in various forms (大員, 大圓, 大灣, 臺員, 臺圓 and 臺窩灣) in Chinese historical records. The area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name (臺灣) was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan".
In his Daoyi Zhilüe (1349), Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; indeed the name Ryūkyū is the Japanese form of Liúqiú. The name also appears in the Book of Sui (636) and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or even Luzon.
The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" (Zhōngguó (中國)) to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("state, nation-state"),[d] a term which also developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne,[e] and the name was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was commonly referred to as "Nationalist China" (or "Free China") to differentiate it from "Communist China" (or "Red China"). It was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become commonly known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts, especially ROC government publications, the name is written as "Republic of China (Taiwan)", "Republic of China/Taiwan", or sometimes "Taiwan (ROC)." The Republic of China participates in most international forums and organizations under the name "Chinese Taipei" due to diplomatic pressure from the People's Republic of China. For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games since 1984, and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization.
Taiwan was joined to the mainland in the Late Pleistocene, until sea levels rose about 10,000 years ago. Fragmentary human remains dated 20,000 to 30,000 years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artifacts of a Paleolithic culture.
Around 6,000 years ago, Taiwan was settled by farmers, most likely from mainland China. They are believed to be the ancestors of today's Taiwanese aborigines, whose languages belong to the Austronesian language family, but show much greater diversity than the rest of the family, which spans a huge area from Maritime Southeast Asia west to Madagascar and east as far as New Zealand, Hawaii and Easter Island. This has led linguists to propose Taiwan as the urheimat of the family, from which seafaring peoples dispersed across Southeast Asia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
Han Chinese fishermen began settling in the Penghu islands in the 13th century. Hostile tribes, and a lack of valuable trade products, meant that few outsiders visited the main island until the 16th century. During the 16th century, visits to the coast by fishermen from Fujian, as well as Chinese and Japanese pirates, became more frequent.
Opening in the 17th century
In 1624, the company established a stronghold called Fort Zeelandia on the coastal islet of Tayouan, which is now part of the main island at Anping, Tainan. When the Dutch arrived, they found southwestern Taiwan already frequented by a transient Chinese population numbering close to 1,500. David Wright, a Scottish agent of the company who lived on the island in the 1650s, described the lowland areas of the island as being divided among 11 chiefdoms ranging in size from two settlements to 72. Some of these fell under Dutch control, while others remained independent. The Company began to import labourers from Fujian and Penghu (Pescadores), many of whom settled.
In 1626, the Spanish Empire landed on and occupied northern Taiwan, at the ports of Keelung and Tamsui, as a base to extend their trading. This colonial period lasted 16 years until 1642, when the last Spanish fortress fell to Dutch forces.
Following the fall of the Ming dynasty, Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong), a self-styled Ming loyalist, arrived on the island and captured Fort Zeelandia in 1662, expelling the Dutch Empire and military from the island. Koxinga established the Kingdom of Tungning (1662–1683), with his capital at Tainan. He and his heirs, Zheng Jing, who ruled from 1662 to 1682, and Zheng Keshuang, who ruled less than a year, continued to launch raids on the southeast coast of mainland China well into the Qing dynasty era.
In 1683, following the defeat of Koxinga's grandson by an armada led by Admiral Shi Lang of southern Fujian, the Qing dynasty formally annexed Taiwan, placing it under the jurisdiction of Fujian province. The Qing imperial government tried to reduce piracy and vagrancy in the area, issuing a series of edicts to manage immigration and respect aboriginal land rights. Immigrants mostly from southern Fujian continued to enter Taiwan. The border between taxpaying lands and "savage" lands shifted eastward, with some aborigines becoming sinicized while others retreated into the mountains. During this time, there were a number of conflicts between groups of Han Chinese from different regions of southern Fujian, particularly between those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, and between southern Fujian Chinese and aborigines.
Northern Taiwan and the Penghu Islands were the scene of subsidiary campaigns in the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). The French occupied Keelung on 1 October 1884, but were repulsed from Tamsui a few days later. The French won some tactical victories but were unable to exploit them, and the Keelung Campaign ended in stalemate. The Pescadores Campaign, beginning on 31 March 1885, was a French victory, but had no long-term consequences. The French evacuated both Keelung and the Penghu archipelago after the end of the war.
In 1887, the Qing upgraded the island's administration from Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian Province to Fujian-Taiwan-Province, the twentieth in the empire, with its capital at Taipei. This was accompanied by a modernization drive that included building China's first railroad.
As the Qing dynasty was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Taiwan, along with Penghu and Liaodong Peninsula, were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Inhabitants on Taiwan and Penghu wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible. On 25 May 1895, a group of pro-Qing high officials proclaimed the Republic of Formosa to resist impending Japanese rule. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and quelled this resistance on 21 October 1895. Guerrilla fighting continued periodically until about 1902 and ultimately took the lives of 14,000 Taiwanese, or 0.5% of the population. Several subsequent rebellions against the Japanese (the Beipu uprising of 1907, the Tapani incident of 1915, and the Musha incident of 1930) were all unsuccessful but demonstrated opposition to Japanese colonial rule.
Japanese colonial rule was instrumental in the industrialization of the island, extending the railroads and other transportation networks, building an extensive sanitation system, and establishing a formal education system. Japanese rule ended the practice of headhunting. During this period the human and natural resources of Taiwan were used to aid the development of Japan and the production of cash crops such as rice and sugar greatly increased. By 1939, Taiwan was the seventh greatest sugar producer in the world. Still, the Taiwanese and aborigines were classified as second- and third-class citizens. After suppressing Chinese guerrillas in the first decade of their rule, Japanese authorities engaged in a series of bloody campaigns against the mountain aboriginals, culminating in the Musha Incident of 1930. Intellectuals and laborers who participated in left-wing movements within Taiwan were also arrested and massacred (e.g. Chiang Wei-shui (蔣渭水) and Masanosuke Watanabe (渡辺政之輔)).
Around 1935, the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation project to bind the island more firmly to the Japanese Empire and people were taught to see themselves as Japanese under the Kominka Movement, during which time Taiwanese culture and religion were outlawed and the citizens were encouraged to adopt Japanese surnames. By 1938 309,000 Japanese settlers resided in Taiwan.
Taiwan held strategic wartime importance as Imperial Japanese military campaigns first expanded and then contracted over the course of World War II. The "South Strike Group" was based at the Taihoku Imperial University in Taipei. During World War II, tens of thousands of Taiwanese served in the Japanese military Over 2,000 women, euphemistically called "comfort women", were forced into sexual slavery for Imperial Japanese troops.
The Imperial Japanese Navy operated heavily out of Taiwanese ports. In October 1944 the Formosa Air Battle was fought between American carriers and Japanese forces based in Taiwan. Important Japanese military bases and industrial centres throughout Taiwan, such as Kaohsiung and Keelung, were targets of heavy raids by American bombers.
Republic of China
While Taiwan was still under Japanese rule, the Republic of China was founded on the mainland on 1 January 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, which began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911, replacing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. From its founding until 1949 it was based in mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism (1915–28), Japanese invasion (1937–45), and the Chinese Civil War (1927–50), with central authority strongest during the Nanjing decade (1927–37), when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang (KMT) under an authoritarian one-party state.
After the Surrender of Japan on 25 October 1945, the US Navy ferried ROC troops to Taiwan in order to accept the formal surrender of Japanese military forces in Taipei on behalf of the Allied Powers, as part of General Order No. 1 for temporary military occupation. General Rikichi Andō, governor-general of Taiwan and commander-in-chief of all Japanese forces on the island, signed the receipt and handed it over to General Chen Yi of the ROC military to complete the official turnover. Chen Yi proclaimed that day to be "Taiwan Retrocession Day", but the Allies considered Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to be under military occupation and still under Japanese sovereignty until 1952, when the Treaty of San Francisco took effect. Although the 1943 Cairo Declaration had envisaged returning these territories to China, in the Treaty of San Francisco and Treaty of Taipei Japan renounced all claim to them without specifying to what country they were to be surrendered. This introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan.
The ROC administration of Taiwan under Chen Yi was strained by increasing tensions between Taiwanese-born people and newly arrived mainlanders, which were compounded by economic woes, such as hyperinflation. Furthermore, cultural and linguistic conflicts between the two groups quickly led to the loss of popular support for the new government, while the mass movement led by the working committee of the Communist Party also aimed to bring down the Kuomintang government. The shooting of a civilian on 28 February 1947 triggered island-wide unrest, which was suppressed with military force in what is now called the February 28 Incident. Mainstream estimates of the number killed range from 18,000 to 30,000. Those killed were mainly members of the Taiwanese elite.
After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang), led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong. Throughout the months of 1949, a series of Chinese Communist offensives led to the capture of its capital Nanjing on 23 April and the subsequent defeat of the Nationalist army on the mainland, and the Communists founded the People's Republic of China on 1 October.
On 7 December 1949, after the loss of four capitals, Chiang evacuated his Nationalist government to Taiwan and made Taipei the temporary capital of the ROC (also called the "wartime capital" by Chiang Kai-shek). Some 2 million people, consisting mainly of soldiers, members of the ruling Kuomintang and intellectual and business elites, were evacuated from mainland China to Taiwan at that time, adding to the earlier population of approximately six million. In addition, the ROC government took to Taipei many national treasures and much of China's gold reserves and foreign currency reserves.
After losing most of the mainland, the Kuomintang held remaining control of Tibet, the portions of Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Yunnan provinces along with the Hainan Island until 1951 before the Communists subsequently captured these territories. From this point onwards, the Kuomintang's territory was reduced to Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu Islands (Fujian Province), and two major islands of Dongsha Islands and Nansha Islands. The Kuomintang continued to claim sovereignty over all "China", which it defined to include mainland China, Taiwan, Outer Mongolia and other areas. On mainland China, the victorious Communists claimed they ruled the sole and only China (which they claimed included Taiwan) and that the Republic of China no longer existed.
Chinese Nationalist one-party rule
Martial law, declared on Taiwan in May 1949, continued to be in effect after the central government relocated to Taiwan. It was not repealed until 1987, and was used as a way to suppress the political opposition in the intervening years. During the White Terror, as the period is known, 140,000 people were imprisoned or executed for being perceived as anti-KMT or pro-Communist. Many citizens were arrested, tortured, imprisoned and executed for their real or perceived link to the Communists. Since these people were mainly from the intellectual and social elite, an entire generation of political and social leaders was decimated. In 1998 law was passed to create the "Compensation Foundation for Improper Verdicts" which oversaw compensation to White Terror victims and families. President Ma Ying-jeou made an official apology in 2008, expressing hope that there will never be a tragedy similar to White Terror.
Initially, the United States abandoned the KMT and expected that Taiwan would fall to the Communists. However, in 1950 the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in 1945, escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S. Truman intervened again and dispatched the US Navy's 7th Fleet into the Taiwan Strait to prevent hostilities between Taiwan and mainland China. In the Treaty of San Francisco and the Treaty of Taipei, which came into force respectively on 28 April 1952 and 5 August 1952, Japan formally renounced all right, claim and title to Taiwan and Penghu, and renounced all treaties signed with China before 1942. Neither treaty specified to whom sovereignty over the islands should be transferred, because the United States and the United Kingdom disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China. Continuing conflict of the Chinese Civil War through the 1950s, and intervention by the United States notably resulted in legislation such as the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty and the Formosa Resolution of 1955.
As the Chinese Civil War continued without truce, the government built up military fortifications throughout Taiwan. Within this effort, KMT veterans built the now famous Central Cross-Island Highway through the Taroko Gorge in the 1950s. The two sides would continue to engage in sporadic military clashes with seldom publicized details well into the 1960s on the China coastal islands with an unknown number of night raids. During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in September 1958, Taiwan's landscape saw Nike-Hercules missile batteries added, with the formation of the 1st Missile Battalion Chinese Army that would not be deactivated until 1997. Newer generations of missile batteries have since replaced the Nike Hercules systems throughout the island.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the ROC maintained an authoritarian, single-party government while its economy became industrialized and technology oriented. This rapid economic growth, known as the Taiwan Miracle, was the result of a fiscal regime independent from mainland China and backed up, among others, by the support of US funds and demand for Taiwanese products. In the 1970s, Taiwan was economically the second fastest growing state in Asia after Japan. Taiwan, along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore, became known as one of the Four Asian Tigers. Because of the Cold War, most Western nations and the United Nations regarded the ROC as the sole legitimate government of China until the 1970s. Later, especially after the termination of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, most nations switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC (see United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758).
Up until the 1970s, the government was regarded by Western critics as undemocratic for upholding martial law, for severely repressing any political opposition and for controlling media. The KMT did not allow the creation of new parties and those that existed did not seriously compete with the KMT. Thus, competitive democratic elections did not exist. From the late 1970s to the 1990s, however, Taiwan went through reforms and social changes that transformed it from an authoritarian state to a democracy. In 1979, a pro-democracy protest known as the Kaohsiung Incident took place in Kaohsiung to celebrate Human Rights Day. Although the protest was rapidly crushed by the authorities, it is today considered as the main event that united Taiwan's opposition.
Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek's son and successor as the president, began to liberalize the political system in the mid-1980s. In 1984, the younger Chiang selected Lee Teng-hui, a Taiwanese-born, US-educated technocrat, to be his vice-president. In 1986, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was formed and inaugurated as the first opposition party in the ROC to counter the KMT. A year later, Chiang Ching-kuo lifted martial law on the main island of Taiwan (martial law was lifted on Penghu in 1979, Matsu island in 1992 and Kinmen island in 1993). With the advent of democratization, the issue of the political status of Taiwan gradually resurfaced as a controversial issue where, previously, the discussion of anything other than unification under the ROC was taboo.
After the death of Chiang Ching-kuo in January 1988, Lee Teng-hui succeeded him and became the first Taiwan-born president. Lee continued to democratize the government and decrease the concentration of government authority in the hands of mainland Chinese. Under Lee, Taiwan underwent a process of localization in which Taiwanese culture and history were promoted over a pan-China viewpoint in contrast to earlier KMT policies which had promoted a Chinese identity. Lee's reforms included printing banknotes from the Central Bank rather than the Provincial Bank of Taiwan, and streamlining the Taiwan Provincial Government with most of its functions transferred to the Executive Yuan. Under Lee, the original members of the Legislative Yuan and National Assembly (a former supreme legislative body defunct in 2005), elected in 1947 to represent mainland Chinese constituencies and having held the seats without re-election for more than four decades, were forced to resign in 1991. The previously nominal representation in the Legislative Yuan was brought to an end, reflecting the reality that the ROC had no jurisdiction over mainland China, and vice versa. Restrictions on the use of Taiwanese Hokkien in the broadcast media and in schools were also lifted.
Democratic reforms continued in the 1990s, with Lee Teng-hui re-elected in 1996, in the first direct presidential election in the history of the ROC. During the later years of Lee's administration, he was involved in corruption controversies relating to government release of land and weapons purchase, although no legal proceedings commenced. In 1997,"To meet the requisites of the nation prior to national unification", the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China was passed and then the former "constitution of five powers" turns to be more tripartite. In 2000, Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party was elected as the first non-Kuomintang (KMT) President and was re-elected to serve his second and last term since 2004. Polarized politics has emerged in Taiwan with the formation of the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties led by the KMT, favouring eventual Chinese reunification, and the Pan-Green Coalition of parties led by the DPP, favouring an eventual and official declaration of Taiwanese independence.[clarification needed] In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian remarked: "The National Unification Council will cease to function. No budget will be ear-marked for it and its personnel must return to their original posts...The National Unification Guidelines will cease to apply."
On 30 September 2007, the ruling DPP approved a resolution asserting a separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country". It also called for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China. The Chen administration also pushed for referendums on national defense in 2004 and UN entry in 2008, both of which held on the same day as the presidential election. They both failed due to voter turnout below the required legal threshold of 50% of all registered voters. The Chen administration was dogged by public concerns over reduced economic growth, legislative gridlock due to a pan-blue, opposition-controlled Legislative Yuan and corruption involving the First Family as well as government officials.
The KMT increased its majority in the Legislative Yuan in the January 2008 legislative elections, while its nominee Ma Ying-jeou went on to win the presidency in March of the same year, campaigning on a platform of increased economic growth and better ties with the PRC under a policy of "mutual nondenial". Ma took office on 20 May 2008, the same day that President Chen Shui-bian stepped down and was notified by prosecutors of possible corruption charges. Part of the rationale for campaigning for closer economic ties with the PRC stems from the strong economic growth China attained since joining the World Trade Organization. However, some analysts say that despite the election of Ma Ying-jeou, the diplomatic and military tensions with the PRC have not been reduced.
On 24 May 2017, the Constitutional Court ruled that current marriage laws have been violating the Constitution by denying Taiwanese same-sex couples the right to marry. The Court ruled that if the Legislative Yuan does not pass adequate amendments to Taiwanese marriage laws within two years, same-sex marriages will automatically become legitimate in Taiwan.
The total area of the current jurisdiction of the Republic of China is 36,193 km2 (13,974 sq mi), making it the world's 137th-largest country/dependency, smaller than Switzerland and larger than Belgium.
The island of Taiwan has an area of 35,883 km2 (13,855 sq mi), and lies some 180 kilometres (110 mi) from the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait. The East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Bashi Channel of the Luzon Strait directly to the south, and the South China Sea to the southwest. Its shape is similar to a sweet potato, giving rise to the slang term hanji ("sweet potato" in Hokkien) used by Taiwanese Hokkien speakers to refer to people of native Taiwanese descent.
The island is characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting mostly of rugged mountains running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island, and the flat to gently rolling Chianan Plains in the west that are also home to most of Taiwan's population. Taiwan's highest point is Yu Shan (Jade Mountain) at 3,952 metres (12,966 ft), making Taiwan the world's fourth-highest island.
The Penghu Islands, 50 km (31.1 mi) west of the main island, have an area of 126.9 km2 (49.0 sq mi). More distant islands of the Republic of China are the Kinmen, Wuchiu and Matsu Islands off the coast of Fujian, with a total area of 180.5 km2 (69.7 sq mi), and the Pratas Islands and Taiping Island in the South China Sea, with a total area of 2.9 km2 (1.1 sq mi) and no permanent inhabitants. The ROC government also claims the Senkaku Islands to the northeast, which are controlled by Japan.
Taiwan lies on the Tropic of Cancer, and its general climate is marine tropical. The northern and central regions are subtropical, whereas the south is tropical and the mountainous regions are temperate. The average rainfall is 2,600 millimetres (100 inches) per year for the island proper; the rainy season is concurrent with the onset of the summer East Asian Monsoon in May and June. The entire island experiences hot, humid weather from June through September. Typhoons are most common in July, August and September. During the winter (November to March), the northeast experiences steady rain, while the central and southern parts of the island are mostly sunny.
The island of Taiwan lies in a complex tectonic area between the Yangtze Plate to the west and north, the Okinawa Plate on the north-east, and the Philippine Mobile Belt on the east and south. The upper part of the crust on the island is primarily made up of a series of terranes, mostly old island arcs which have been forced together by the collision of the forerunners of the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. These have been further uplifted as a result of the detachment of a portion of the Eurasian Plate as it was subducted beneath remnants of the Philippine Sea Plate, a process which left the crust under Taiwan more buoyant.
The east and south of Taiwan are a complex system of belts formed by, and part of the zone of, active collision between the North Luzon Trough portion of the Luzon Volcanic Arc and South China, where accreted portions of the Luzon Arc and Luzon forearc form the eastern Coastal Range and parallel inland Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan respectively.
The major seismic faults in Taiwan correspond to the various suture zones between the various terranes. These have produced major quakes throughout the history of the island. On 21 September 1999, a 7.3 quake known as the "921 earthquake" killed more than 2,400 people. The seismic hazard map for Taiwan by the USGS shows 9/10 of the island as the highest rating (most hazardous).
Political and legal status
The political and legal statuses of Taiwan are contentious issues. The People's Republic of China (PRC) claims that the Republic of China government is illegitimate, referring to it as the "Taiwan Authority". The ROC has its own constitution, independently elected president and armed forces. It has not formally renounced its claim to the mainland, but ROC government publications have increasingly downplayed it.
Internationally, there is controversy on whether the ROC still exists as a state or a defunct state per international law due to the lack of wide diplomatic recognition. In a poll of Taiwanese aged 20 and older taken by TVBS in March 2009, a majority of 64% opted for the "status quo", while 19% favoured "independence" and 5% favoured "unification".
Relations with the PRC
The political environment is complicated by the potential for military conflict should Taiwan declare de jure independence; it is the official PRC policy to use force to ensure unification if peaceful unification is no longer possible, as stated in its anti-secession law, and for this reason there are substantial military installations on the Fujian coast.
On 29 April 2005, Kuomintang Chairman Lien Chan travelled to Beijing and met with Communist Party of China (CPC) Secretary-General Hu Jintao, the first meeting between the leaders of the two parties since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949. On 11 February 2014, Mainland Affairs Council Head Wang Yu-chi travelled to Nanjing and met with Taiwan Affairs Office Head Zhang Zhijun, the first meeting between high-ranking officials from either side. Zhang paid a reciprocal visit to Taiwan and met Wang on 25 June 2014, making Zhang the first minister-level PRC official to ever visit Taiwan. On 7 November 2015, Ma Ying-jeou (in his capacity as Leader of Taiwan) and Xi Jinping (in his capacity as Leader of Mainland China) travelled to Singapore and met up, marking the highest-level exchange between the two sides since 1949.
The PRC supports a version of the One-China policy, which states that Taiwan and mainland China are both part of China, and that the PRC is the only legitimate government of China. It uses this policy to prevent the international recognition of the ROC as an independent sovereign state, meaning that Taiwan participates in international forums under the name "Chinese Taipei". With the emergence of the Taiwanese independence movement, the name "Taiwan" has been employed increasingly often on the island.
Before 1928, the foreign policy of Republican China was complicated by a lack of internal unity—competing centres of power all claimed legitimacy. This situation changed after the defeat of the Peiyang Government by the Kuomintang, which led to widespread diplomatic recognition of the Republic of China.
After the KMT's retreat to Taiwan, most countries, notably the countries in the Western Bloc, continued to maintain relations with the ROC. Due to diplomatic pressure, recognition gradually eroded and many countries switched recognition to the PRC in the 1970s. UN Resolution 2758 (25 October 1971) recognized the People's Republic of China as China's sole representative in the United Nations.
The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that recognizes the ROC, and requires all nations with which it has diplomatic relations to make a statement recognizing its claims to Taiwan. As a result, only 16 UN member states and the Holy See maintain official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China. The ROC maintains unofficial relations with most countries via de facto embassies and consulates called Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices (TECRO), with branch offices called "Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices" (TECO). Both TECRO and TECO are "unofficial commercial entities" of the ROC in charge of maintaining diplomatic relations, providing consular services (i.e. visa applications), and serving the national interests of the ROC in other countries.
The United States remains one of the main allies of the country and, through the Taiwan Relations Act passed in 1979, has continued selling arms and providing military training to the Armed Forces. This situation continues to be an issue for the People's Republic of China which considers US involvement disruptive to the stability of the region. In January 2010, the Obama administration announced its intention to sell $6.4 billion worth of military hardware to Taiwan. As a consequence, the PRC threatened the US with economic sanctions and warned that their co-operation on international and regional issues could suffer.
The official position of the United States is that the PRC is expected to "use no force or threat[en] to use force against Taiwan" and the ROC is to "exercise prudence in managing all aspects of Cross-Strait relations." Both are to refrain from performing actions or espousing statements "that would unilaterally alter Taiwan's status."
On 16 December 2015, the Obama administration announced a deal to sell $1.83 billion worth of arms to the armed forces of the ROC. China's foreign ministry had expressed its disapproval for the sales and issued the US a "stern warning", saying it would hurt China–US relations.
Participation in international events and organizations
The ROC was a founding member of the United Nations, and held the seat of China on the Security Council and other UN bodies until 1971, when it was expelled by Resolution 2758 and replaced in all UN organs with the PRC. Each year since 1992, the ROC has petitioned the UN for entry, but its applications have not made it past committee.
Due to its limited international recognition, the Republic of China is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, represented by a government-funded organization, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy (TFD) under the name "Taiwan".
Also due to its One China policy, the PRC only participates in international organizations where the ROC is not recognized as a sovereign country. Most member states, including the United States, do not wish to discuss the issue of the ROC's political status for fear of souring diplomatic ties with the PRC. However, both the US and Japan publicly support the ROC's bid for membership in the World Health Organization as an observer. However, though the ROC sought to participate in the WHO since 1997, their efforts were blocked by the PRC until 2010, when they were invited as observers to attend the World Health Assembly, under the name "Chinese Taipei".
Due to PRC pressure, the ROC is forced to use the name "Chinese Taipei" in international events, such as the Olympic Games, where the PRC is also a party. The ROC is typically barred from using its national anthem and national flag in international events due to PRC pressure; ROC spectators attending events such as the Olympics are often barred from bringing ROC flags into venues. Taiwan also participates in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (since 1991) and the World Trade Organization (since 2002) under the name "Chinese Taipei". The ROC is able to participate as "China" in organizations that the PRC does not participate in, such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement.
Opinions within Taiwan
Within Taiwan, opinions are polarized between those supporting unification, represented by the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties, and those supporting independence, represented by the Pan-Green Coalition.
The KMT, the largest Pan-Blue party, supports the status quo for the indefinite future with a stated ultimate goal of unification. However, it does not support unification in the short term with the PRC as such a prospect would be unacceptable to most of its members and the public. Ma Ying-jeou, chairman of the KMT and former president of the ROC, has set out democracy, economic development to a level near that of Taiwan, and equitable wealth distribution as the conditions that the PRC must fulfill for reunification to occur.
The Democratic Progressive Party, the largest Pan-Green party, officially seeks independence, but in practice also supports the status quo because its members and the public would not accept the risk of provoking the PRC.
On 2 September 2008, Mexican newspaper El Sol de México asked President Ma about his views on the subject of "two Chinas" and if there was a solution for the sovereignty issues between the two. The president replied that the relations are neither between two Chinas nor two states. It is a special relationship. Further, he stated that the sovereignty issues between the two cannot be resolved at present, but he quoted the "1992 Consensus", currently accepted by both the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, as a temporary measure until a solution becomes available.
On 27 September 2017, Taiwanese premier William Lai said that he was a "political worker who advocates Taiwan independence", but that as Taiwan was an independent country called the Republic of China, it had no need to declare independence. The relationship with the PRC and the related issues of Taiwanese independence and Chinese unification continue to dominate politics.
Government and politics
The government of the Republic of China was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People, which states that the ROC "shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people." The government is divided into five branches (Yuan): the Executive Yuan (cabinet), the Legislative Yuan (Congress or Parliament), the Judicial Yuan, the Control Yuan (audit agency), and the Examination Yuan (civil service examination agency). The constitution was drafted before the fall of mainland China to the Communist Party of China. It was created by the KMT for the purpose of all of its claimed territory, including Taiwan, even though the Communist Party boycotted the drafting of the constitution. The constitution went into effect on 25 December 1947. The ROC remained under martial law from 1948 until 1987 and much of the constitution was not in effect. Political reforms beginning in the late 1970s and continuing through the early 1990s liberalized the country and transformed into a multiparty democracy. Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China has democratized and reformed, suspending constitutional components that were originally meant for the whole of China. This process of amendment continues. In 2000, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) won the presidency, ending KMT's continuous control of the government. In May 2005, a new National Assembly was elected to reduce the number of parliamentary seats and implement several constitutional reforms. These reforms have been passed; the National Assembly has essentially voted to abolish itself and transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot.
The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president, who is elected by popular vote for a maximum of 2 four-year terms on the same ticket as the vice-president. The president has authority over the Yuan. The president appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet, including a premier, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.
The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with 113 seats. Seventy-three are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies. Members serve four-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly, as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college, held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in 2005 with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums.
The premier is selected by the president without the need for approval from the legislature, but the legislature can pass laws without regard for the president, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power. Thus, there is little incentive for the president and the legislature to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing parties. After the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian as President in 2000, legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority. Historically, the ROC has been dominated by strongman single party politics. This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the president rather than the premier, even though the constitution does not explicitly state the extent of the president's executive power.
The Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The president and vice-president of the Judicial Yuan and additional thirteen justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated and appointed by the president, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding judge and four associate judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process. There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.
Capital punishment is still used in Taiwan, although efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions. Nevertheless, according to a survey in 2006, about 80% of Taiwanese still wanted to keep the death penalty.
The Control Yuan is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the actions of the executive. It can be considered a standing commission for administrative inquiry and can be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union or the Government Accountability Office of the United States.
The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. It is based on the old imperial examination system used in dynastic China. It can be compared to the European Personnel Selection Office of the European Union or the Office of Personnel Management of the United States.
The tension between China and Taiwan colours most of the political life, and any government move towards "Taiwan independence" is met by threat of military attack from the PRC. The PRC's official policy is to reunify Taiwan and mainland China under the formula of "one country, two systems" and refuses to renounce the use of military force, especially should Taiwan seek a declaration of independence.
The political scene is generally divided into two major camps in terms of views on how Taiwan should relate to China or the PRC, referred to as cross-Strait relations. It is the main political difference between two camps: the Pan-Blue Coalition, composed of the pro-unification Kuomintang, People First Party (PFP), and New Party, who believe that the ROC is the sole legitimate government of "China" (including Taiwan) and supports eventual Chinese reunification. The opposition Pan-Green Coalition is composed of the pro-independence DPP and Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU). It regards Taiwan as an independent, sovereign state synonymous with the ROC, opposes the definition that Taiwan is part of "China", and seeks wide diplomatic recognition and an eventual declaration of formal Taiwan independence. The Pan-Green camp tends to favour emphasizing the Republic of China as being a distinct country from the People's Republic of China. Thus, in September 2007, the then ruling Democratic Progressive Party approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country". It called also for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the "Republic of China". Some members of the coalition, such as former President Chen Shui-bian, argue that it is unnecessary to proclaim independence because "Taiwan is already an independent, sovereign country" and the Republic of China is the same as Taiwan. Despite being a member of KMT prior to and during his presidency, Lee Teng-hui also held a similar view and was a supporter of the Taiwanization movement.
Pan-Blue members generally support the concept of the One-China policy, which states that there is only one China and that its only government is the ROC. They favour eventual re-unification of China. The more mainstream Pan-Blue position is to lift investment restrictions and pursue negotiations with the PRC to immediately open direct transportation links. Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo, while refusing immediate reunification. President Ma Ying-jeou stated that there will be no unification nor declaration of independence during his presidency. As of 2009[update], Pan-Blue members usually seek to improve relationships with mainland China, with a current focus on improving economic ties.
Current political issues
The dominant political issue in Taiwan is its relationship with the PRC. For almost 60 years, there were no direct transportation links, including direct flights, between Taiwan and mainland China. This was a problem for many Taiwanese businesses that had opened factories or branches in mainland China. The former DPP administration feared that such links would lead to tighter economic and political integration with mainland China, and in the 2006 Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian called for managed opening of links. Direct weekend charter flights between Taiwan and mainland China began in July 2008 under the current KMT government, and the first direct daily charter flights took off in December 2008.
Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States authorized in 2001. In 2008, however, the United States was reluctant to send over more arms to Taiwan out of fear that it would hinder the recent improvement of ties between the PRC and the ROC. Another major political issue is the establishment of a National Communications Commission to take over from the Government Information Office, whose advertising budget exercised great control over the media.
The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues. Corruption among some DPP administration officials has been exposed. In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian was linked to possible corruption. The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a divide in the DPP leadership and supporters alike. It eventually led to the creation of a political camp led by ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-teh which believes the president should resign. The KMT assets continue to be another major issue, as it was once the richest political party in the world. Nearing the end of 2006, KMT's chairman Ma Ying-jeou was also hit by corruption controversies, although he has since then been cleared of any wrongdoings by the courts. After completing his second term as President, Chen Shui-bian was charged with corruption and money laundering. Following his conviction, he is serving a 17-year sentence in Taipei Prison.
Roughly 84% of Taiwan's population descends from Han Chinese who migrated from Qing China between 1661 and 1895. Another significant fraction descends from Han Chinese who immigrated from mainland China in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The shared cultural origin combined with several hundred years of geographical separation, some hundred years of political separation and foreign influences, as well as hostility between the rival ROC and PRC have resulted in national identity being a contentious issue with political overtones. Since democratization and the lifting of martial law, a distinct Taiwanese identity (as opposed to Taiwanese identity as a subset of a Chinese identity) is often at the heart of political debates. Its acceptance makes the island distinct from mainland China, and therefore may be seen as a step towards forming a consensus for de jure Taiwan independence. The pan-green camp supports a distinct Taiwanese identity, while the pan-blue camp supports a Chinese identity only. The KMT has downplayed this stance in the recent years and now supports a Taiwanese identity as part of a Chinese identity.
According to a survey conducted in March 2009, 49% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese only, and 44% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese and Chinese. 3% consider themselves as only Chinese. Another survey, conducted in Taiwan in July 2009, showed that 82.8% of respondents consider the ROC and the PRC as two separate countries with each developing on its own. A survey conducted in December 2009 showed that 62% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese only, and 22% of the respondents consider themselves as both Taiwanese and Chinese. 8% consider themselves as only Chinese. The survey also shows that among 18- to 29-year-old respondents, 75% consider themselves as Taiwanese only.
In the latest survey conducted by National Chengchi University in 2014 and published in early 2015, 60.6% of respondents identified themselves exclusively as Taiwanese, 32.5% identified themselves as both Taiwanese and Chinese and 3.5% identified themselves as Chinese.
|Survey||Taiwanese||Chinese||Taiwanese and Chinese|
|National Chengchi University (January 2015)||60.6%||3.5%||32.5%|
|TVBS Poll Center (October 2012)||75%||15%||(not an option for this question)|
|TVBS Poll Center (October 2012)||55%||3%||37%|
|Common Wealth Magazine (December 2009)||62%||8%||22%|
|Research, Development, and Evaluation Commission, Executive Yuan (April 2008)||67.1%||13.6%||15.2%|
The Republic of China Army takes its roots in the National Revolutionary Army, which was established by Sun Yat-sen in 1925 in Guangdong with a goal of reunifying China under the Kuomintang. When the People's Liberation Army won the Chinese Civil War, much of the National Revolutionary Army retreated to Taiwan along with the government. It was later reformed into the Republic of China Army. Units which surrendered and remained in mainland China were either disbanded or incorporated into the People's Liberation Army.
Today, Taiwan maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as defence against the constant threat of invasion by the People's Liberation Army under the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China. This law gives green light to the use of military force when certain Chinese Red Lines formulated in the Anti-Secession Law are crossed like endangering citizens of the People's Republic of China. From 1949 to the 1970s, the primary mission of the military was to "retake mainland China" through Project National Glory. As this mission has shifted to defence because the strength of People's Republic of China has massively increased, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant Army to the air force and navy.
Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government. As the ROC military shares historical roots with the KMT, the older generation of high-ranking officers tends to have Pan-Blue sympathies. However, many have retired and there are many more non-mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan.
The ROC began a force reduction program, Jingshi An (translated to streamlining program), to scale down its military from a level of 450,000 in 1997 to 380,000 in 2001. As of 2009[update], the armed forces of the ROC number approximately 300,000, with nominal reserves totalling 3.6 million as of 2015[update]. Conscription remains universal for qualified males reaching age eighteen, but as a part of the reduction effort many are given the opportunity to fulfill their draft requirement through alternative service and are redirected to government agencies or defence related industries. Current plans call for a transition to a predominantly professional army over the next decade. Conscription periods are planned to decrease from 14 months to 12. In the last months of the Bush administration, Taipei took the decision to reverse the trend of declining defence spending, at a time when most Asian countries kept on reducing their military expenditures. It also decided to modernize both defensive and offensive capabilities. Taipei still keeps a large military apparatus relative to the island's population: defence expenditures for 2008 were NTD 334 billion (approximately US $10.5 billion), which accounted for 2.94% of GDP.
The armed forces' primary concern at this time, according to the National Defense Report, is the possibility of an invasion by the PRC, consisting of a naval blockade, airborne assault, and/or missile bombardment. Four upgraded Kidd-class destroyers were purchased from the United States, and commissioned into the Republic of China Navy in 2005–2006, significantly upgrading Taiwan's air defence and submarine hunting abilities. The Ministry of National Defense planned to purchase diesel-powered submarines and Patriot anti-missile batteries from the United States, but its budget has been stalled repeatedly by the opposition-Pan-Blue Coalition controlled legislature. The defence package was stalled from 2001 to 2007 where it was finally passed through the legislature and the US responded on 3 October 2008, with a $6.5 billion arms package including PAC III Anti-Air defence systems, AH-64D Apache Attack helicopters and other arms and parts. A significant amount of military hardware has been bought from the United States, and, as of 2009[update], continues to be legally guaranteed by the Taiwan Relations Act. In the past, France and the Netherlands have also sold military weapons and hardware to the ROC, but they almost entirely stopped in the 1990s under pressure of the PRC.
The first line of defence against invasion by the PRC is the ROC's own armed forces. Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the US military responds. There is, however, no guarantee in the Taiwan Relations Act or any other treaty that the United States will defend Taiwan, even in the event of invasion. The joint declaration on security between the US and Japan signed in 1996 may imply that Japan would be involved in any response. However, Japan has refused to stipulate whether the "area surrounding Japan" mentioned in the pact includes Taiwan, and the precise purpose of the pact is unclear. The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS Treaty) may mean that other US allies, such as Australia, could theoretically be involved. In practice, the risk of losing economic ties with China may prevent Australia from taking action.
According to the 1947 constitution, the territory of the ROC is according to its "existing national boundaries". According to the Executive Yuan in 2012, Mongolia was re-recognized by Republic of China as an independent country when the constitution was announced in 1946.
When the ROC retreated to Taiwan in 1949, its claimed territory consisted of 35 provinces, 12 special municipalities, 1 special administrative region and 2 autonomous regions. However, since its retreat, the ROC has controlled only Taiwan Province and some islands of Fujian Province. The ROC also controls the Pratas Islands and Taiping Island in the Spratly Islands, which are part of the disputed South China Sea Islands. They were placed under Kaohsiung administration after the retreat to Taiwan.
Since 1949, the government has made some changes in the area under its control. Taipei became a special municipality in 1967 and Kaohsiung in 1979. The two provincial governments were "streamlined", with their functions transferred to the central government (Fujian in 1956 and Taiwan in 1998). In 2010, New Taipei, Taichung and Tainan were upgraded to special municipalities. And in 2014, Taoyuan County was also upgraded to Taoyuan special municipality. This brought the top-level divisions to their current state:
(直轄市 zhíxiáshì) (6)
|Mountain indigenous district
(原住民區 yuánzhùmín qū) (6)
(區 qū) (164)
(省 shěng) (2)
(市 shì) (3)
(縣 xiàn) (13)
(縣轄市 xiànxiáshì) (14)
(鎮 zhèn) (38)
(鄉 xiāng) (122)
|Mountain indigenous township|
(山地鄉 shāndì xiāng) (24)
According to Article 4 of the Local Government Act, laws pertaining to special municipalities also apply to counties with a population exceeding 2 million. This provision does not currently apply to any county, although it previously applied to Taipei County (now New Taipei City) and Taoyuan County (now Taoyuan City).
Economy and industry
The quick industrialization and rapid growth of Taiwan during the latter half of the 20th century has been called the "Taiwan Miracle". Taiwan is one of the "Four Asian Tigers" alongside Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore.
Japanese rule prior to and during World War II brought changes in the public and private sectors, most notably in the area of public works, which enabled rapid communications and facilitated transport throughout much of the island. The Japanese also improved public education and made it compulsory for all residents of Taiwan.
By 1945, hyperinflation was in progress in mainland China and Taiwan as a result of the war with Japan. To isolate Taiwan from it, the Nationalist government created a new currency area for the island, and began a price stabilization program. These efforts significantly slowed inflation.
When the KMT government fled to Taiwan it brought millions of taels (where 1 tael = 37.5 g or ~1.2 ozt) of gold and the foreign currency reserve of mainland China, which, according to the KMT, stabilized prices and reduced hyperinflation. Perhaps more importantly, as part of its retreat to Taiwan, the KMT brought the intellectual and business elites from Mainland China. The KMT government instituted many laws and land reforms that it had never effectively enacted on mainland China. The government also implemented a policy of import-substitution, attempting to produce imported goods domestically.
In 1950, with the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States began an aid program which resulted in fully stabilized prices by 1952. Economic development was encouraged by American economic aid and programs such as the Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction, which turned the agricultural sector into the basis for later growth. Under the combined stimulus of the land reform and the agricultural development programs, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 4 per cent from 1952 to 1959, which was greater than the population growth, 3.6%.
In 1962, Taiwan had a (nominal) per-capita gross national product (GNP) of $170, placing its economy on a par with those of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. On a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, its GDP per capita in the early 1960s was $1,353 (in 1990 prices). By 2011 per-capita GNP, adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP), had risen to $37,000, contributing to a Human Development Index (HDI) equivalent to that of other developed countries. Taiwan's HDI in 2012 is 0.890, (23rd, very high), according to the UN's new "Inequality-adjusted HDI" calculation method.
In 1974, Chiang Ching-kuo implemented the Ten Major Construction Projects, the beginning foundations that helped Taiwan transform into its current export driven economy. Since the 1990s, a number of Taiwan-based technology firms have expanded their reach around the world. Well-known international technology companies headquartered in Taiwan include personal computer manufacturers Acer Inc. and Asus, mobile phone maker HTC, as well as electronics manufacturing giant Foxconn, which makes products for Apple, Amazon, and Microsoft. Computex Taipei is a major computer expo, held since 1981.
Today Taiwan has a dynamic, capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade. In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized. Real growth in GDP has averaged about 8% during the past three decades. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. The trade surplus is substantial, and foreign reserves are the world's fifth largest. The currency of Taiwan is the New Taiwan dollar.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the economic ties between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China have been very prolific. As of 2008[update], more than US$150 billion have been invested in the PRC by Taiwanese companies, and about 10% of the Taiwanese labour force works in the PRC, often to run their own businesses. Although the economy of Taiwan benefits from this situation, some have expressed the view that the island has become increasingly dependent on the Mainland Chinese economy. A 2008 white paper by the Department of Industrial Technology states that "Taiwan should seek to maintain stable relation with China while continuing to protect national security, and avoiding excessive 'Sinicization' of Taiwanese economy." Others argue that close economic ties between Taiwan and Mainland China would make any military intervention by the PLA against Taiwan very costly, and therefore less probable.
Taiwan's total trade in 2010 reached an all-time high of US$526.04 billion, according to Taiwan's Ministry of Finance. Both exports and imports for the year reached record levels, totalling US$274.64 billion and US$251.4 billion, respectively.
In 2001, agriculture constituted only 2% of GDP, down from 35% in 1952. Traditional labour-intensive industries are steadily being moved offshore and with more capital and technology-intensive industries replacing them. High-technology industrial parks have sprung up in every region in Taiwan. The ROC has become a major foreign investor in the PRC, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. It is estimated that some 50,000 Taiwanese businesses and 1,000,000 businesspeople and their dependents are established in the PRC.
Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths, Taiwan suffered little compared with many of its neighbours from the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Unlike its neighbours, South Korea and Japan, the Taiwanese economy is dominated by small and medium-sized businesses, rather than the large business groups. The global economic downturn, however, combined with poor policy co-ordination by the new administration and increasing bad debts in the banking system, pushed Taiwan into recession in 2001, the first whole year of negative growth since 1947. Due to the relocation of many manufacturing and labour-intensive industries to the PRC, unemployment also reached a level not seen since the 1970s oil crisis. This became a major issue in the 2004 presidential election. Growth averaged more than 4% in the 2002–2006 period and the unemployment rate fell below 4%.
The ROC often joins international organizations (especially ones that also include the People's Republic of China) under a politically neutral name. The ROC has been a member of governmental trade organizations such as the World Trade Organization under the name Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Chinese Taipei) since 2002.
The Ministry of Transportation and Communications of the Republic of China is the cabinet-level governing body of the transportation network in Taiwan. Taiwan has an extensive highway network, classified into five levels: national highways, provincial highways, county routes, township routes, and special routes, with the first four being common. Taiwan also has an extensive bus network, most of which are run by private bus companies. Inter-city rail services are provided by Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA) and Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR). Rapid transit systems include the Taipei Metro, Taoyuan Metro (incl. the Airport MRT) and Kaohsiung MRT, while Taichung Metro is under construction. Major airports include Taiwan Taoyuan, Kaohsiung, Taipei Songshan and Taichung. There are currently seven airlines in Taiwan, the largest ones being China Airlines and EVA Air. There are four international seaports: Keelung, Kaohsiung, Taichung, and Hualien.
The higher education system was established in Taiwan by Japan during the colonial period. However, after the Republic of China took over Taiwan from Japan in 1945, the system was promptly replaced by the same system as in mainland China which mixed with features of the Chinese and American educational systems.
Taiwan is well known for adhering to the Confucian paradigm of valuing education as a means to improve one's socioeconomic position in Taiwanese society. Heavy investment and a cultural value for education has catapulted the resource poor nation consistently atop the global education rankings. Taiwan is one of the top-performing countries in reading literacy, maths and sciences. In 2015, Taiwanese students achieved one of the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance. The strong scholastic and educational performance of Taiwanese students has prompted the nation to build a highly educated labour force that possesses a strong background in mathematics and science to cope with the current labor market demands of the 21st century.
The Taiwanese education system has been praised for various reasons including its comparatively high test results and its major role in ushering Taiwan's economic development while creating one of the world’s most highly educated workforces. The country has also been praised for its high university entrance rate where the university acceptance rate has increased from around 20 percent before the 1970s to 49 percent in 1996 and over 90 percent since 2006, among the highest in Asia. The nation's high university entrance rate has created a highly skilled workforce making Taiwan one of the most highly educated countries in the world with 68.5% of Taiwanese high school students going on to attend university. Taiwan has a high percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree where 45 percent of Taiwanese aged 25–64 hold a bachelor's degree or higher compared with the average of 33 percent among member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). On the other hand, the system has been criticized for placing excessive pressure on students and eschewing creativity in favor of rote memorization. In addition, the system has been criticized for producing an excess supply of over-educated university graduates and a higher unemployment rate. With a large supply of university graduates seeking a limited demand of prestigious white collar jobs in an environment that is increasingly losing its competitive edge has led many degree holders ending up with lower end jobs with salaries far beneath than their expectations. Taiwan’s universities have also been under criticism for not being able to fully meet the requirements and demands of Taiwan’s 21st century fast-moving job market citing a skills mismatch among a large number of self-assessed overeducated university graduates that don't fit the demands of the modern Taiwanese labor market. The Taiwanese government has also been criticized for undermining the economy as it has been unable to produce enough jobs to meet the demands of numerous underemployed university graduates.
As the Taiwanese economy is largely science and technology based, the labor market demands people who have achieved some form of higher education, particularly related to science and engineering in order to gain a competitive edge when searching for employment. Although current Taiwanese law mandates only nine years of schooling, 95% of junior high graduates go on to attend a senior vocational high school, university, junior college, trade school, or other higher education institution.
Many Taiwanese students attend cram schools, or bushiban, to improve skills and knowledge on problem solving against exams of subjects like mathematics, nature science, history and many others. Courses are available for most popular subjects. Lessons are organized in lectures, reviews, private tutorial sessions, and recitations.
The ROC government reports that over 95% of the population is Han Chinese, of which the majority includes descendants of early Han Chinese immigrants who arrived in Taiwan in large numbers starting in the 18th century. Alternatively, the ethnic groups of Taiwan may be roughly divided among the Hoklo (70%), the Hakka (14%), the Waishengren (14%), and indigenous peoples (2%).
The Hoklo people are the largest Han subgroup (70% of the total population), whose ancestors migrated from the coastal southern Fujian region across the Taiwan Strait starting in the 17th century. The Hakka comprise about 15% of the total population, and descend from Han migrants to Guangdong, its surrounding areas and Taiwan. Additional people of Han origin include and descend from the 2 million Nationalists who fled to Taiwan following the communist victory on the mainland in 1949.
The indigenous Taiwanese aborigines number about 533,600 and are divided into 16 recognized groups. The Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Kanakanavu, Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Saaroa, Sakizaya, Sediq, Thao, Truku and Tsou live mostly in the eastern half of the island, while the Yami inhabit Orchid Island.
Mandarin is the official national language and is spoken by the vast majority of the population of Taiwan. It has been the primary language of instruction in schools since the end of Japanese rule. As in Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese is used as the writing system in Taiwan.
The 70% of the population belonging to the Hoklo ethnic group speak Taiwanese Hokkien (a variant of the Min Nan speech of Fujian province) as their mother tongue, in addition to Mandarin, and many others have some degree of understanding. The Hakka ethnic group (15% of the population) use Hakka Chinese. Most waishengren speak primarily Mandarin. Although Mandarin is the language of instruction in schools and dominates television and radio, non-Mandarin Chinese varieties have undergone a revival in public life in Taiwan, particularly since restrictions on their use were lifted in the 1990s.
Taiwan's indigenous languages, the Formosan languages, do not belong to the Chinese or Sino-Tibetan language family, but rather to the Austronesian language family. Their use among Taiwan's aboriginal minority groups has been in decline as usage of Mandarin has risen. Of the 14 extant languages, five are considered moribund.
This section needs to be updated.(July 2018)
The Constitution of the Republic of China protects people's freedom of religion and the practices of belief. There are approximately 18,718,600 religious followers in Taiwan as of 2005[update] (81.3% of total population) and 14–18% are non-religious. According to the 2005 census, of the 26 religions recognized by the ROC government, the five largest are: Buddhism (8,086,000 or 35.1%), Taoism (7,600,000 or 33%), Yiguandao (810,000 or 3.5%), Protestantism (605,000 or 2.6%), and Roman Catholicism (298,000 or 1.3%).
The CIA World Factbook reports that over 93% of Taiwanese are adherents of a combination of the polytheistic Chinese popular religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism; 4.5% are adherents of Christianity, which includes Protestants, Catholics, and other, non-denominational, Christian groups; and less than 2.5% are adherents of other religions. Taiwanese aborigines comprise a notable subgroup among professing Christians: "...over 64% identify as Christian... Church buildings are the most obvious markers of Aboriginal villages, distinguishing them from Taiwanese or Hakka villages." There has been a Muslim Hui community in Taiwan since the 17th century.
Confucianism is a philosophy that deals with secular moral ethics, and serves as the foundation of both Chinese and Taiwanese culture. The majority of Taiwanese people usually combine the secular moral teachings of Confucianism with whatever religions they are affiliated with.
As of 2009[update], there were 14,993 temples in Taiwan, approximately one place of worship per 1,500 residents. 9,202 of those temples were dedicated to Taoism. In 2008, Taiwan had 3,262 Churches, an increase of 145.
Largest cities and counties
The figures below are the 2011 estimates for the twenty most populous administrative divisions; a different ranking exists when considering the total metropolitan area populations (in such rankings the Taipei-Keelung metro area is by far the largest agglomeration).
This section needs to be updated.(November 2013)
The current program was implemented in 1995, and is considered to be a form of social insurance. The government health insurance program maintains compulsory insurance for citizens who are employed, impoverished, unemployed, or victims of natural disasters with fees that correlate to the individual and/or family income; it also maintains protection for non-citizens working in Taiwan. A standardized method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions.
BNHI insurance coverage requires co-payment at the time of service for most services unless it is a preventative health service, for low-income families, veterans, children under three years old, or in the case of catastrophic diseases. Low income households maintain 100% premium coverage by the BNHI and co-pays are reduced for disabled or certain elderly people.
According to a recently published survey, out of 3,360 patients surveyed at a randomly chosen hospital, 75.1% of the patients said they are "very satisfied" with the hospital service; 20.5% said they are "okay" with the service. Only 4.4% of the patients said they are either "not satisfied" or "very not satisfied" with the service or care provided.
Taiwan has its own Center for Disease Control, and during the SARS outbreak in March 2003 there were 347 confirmed cases. During the outbreak the Centers for Disease Control and local governments set up monitored stations throughout public transportation, recreational sites and other public areas. With full containment in July 2003, there has not been a case of SARS since.
|2,422||Chinese medicine clinics|
|437||local community hospitals|
|35||Chinese medicine hospitals|
|123||academic medical centers|
Basic coverage areas of the insurance include:
In 2004, the infant mortality rate was 5.3 with 15 physicians and 63 hospital beds per 10,000 people. The life expectancy for males was 73.5 years and 79.7 years for females according to the World Health Report.
|Period||Life expectancy in
|Period||Life expectancy in|
Source: UN World Population Prospects
The cultures of Taiwan are a hybrid blend of various sources, incorporating elements of traditional Chinese culture, attributable to the historical and ancestral origin of the majority of its current residents, Japanese culture, traditional Confucianist beliefs, and increasingly Western values.
After their move to Taiwan, the Kuomintang imposed an official interpretation of traditional Chinese culture over Taiwan. The government launched a program promoting Chinese calligraphy, traditional Chinese painting, folk art, and Chinese opera.
The status of Taiwanese culture is debated. It is disputed whether Taiwanese culture is a regional form of Chinese culture or a distinct culture. Reflecting the continuing controversy surrounding the political status of Taiwan, politics continues to play a role in the conception and development of a Taiwanese cultural identity, especially in the prior dominant frame of a Taiwanese and Chinese dualism. In recent years, the concept of Taiwanese multiculturalism has been proposed as a relatively apolitical alternative view, which has allowed for the inclusion of mainlanders and other minority groups into the continuing re-definition of Taiwanese culture as collectively held systems of meaning and customary patterns of thought and behaviour shared by the people of Taiwan. Identity politics, along with the over one hundred years of political separation from mainland China, has led to distinct traditions in many areas, including cuisine and music.
One of Taiwan's greatest attractions is the National Palace Museum, which houses more than 650,000 pieces of Chinese bronze, jade, calligraphy, painting, and porcelain and is considered one of the greatest collections of Chinese art and objects in the world. The KMT moved this collection from the Forbidden City in Beijing in 1933 and part of the collection was eventually transported to Taiwan during the Chinese Civil War. The collection, estimated to be one-tenth of China's cultural treasures, is so extensive that only 1% is on display at any time. The PRC had said that the collection was stolen and has called for its return, but the ROC has long defended its control of the collection as a necessary act to protect the pieces from destruction, especially during the Cultural Revolution. Relations regarding this treasure have warmed recently; Beijing Palace Museum Curator Zheng Xinmiao said that artefacts in both Chinese and Taiwanese museums are "China's cultural heritage jointly owned by people across the Taiwan Strait."
The classical music culture in Taiwan is highly developed and features artists such as violinist Cho-Liang Lin, pianist Ching-Yun Hu, and the Lincoln Center Chamber Music Society Artist Director Wu Han. Karaoke, drawn from contemporary Japanese culture, is extremely popular in Taiwan, where it is known as KTV. KTV businesses operate in a hotel-like style, renting out small rooms and ballrooms varying on the number of guests in a group. Many KTV establishments partner with restaurants and buffets to form all-encompassing elaborate evening affairs for families, friends, or businessmen. Tour buses that travel around Taiwan have several TV's, equipped not for watching movies, but primarily for singing Karaoke. The entertainment counterpart of a KTV is an MTV, being found much less frequently out of the city. There, movies out on DVD can be selected and played in a private theatre room. However, MTV, more so than KTV, has a growing reputation for being a place that young couples will go to be alone and intimate.
Taiwan has a high density of 24-hour convenience stores, which, in addition to the usual services, provide services on behalf of financial institutions or government agencies such as collection of parking fees, utility bills, traffic violation fines, and credit card payments. They also provide a service for mailing packages.
Taiwanese culture has also influenced other cultures. Bubble tea and milk tea are available in Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Taiwanese television shows are popular in Singapore, Malaysia, and other Asian countries. Taiwanese films have won various international awards at film festivals around the world. Ang Lee, a Taiwanese director, has directed critically acclaimed films such as: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; Eat Drink Man Woman; Sense and Sensibility; Brokeback Mountain; Life of Pi; and Lust, Caution. Other famous Taiwanese directors include Tsai Ming-liang, Edward Yang, and Hou Hsiao-hsien.
Baseball is Taiwan's national sport and it is a popular spectator sport. Two of the most famous Taiwanese baseball pitchers are Chien-Ming Wang and Wei-Yin Chen; both are pitchers in Major League Baseball. Other notable players playing in the United States include Chin-hui Tsao who played for the Colorado Rockies (2003–2005) and the Los Angeles Dodgers (2007, 2015–2016), Hong-Chih Kuo, Fu-Te Ni, and Chin-lung Hu. The Chinese Professional Baseball League in Taiwan was established in 1989, and eventually absorbed the competing Taiwan Major League in 2003. As of 2015[update], the CPBL has four teams with average attendance over 5,000 per game.
Besides baseball, basketball is Taiwan's other major sport. Taekwondo has also become a mature and successful sport in recent years. In the 2004 Olympics, Chen Shih-hsin and Chu Mu-yen won the first two gold medals in women's flyweight event and men's flyweight event, respectively. Subsequent taekwondo competitors such as Yang Shu-chun have strengthened Taiwan's taekwondo culture.
Taiwan participates in international sporting organizations and events under the name of "Chinese Taipei" due to its political status. In 2009, Taiwan hosted two international sporting events on the island. The World Games 2009 were held in Kaohsiung between 16 and 26 July 2009. Taipei hosted the 21st Summer Deaflympics in September of the same year. Furthermore, Taipei hosted the Summer Universiade in 2017.
Taiwan is also a major Asian country for Korfball. In 2008, Taiwan hosted the World Youth Korfball Championship and took the silver medal. In 2009, Taiwan's korfball team won a bronze medal at the World Game.
Yani Tseng is the most famous Taiwanese professional golfer currently playing on the US-based LPGA Tour. She is the youngest player ever, male or female, to win five major championships and was ranked number 1 in the Women's World Golf Rankings for 109 consecutive weeks from 2011 to 2013.
Taiwan uses two official calendars: the Gregorian calendar and the Minguo calendar. The latter numbers years starting from 1911, the year of the founding of the Republic of China. For example, 2007 was the "96th year of the Republic" (民國96年), while its months and days were numbered according to the Gregorian calendar.
Usually, year numbering may use the Gregorian system as well as the ROC era system. For example, 3 May 2004, may be written 2004-05-03 or 93-05-03. The use of two different calendar systems in Taiwan may be confusing, in particular for foreigners. For instance, products for export marked using the Minguo calendar can be misunderstood as having an expiration date 11 years earlier than intended.
- This does not include citizens of the People's Republic of China who more recently moved to Taiwan. Some Waishengren are also Hakka or Hokkien, and small minority are not Han but Manchu, Mongol etc.
- Taiwanese aborigines are officially categorised into 16 separate ethnic groups by the Republic of China. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 49
- The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.907 based on UNDP's 2010 methodology, which would rank it 21st, between Austria and Luxembourg in the UN list dated 14 September 2018.
- Although this is the present meaning of guó, in Old Chinese (when its pronunciation was something like /*qʷˤək/) it meant the walled city of the Chinese and the areas they could control from them.
- Its use is attested from the 6th-century Classic of History, which states "Huangtian bestowed the lands and the peoples of the central state to the ancestors" (皇天既付中國民越厥疆土于先王).
- "Interior minister reaffirms Taipei is ROC's capital". Taipei Times. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- Shih, Hsiu-chuan (27 January 2018). "Taiwan mulling English as an official language, but is it ready?". Central News Agency. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "The wild and wacky world of Taiwanese Mandarin". The World of Chinese. May 29, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
- "President lauds efforts in transitional justice for indigenous people". Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "Hakka made an official language". Taipei Times. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Official documents issued in Aboriginal languages". Taipei Times. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 36.
- "Taiwan". CIA World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
- "Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population". MOI Statistical Information Service. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Statistics from Statistical Bureau". National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- "General Statistical analysis report, Population and Housing Census" (PDF). National Statistics, ROC (Taiwan). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- "Taiwan Province of China". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "Table 4. Percentage Share of Disposable Income by Quintile Group of Households and Income Inequality Indices". Report on The Survey of Family Income and Expenditure. Taipei, Taiwan: Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics. 2010.
- "- Human Development Reports" (PDF). hdr.undp.org.
- 2018中華民國人類發展指數(HDI) (Excel) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2018. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
- "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 14 September 2018. OCLC 1061292121. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 June 2010.
- Fell, Dafydd (2018). Government and Politics in Taiwan. London: Routledge. p. 305. ISBN 978-1317285069.
Moreover, its status as a vibrant democratic state has earned it huge international sympathy and a generally positive image.
- French, Duncan (2013). Statehood and Self-Determination: Reconciling Tradition and Modernity in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-1107311275.
The population on the islands of Formosa and the Pescadores is governed by an effective government to the exclusion of others, but Taiwan is not generally considered a state.
- Albert, Eleanor (7 December 2016). "China-Taiwan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) views the island as a province, while in Taiwan—a territory with its own democratically elected government—leading political voices have differing views on the island’s status and relations with the mainland. Some observe the principle that there is “one China” comprising the island and the mainland, but in their eyes this is the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taipei; others advocate for a de jure independent Taiwan.
- Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi (5 November 2008). "The Quality of Life in Taiwan". Social Indicators Research. 92 (2): 377–404. doi:10.1007/s11205-008-9353-1.
a second place ranking in the 2000 Economist's world healthcare ranking
- 2010中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI) (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "5 mil. Taiwanese hold degrees from higher education institutions". 13 March 2016.
- Tang, Pei-chun (12 March 2016). "Undergraduate degree holders in Taiwan exceed 5 million".
- "Full text of Anti-Secession Law". People's Daily. 14 March 2005. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Bilik, Naran (2015), "Reconstructing China beyond Homogeneity", Patriotism in East Asia, Political Theories in East Asian Context, Abingdon: Routledge, p. 105
- "Chapter 3: History" (PDF). The Republic of China Yearbook 2011. Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2011. p. 46. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2012.
- https://www.npm.gov.tw/exhbition/formosa/english/02.htm National Palace Museum, Taiwan: 'The Emergence of Taiwan on the World Scene in the Seventeenth Century'
- Davidson (1903), p. 10: "A Dutch navigating officer named Linschotten [sic], employed by the Portuguese, so recorded the island in his charts, and eventually the name of Formosa, so euphonious and yet appropriate, replaced all others in European literature."
- see for example:
- Valentijn (1903), p. 52.
- Mair, V. H. (2003). "How to Forget Your Mother Tongue and Remember Your National Language".
The true derivation of the name "Taiwan" is actually from the ethnonym of a tribe in the southwest part of the island in the area around Ping'an. As early as 1636, a Dutch missionary referred to this group as Taiouwang. From the name of the tribe, the Portuguese called the area around Ping'an as Tayowan, Taiyowan, Tyovon, Teijoan, Toyouan, and so forth. Indeed, already in his ship's log of 1622, the Dutchman Cornelis Reijersen referred to the area as Teijoan and Taiyowan.
- 蔡玉仙; et al., eds. (2007). 府城文史 (in Chinese). Tainan City Government. ISBN 9789860094343.
- Shih Shou-chien, ed. (2003). 福爾摩沙 : 十七世紀的臺灣、荷蘭與東亞 [Ilha Formosa: the Emergence of Taiwan on the World Scene in the 17th Century] (in Chinese). Taipei: National Palace Museum. ISBN 9789575624415.
- Kato, Mitsutaka (2007) . 昨日府城 明星台南: 發現日治下的老臺南 (in Chinese). Translated by 黃秉珩. 臺南市文化資產保護協會. ISBN 9789572807996.
- Oosterhoff, J.L. (1985). "Zeelandia, a Dutch colonial city on Formosa (1624–1662)". In Ross, Robert; Telkamp, Gerard J. Colonial Cities: Essays on Urbanism in a Colonial Context. Springer. pp. 51–62. ISBN 978-90-247-2635-6.
- Thompson (1964), p. 166.
- Thompson (1964), p. 163.
- Wilkinson, Endymion (2000), Chinese History: A Manual, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph No. 52, Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, p. 132, ISBN 9780674002494
- 《尚書》, 梓材. (in Chinese)
- Garver, John W. (April 1997). The Sino-American Alliance: Nationalist China and American Cold War Strategy in Asia. M.E. Sharp. ISBN 978-0-7656-0025-7.
- "Office of President of the Republic of China (Taiwan)". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- Reid, Katie (18 May 2009). "Taiwan hopes WHO assembly will help boost its profile". Reuters. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- Chang, K.C. (1989). translated by W. Tsao, ed. by B. Gordon. "The Neolithic Taiwan Strait" (PDF). Kaogu. 6: 541–550, 569. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2012.
- Olsen, John W.; Miller-Antonio, Sari (1992). "The Palaeolithic in Southern China". Asian Perspectives. 31 (2): 129–160. hdl:10125/17011.
- Jiao (2007), pp. 89–90.
- Jiao (2007), pp. 91–94.
- Diamond, Jared M (2000). "Taiwan's gift to the world" (PDF). Nature. 403 (6771): 709–710. doi:10.1038/35001685. PMID 10693781. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2006.
- Fox, James J (2004). "Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies" (PDF). Symposium Austronesia. Universitas Udayana, Bali.
- Shepherd, John R. (1993). Statecraft and Political Economy on the Taiwan Frontier, 1600–1800. Stanford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-8047-2066-3. Reprinted Taipei: SMC Publishing, 1995.
- Wills, John E., Jr. (2006). "The Seventeenth-century Transformation: Taiwan under the Dutch and the Cheng Regime". In Rubinstein, Murray A. Taiwan: A New History. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 84–106. ISBN 978-0-7656-1495-7.
- Andrade, Tonio (2007). How Taiwan Became Chinese. (Project Gutenberg Edition). Columbia University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-9622090835.
- Campbell, William (1903). Formosa Under the Dutch: Described from Contemporary Records, with Explanatory Notes and a Bibliography of the Island. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. pp. 6–7.
- Davidson (1903), pp. 247, 620.
- Shiba, Ryōtarō (1995). Taiwan kikō : kaidō o yuku yonjū 台湾紀行: 街道をゆく〈40〉 (in Japanese). Tōkyō: Asahi Shinbunsha. ISBN 9784022568083.
- Morris, Andrew (2002). "The Taiwan Republic of 1895 and the failure of the Qing modernizing project". In Corcuff, Stéphane. Memories of the future: national identity issues and the search for a new Taiwan. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 3–24. ISBN 978-0-7656-0792-8.
- "History of Taiwan". Windows on Asia. Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- Chou, Chuing Prudence; Ho, Ai-Hsin (2007). "Schooling in Taiwan". In Postiglione, Gerard A.; Tan, Jason. Going to school in East Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 344–377. ISBN 978-0-313-33633-1. Archived from the original on 19 April 2010.
- Hsu, Mutsu (1991). Culture, Self and Adaptation: The Psychological Anthropology of Two Malayo-Polynesian Groups in Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica. ISBN 978-957-9046-78-7.
- "History". The Republic of China Yearbook 2001. Government Information Office. 2001. Archived from the original on 27 October 2003.
- Tierney, Robert (2010). Tropics of Savagery: The Culture of Japanese Empire in Comparative Frame. University of California Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-520-94766-5.
- 吕正惠：战后台湾左翼思想状况漫谈一——日本剥削下的台湾社会. 18 November 2014.
- Kominka Movement – 台灣大百科全書 Encyclopedia of Taiwan. Taiwanpedia.culture.tw (5 August 2013). Retrieved on 25 August 2013.
- Grajdanzev, A. J. (1942). "Formosa (Taiwan) Under Japanese Rule". Pacific Affairs. 15 (3): 311–324. doi:10.2307/2752241. JSTOR 2752241.
- "History". Oversea Office Republic of China (Taiwan). 2007. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2007.
- "Protesters demand justice from Japan on 'comfort women' (update) | Society | FOCUS TAIWAN – CNA ENGLISH NEWS". Focustaiwan.tw. 14 August 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "Shu LinKou Air Station: World War II". Ken Ashley, U.S. military photo archives. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- "Taiwan history: Chronology of important events". Chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- China, Fiver thousand years of History and Civilization. City University Of Hong Kong Press. 2007. p. 116. ISBN 9789629371401. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 55, 56. ISBN 978-0-8014-8805-4.
- "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard. 540 (cc1870–4). 4 May 1955. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation.
- Charney, Jonathan I.; Prescott, J. R. V. (2000). "Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan". American Journal of International Law. 94 (3): 453–477. doi:10.2307/2555319. JSTOR 2555319.
After occupying Taiwan in 1945 as a result of Japan's surrender, the Nationalists were defeated on the mainland in 1949, abandoning it to retreat to Taiwan.
- "对台湾"228事件"性质与影响的再认识". China Today. 64. 1 April 2017.
- "This Is the Shame". Time. New York. 10 June 1946.
- "China: Snow Red & Moon Angel". Time. New York. 7 April 1947.
- Shackleton, Allan J. (1998). Formosa Calling: An Eyewitness Account of Conditions in Taiwan during the February 28th, 1947 Incident (PDF). Upland, California: Taiwan Publishing Company. OCLC 40888167. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Kubek, Anthony (1963). How the Far East was lost: American policy and the creation of Communist China. ISBN 978-0-85622-000-5.
- Huang, Fu-san (2010). 臺灣簡史－麻雀變鳳凰的故事 [A Brief History of Taiwan: A Sparrow Transformed into a Phoenix] (in Chinese). Government Information Office, Republic of China. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Taiwan Timeline – Retreat to Taiwan". BBC News. 2000. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- Dunbabin, J. P. D. (2008). The Cold War. Pearson Education. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-582-42398-5.
In 1949 Chiang Kai-shek had transferred to Taiwan the government, gold reserve, and some of the army of his Republic of China.
- Ng, Franklin (1998). The Taiwanese Americans. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-29762-5.
- "The One-China Principle and the Taiwan Issue". PRC Taiwan Affairs Office and the Information Office of the State Council. 2005. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006.
Section 1: Since the KMT ruling clique retreated to Taiwan, its regime has continued to use the designations 'Republic of China' and 'government of the Republic of China,' despite having long since completely forfeited its right to exercise state sovereignty on behalf of China.
- 三、 台灣戒嚴令 [III. Decree to establish martial law in Taiwan] (in Chinese). National Archives Administration, National Development Council. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "28 February 1947 – Taiwan's Holocaust Remembered – 60th Commemoration". New Taiwan, Ilha Formosa. 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- "Taiwan president apologises for 'white terror' era". Reuters. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- Gluck, Caroline (16 July 2008). "Taiwan sorry for white terror era". London: BBC News.
- US Department of Defense (1950). "Classified Teletype Conference, dated 27 June 1950, between the Pentagon and General Douglas MacArthur regarding authorization to use naval and air forces in support of South Korea. Papers of Harry S. Truman: Naval Aide Files". Truman Presidential Library and Museum: 1 and 4.
Page 1: In addition 7th Fleet will take station so as to prevent invasion of Formosa and to insure that Formosa not be used as base of operations against Chinese mainland." Page 4: "Seventh Fleet is hereby assigned to operational control CINCFE for employment in following task hereby assigned CINCFE: By naval and air action prevent any attack on Formosa, or any air or sea offensive from Formosa against mainland of China.
- Alagappa, Muthiah (2001). Taiwan's presidential politics. M.E. Sharpe. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-7656-0834-5.
- "Taiwan Timeline – Cold war fortress". BBC News. 2002. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- Makinen & Woodward (1989): "Yet, the Chinese Nationalist government attempted to isolate Taiwan from the mainland inflation by creating it as an independent currency area. And during the later stages of the civil war it was able to end the hyperinflation on Taiwan, something it was unable to do on the mainland despite two attempts."
- "China: Chiang Kai-shek: Death of the Casualty". Time. 14 April 1975. p. 3. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
- Sun, Yat-sen; Julie Lee Wei; Ramon Hawley Myers; Donald G. Gillin (1994). Julie Lee Wei; Ramon Hawley Myers; Donald G. Gillin, eds. Prescriptions for saving China: selected writings of Sun Yat-sen. Hoover Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8179-9281-1.
The party first applied Sun's concept of political tutelage by governing through martial law, not tolerating opposition parties, controlling the public media, and using the 1947 constitution drawn up on the China mainland to govern. Thus, much of the world in those years gave the government low scores for democracy and human rights but admitted it had accomplished an economic miracle.
- Chao, Linda; Ramon Hawley Myers (1997). Democracy's new leaders in the Republic of China on Taiwan. Hoover Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8179-3802-4.
Although this party [the KMT] had initiated a democratic breakthrough and guided the democratic transition, it had also upheld martial law for thirty-six years and severely repressed political dissent and any efforts to establish an opposition party. [...] How was it possible that this party, so hated by opposition politicians and long regarded by Western critics as a dictatorial, Leninist-type party, still remained in power?
- Fung (2000), p. 67: "Nanjing was not only undemocratic and repressive but also inefficient and corrupt. [...] Furthermore, like other authoritarian regimes, the GMD sought to control people's mind."
- Fung (2000), p. 85: "The response to national emergency, critics argued, was not merely military, it was, even more important, political, requiring the termination of one-party dictatorship and the development of democratic institutions."
- Copper, John Franklin (2005). Consolidating Taiwan's democracy. University Press of America. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7618-2977-5.
Also, the "Temporary Provisions" (of the Constitution) did not permit forming new political parties, and those that existed at this time did not seriously compete with the Nationalist Party. Thus, at the national level the KMT did not permit competitive democratic elections.
- "Out with the old". BBC News. 2002. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "Influence of Constitutional Reform on Parliamentary System in Taiwan: From the Perspective of the Abolishment of the National Assembly". Graduate Institute of National Development, National Taiwan University, the Republic of China. 29 November 2014.
- "Taiwan Timeline – Path to democracy". BBC News. 2002. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- "Annotated Republic of China Laws/Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China/1997". Wikibooks. 22 April 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- After vote, China tells Taiwan to abandon independence "hallucination". Reuters. 17 January 2016.
- BBC News: Taiwan scraps unification council, 27 February 2006
- "AP, Taiwan Party Asserts Separate Identity From China".
- Lam, Willy (28 March 2008). "Ma Ying-jeou and the Future of Cross-Strait Relations". China Brief. 8 (7). Archived from the original ( – Scholar search) on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
- "The Nationalists are back in Taiwan". The Economist. London. 23 March 2008.
- "Straitened times: Taiwan looks to China". Financial Times. 25 March 2008.
- "Taiwan-China Economic Ties Boom, Military Tensions Remain | English". Voice of America. 20 August 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- Wu, J. R. (24 May 2017). "Taiwan court rules in favor of same-sex marriage, first in Asia". Reuters. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- Chao, Kang; Johnson, Marshall (2000). "Nationalist Social Sciences and the Fabrication of Subimperial Subjects in Taiwan". Positions. 8 (1): 151–171. doi:10.1215/10679847-8-1-151. p. 167/
- Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 43.
- Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 44.
- Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 45.
- "Geology of Taiwan". University of Arizona. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- Clift, Schouten and Draut (2003) in Intra-Oceanic Subduction Systems: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes, ISBN 1-86239-147-5 p84–86
- "USGS seismic hazard map of Eastern Asia". Seismo.ethz.ch. Archived from the original on 3 March 2000. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "The One-China Principle and the Taiwan Issue". PRC Taiwan Affairs Office and the Information Office of the State Council. 2005. Archived from the original on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 3 December 2014. Section 1: "Since the KMT ruling clique retreated to Taiwan, although its regime has continued to use the designations "Republic of China" and "government of the Republic of China," it has long since completely forfeited its right to exercise state sovereignty on behalf of mainland China and, in reality, has always remained only a separate state on the island of Taiwan."
- BBC News, "Taiwan Flashpoint", "But Taiwan's leaders say it is clearly much more than a province, arguing that it is a sovereign state. It has its own constitution, democratically elected leaders, and 400,000 troops in its armed forces."
- Chang, Bi-yu (2015). Place, Identity, and National Imagination in Post-war Taiwan. Oxon, UK, and New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 35–40, 46–60. ISBN 978-1-317-65812-2.
- "ECFA issues and the nationality identification" (PDF). TVBS. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2009.
- "Liancheng / Lianfeng Airbase – Chinese Military Forces". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
In March 2000 it was reported that the PLA Air Force was deploying new air-defense missiles [possibly batteries of Russian-made S-300 missiles] opposite Taiwan at the coastal cities of Xiamen and Shantou, and at Longtian, near Fuzhou.
- "2004 National Defense Report" (PDF). ROC Ministry of National Defense. 2004. pp. 89–90. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2006. Retrieved 5 March 2006.
The PRC refusal to renounce using military power against Taiwan, its current emphasis on 'enhancing preparation for military struggle', its obvious intention of preparing a war against Taiwan reflected in operational deployment, readiness efforts, and annual military exercises in the Southeast China coastal region, and its progress in aerospace operations, information warfare, paralyzing warfare, and non-conventional warfare, all of these factors work together so that the ROC Armed Forces face an increasingly complicated and difficult situation in terms of self-defense and counterattack. These multiple daunting challenges are testing our defense security.
- Forsythe, Michael (29 September 2014). "Protests in Hong Kong Have Roots in China's 'Two Systems'". New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- Chung, Lawrence (27 September 2014). "'One country, two systems' right formula for Taiwan, Xi Jinping reiterates". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- "1992 Consensus basis for regular contact between cross-Strait affairs authorities: spokesman – CCTV News – CCTV.com English".
- Hong, Caroline (30 April 2005). "Lien, Hu share 'vision' for peace". Taipei Times. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Wang, Chris (12 February 2014). "MAC Minister Wang in historic meeting". Taipei Times. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- "First minister-level Chinese official heads to Taipei for talks". The Japan Times Online. 25 June 2014. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
- Chiao, Yuan-Ming (7 November 2015). "Cross-strait leaders meet after 66 years of separation". China Post. Archived from the original on 10 November 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Wong, Edward (12 March 2008). "Taiwan's Independence Movement Likely to Wane". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Countries – China". US Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Eyal Propper. "How China Views its National Security," The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, May 2008.
- Henckaerts, Jean-Marie (1996). The international status of Taiwan in the new world order. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-90-411-0929-3.
- Vang, Pobzeb (2008). Five Principles of Chinese Foreign Policies. AuthorHouse. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4343-6971-0.
- Yates, Stephen J. (16 April 1999). "The Taiwan Relations Act After 20 Years: Keys to Past and Future Success". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- "China: US spat over Taiwan could hit co-operation". Google News. Google. Agence France-Presse. 2 February 2010. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- Kelly, James A. (21 April 2004). "Overview of US Policy Towards Taiwan" (Press release). United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- "US to sell arms to Taiwan despite Chinese opposition". BBC News. 16 December 2015.
- "Obama to push ahead on Taiwan frigate sales despite Chinese anger". CNBC. Reuters. 14 December 2015.
- "China warns against first major US-Taiwan arms sale in four years". The Guardian. Reuters. 16 December 2015.
- "Taiwan and the United Nations". New Taiwan. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Taiwan". UNPO. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
- "About TFD". TFD.
- Tkacik, John (13 May 2009). "JOHN TKACIK ON TAIWAN: Taiwan's 'undetermined' status". Taipei Times. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Su, Joy (19 May 2004). "WHO application: a question of health or politics?". Taipei Times.
- "Minister Chiu leads our WHA delegation to actively hold bilateral talks with delegations from other nations. This event has been the most successful medical-related diplomatic record over the past years". Republic of China: Ministry of Health and Welfare. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "ROC urges world public to support WHO bid". Taiwan Info. 3 May 2002. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "Taiwan delegation to participate in WHA". Taiwan Today. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "Taiwan insists on 'Chinese Taipei'". China Post. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Taiwan flags in Salt Lake ruffle a few feelings". The Deseret News. 10 February 2002.
- "Looking behind Ma's 'three noes'". Taipei Times. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Enav, Peter (16 May 2008). "Unification with China unlikely 'in our lifetimes': president-elect". China Post. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
'It is very difficult for us to see any unification talks even in our lifetimes,' Ma said. 'Taiwanese people would like to have economic interactions with the mainland, but obviously they don’t believe their political system is suitable for Taiwan.'
- Eckholm, Erik (22 March 2000). "Why a Victory in Taiwan Wasn't Enough for Some". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Taiwan Flashpoint: Independence debate". BBC News. 2009.
Since neither outcome looks likely in the short or even medium term, it is perhaps not surprising that opinion polls suggest most Taiwanese people want things to stay as they are, with the island's ambiguous status unresolved.
- "Impulsa Taiwan la reconciliación". El Sol de México (in Spanish). 2 September 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
Esencialmente, no definiríamos la relación a través del estrecho de Taiwan como una relación de dos países o dos Chinas, porque nuestra Constitución no lo permite. Nosotros definiríamos está relación como una relación muy especial, ya que la Constitución nuestra, igual que la Constitución de China continental, no permite la existencia de otro país dentro del territorio.
- As of 11:59AM (28 September 2017). "Taiwanese premier's independence stance incurs Beijing's wrath". TODAYonline. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- "The Official Position of the Republic of China on China's Passing of the Anti-secession (Anti-Separation) Law" (Press release). Mainland Affairs Council, ROC Executive Yuan. 29 March 2005.
Section II-2: "'The Republic of China is an independent and sovereign state. Taiwan's sovereignty belongs to the 23 million people of Taiwan. Only the 23 million citizens of Taiwan may decide on the future of Taiwan.' This statement represents the greatest consensus within Taiwan's society today concerning the issues of national sovereignty and the future of Taiwan. It is also a common position shared by both the ruling and opposition parties in Taiwan. A recent opinion poll shows that more than 90% of the people of Taiwan agree with this position.
- "Chapter 4: Government". The Republic of China Yearbook. Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2011. pp. 55–65. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2008.
- Ginsburg, Tom (2003). Judicial review in new democracies. Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-521-52039-3.
- "Taiwan assembly passes changes". BBC News. 7 June 2005.
- Huang, Jei-hsuan (14 September 2006). "Letter: KMT holds the key". Taipei Times. p. 8. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Jayasuriya, Kanishka (1999). Law, capitalism and power in Asia. Routledge. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-415-19743-4.
- Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China (2005). Wikisource. Article 5.
- Chang, Rich (2 January 2006). "Nation keeps death penalty, but reduces executions". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2 November 2009.
- "Country profile: Taiwan". BBC News. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "China's Threats, Editorial". The Washington Post. 23 February 2000. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- BBC News, "Taiwan Flashpoint", "Officially, the DPP still favours eventual independence for Taiwan, while the KMT favours eventual re-unification."
- "Taiwan party asserts separate identity from China". USA Today. 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Crisis Group (6 June 2003). "Taiwan Strait I: What's Left of 'One China'?". International Crisis Group. Archived from the original on 9 July 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Shirk, Susan L. (2007). China: Fragile Superpower. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530609-5.
- Pares, Susan (24 February 2005). A political and economic dictionary of East Asia. Routledge. p. 267. ISBN 978-1-85743-258-9.
The Pan-Blue coalition on the whole favours a Chinese nationalist identity and policies supporting reunification and increased economic links with the People's Republic of China.
- Ko, Shu-Ling (8 October 2008). "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times.
- "Taiwan and China in 'special relations': Ma". China Post. 4 September 2008.
- "World | Asia-Pacific | Taiwan opposition leader in China". BBC News. 26 April 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Yu, Sophie; Jane Macartney (16 December 2008). "Direct flights between China and Taiwan mark new era of improved relations". The Times. London. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- Michael S. Chase (4 September 2008). "Caliber – Asian Survey – 48(4):703 – Abstract". Asian Survey. 48 (4): 703–724. doi:10.1525/as.2008.48.4.703. Archived from the original on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- David Isenberg. "US Keeps Taiwan at Arm's Length". Cato.org. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "NCC relinquishes power over China-related media". Taipei Times. 9 August 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Bristow, Michael (26 October 2001). "Wealth probe for 'world's richest' party". BBC News. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- "Court clears Ma of graft charges". China Post. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "Chen Shui-bian lied about Lien Chan-endorsed check". China Post. 3 October 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Wang, Chris (26 July 2012). "Chen Shui-bian backers urge immediate release". Taipei Times. p. 3. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Shambaugh, David L. (2006). Power shift. University of California Press. pp. 179–183. ISBN 978-0-520-24570-9.
- Okazaki, Hisahiko (30 December 2008). "No sign of a 'peace agreement'". Japan Times. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
For one thing, I believe there is recognition that the awareness of Taiwanese identity is now irreversible. The KMT government did things like rename the "Taiwan Post" to "Chunghwa Post" as soon as it came in. But it did not take much time to perceive that it would cause a backlash among the Taiwan populace. The cross-strait exchanges have also brought about opposition demonstrations from time to time. This appears to be one of the reasons for the abrupt decline in the approval rating of the Ma administration.
- "10 Questions: Ma Ying-jeou". Time. 10 July 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
I am Taiwanese as well as Chinese.
- "Survey on President Ma's Approval Rating and Cross-Strait Relations After First Year of Direct Flights" (PDF). Global Views Survey Research Center. 24 July 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- 天下雜誌民調顯示：6成1民眾擔心經濟傾中 7成5年輕人自認台灣人 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 23 March 2010.
- Tseng, Wei-chen; Chen, Wei-han (26 January 2015). "'Taiwanese' identity hits record level". Taipei Times. p. 1.
- Quote: "Table 12: In Taiwan, some people identify themselves as Chinese, some identify themselves as Taiwan (sic). Do you identify yourself as Taiwanese or Chinese? (Do not prompt both Taiwanese and Chinese)"
- Quote: "Table 13: In Taiwan, some people identify themselves as Chinese, some identify themselves as Taiwan (sic). Do you identify yourself as Taiwanese, Chinese or both Taiwanese and Chinese?"
- Fravel, M. Taylor (2002). "Towards Civilian Supremacy: Civil-Military Relations in Taiwans's Democratization". Armed Forces & Society. 29 (1): 57–84. doi:10.1177/0095327X0202900104.
- "Committed to Taiwan". The Wall Street Journal. 26 April 2001. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Swaine & Mulvenon 2001, p. 65: "[...]the ROC military functioned until very recently as an instrument of KMT rule [...] the bulk of the officer corps is still composed of Mainlanders, many of whom allegedly continue to support the values and outlook of more conservative KMT and New Party members. This is viewed as especially the case among the senior officers of the ROC Army. Hence, many DPP leaders insist that the first step to building a more secure Taiwan is to bring the military more fully under civilian control, to remove the dominant influence of conservative KMT elements, and to reduce what is regarded as an excessive emphasis on the maintenance of inappropriate ground force capabilities, as opposed to more appropriate air and naval capabilities."
- "Taiwan Yearbook 2004". Government Information Office, Republic of China. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Bishop, Mac William (1 January 2004). "Women Take Command". Government Information Office, Republic of China. Archived from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Taiwan Yearbook 2005". Government Information Office, Republic of China. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "ASIA-PACIFIC | Military alternative in Taiwan". BBC News. 1 May 2000. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "The myth: a professional military in five years". Taipei Times. 21 March 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Taiwan to end conscription". The Straits Times. 9 March 2009. Archived from the original on 13 March 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Taiwan to shorten conscription term to one year". Central News Agency website, Taipei. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Kidd-class warships set sail for Taiwan". Taipei Times. 31 October 2005.
- Rickards, Jane (5 October 2008). "Taiwanese leader hails weapons deal with US". The Washington Post.
- Cabestan, Jean-Pierre (2001). "France's Taiwan Policy: A Case of Shopkeeper Diplomacy" (PDF). CERI. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
By excluding the French companies from the bidding lists of many contract, Peking wanted above all to stop a growing trend (...) to disregard its objections and interests in the Taiwan issue. (...) In spite of the ban of arms sales to Taiwan approved by the French government in January 1994, discreet and small-sized deals have continued to be concluded since then.
- "Taiwan trying to shore up weapons support". USA Today. 24 September 2004. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Swaine, Michael D.; Mulvenon, James C. (2001) . Taiwan's Foreign and Defense Policies: Features and Determinants (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-3094-8. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "China Threat to Attack Taiwan Alarms Asia". Associated Press. 14 March 2005. Archived from the original on 11 April 2005.
- Kapstein, Ethan B.; Michael Mastanduno (1999). Unipolar politics. Columbia University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-231-11309-0.
The Japanese leadership openly split on whether a crisis in Taiwan was included in the geographic expression "area surrounding Japan." In the event, Japan refused to stipulate the contingencies under which it would provide rear area support for U.S. forces or even the geographic scope of the "area surrounding Japan". (...) The two sides have not articulated clearly what the alliance stands for, nor who it is defined to protect against.
- Tow, William (2005). "ANZUS: Regional versus Global Security in Asia?". International Relations in the Asia-Pacific. 5 (2): 197–216. doi:10.1093/irap/lci113.
- "China and Taiwan: flashpoint for a war". The Sydney Morning Herald. 14 July 2004. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China". law.moj.gov.tw.
- "有關外蒙古是否為中華民國領土問題說明新聞參考資料". Taipei: Executive Yuan, Taiwan. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- "World: Asia-Pacific Analysis: Flashpoint Spratly". BBC. 14 February 1999.
- Hwang, Jim (1 October 1999). "Gone with the Times". Taiwan Review. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- "中華民國國情簡介 政府組織". Taipei: Government Information Office. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- "Gold Shipped to Taiwan in 1949 Helped Stabilize ROC on Taiwan". Kuomintang News Network. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011. Translated from 王銘義 (5 April 2011). 1949年運台黃金 中華民國保命本. China Times. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 76, 77. ISBN 978-0-8014-8805-4.
- Makinen & Woodward 1989: "It was the fiscal regime change on Taiwan, as in the European episodes, that finally brought price stability. It was the aid program that brought the budget to near balance, and when the aid program reached its full proportions in 1952, prices stabilized."
- Ralph Clough, "Taiwan under Nationalist Rule, 1949–1982," in Roderick MacFarquar et al., ed., Cambridge History of China, Vol 15, The People's Republic Pt 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 837
- Her, Kelly (12 January 2005). "Privatization Set in Motion". Taiwan Review. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". World Fact Book. CIA. 4 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
Rank 5 Taiwan $274,700,000,000 31 December 2007
- Harding, Phil (23 January 2010). "Taiwan's Grand Hotel welcome for Chinese visitors". BBC News.
- DoIT 2008, p. 5 "Notably, cross-strait political tensions have not prevented Taiwanese firms from investing heavily in China. The cross-strait investments now exceed US$ 100 billions. Four Taiwanese-owned firms rank among China's top 10 biggest exporters. 10% of the Taiwanese labor force now works in China."
- DoIT 2008, p. 5 "Although used-to-be-hostile tension between Taiwan and China has been eased to a certain degree, Taiwan should seek to maintain stable relation with China while continuing to protect national security, and avoiding excessive "Sinicization" of Taiwanese economy. Strategies to avoid excessive "Sinicization" of the Taiwanese economy could include efforts to increase geographic diversity of overseas Taiwanese employment, diversifying Taiwan's export markets and investment. "
- BBC News, "Taiwan Flashpoint", "Some Taiwanese worry their economy is now dependent on China. Others point out that closer business ties makes Chinese military action less likely, because of the cost to China's own economy."
- Wang, Audrey (10 January 2011). "Taiwan's 2010 trade hits record high". Taiwan Today.
- "US-Taiwan FTA would have limited impact". bilaterals.org. Archived from the original on 10 May 2006. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Morris, Peter (4 February 2004). "Taiwan business in China supports opposition". Asia Times Online.
- "Coping with Asian financial crisis: The Taiwan experience | Seoul Journal of Economics". Find Articles at BNET. 28 April 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Chinese Taipei) and the WTO". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- Postiglione, Gerard A.; Grace C. L. Mak (1997). Asian higher education. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 346–348. ISBN 978-0-313-28901-9.
- "Fears over over-education in Taiwan". The Australian. 3 September 2012.
- Kiersz, Andy (16 December 2016). The latest ranking of top countries in math, reading, and science is out — and the US didn't crack the top 10.
- Garver, John (2011). Taiwan's Democracy: Economic and Political Challenges. Routledge.
- "TIMSS Math 2003" (PDF).
- "TIMSS Science 2003" (PDF).
- Chou, Chuing (12 November 2014). "Education in Taiwan: Taiwan's Colleges and Universities".
- Lee, Pearl (13 April 2015). University degrees: Mindset shift needed. The Straits Times.
- "Taiwan's higher education enrolment starts a downward slide". ICEF Monitor. 16 August 2016.
- Sui, Cindy (23 September 2013). "The draw of blue collar jobs in Taiwan".
- "Over 70% of Taiwanese parents send kids to English bushibans". Invest in Taiwan, Department of Investment Services. 2 September 2005. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- C. Smith, Douglas (1997). Middle education in the Middle Kingdom. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-275-95641-7.
- Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 49.
- "Indigenous People". MOI Statistical Information Service. February 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- "An Overview of Taiwan's Indigenous Groups". Taipei: Government Information Office. 2006. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- "Chapter 2: People and Language" (PDF). The Republic of China Yearbook 2011. Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2012.
- Zeitoun, Elizabeth; Yu, Ching-Hua. "The Formosan Language Archive: Linguistic Analysis and Language Processing" (PDF). Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing. 10 (2): 168. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Taiwan Yearbook 2006". Government of Information Office. 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
- Constitution of the Republic of China. Wikisource. Chapter II, Article 13. "The people shall have freedom of religious belief"
- "Taiwan: International Religious Freedom Report 2010". US Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- Stainton, Michael (2002). "Presbyterians and the Aboriginal Revitalization Movement in Taiwan". Cultural Survival Quarterly 26.2, 5 May 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "Islam in Taiwan: Lost in tradition". Al-Jazeera. 31 December 2014.
- "15,000 temples", Taiwan News, 28 July 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "Bureau of National Health Insurance". Taiwan BNHI. 18 July 2006.
- "Bureau of National Health Insurance-National Health Insurance Act". Bureau of National Health Insurance, ROC. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Taiwanese Hospital Public Satisfaction Poll" (in Chinese). Taiwan Department of Health. October 2004. Archived from the original on 21 September 2009.
- "Center for Disease Control". Taiwan CDC. 18 July 2006. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016.
- "Bureau of National Health Insurance Full Summary" (PDF). Taiwan BNHI. 18 July 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2006.
- Hsiao, Alison (24 July 2013). "Ministry of Health and Welfare completes restructuring". Taipei Times. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
- Yip 2004, pp. 230–248; Makeham 2005, pp. 2–8; Chang 2005, p. 224
- Hsiau 2005, pp. 125–129; Winckler 1994, pp. 23–41
- "Museum". archive.org. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009.
- "Taiwan to loan art to China amid warming ties". Agence France-Presse. 22 September 2010. Archived from the original on 9 October 2010.
- American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei. "Convenience Stores Aim at Differentiation". Taiwan Business Topics. 34 (11). Archived from the original ( – Scholar search) on 16 May 2008.
- "Intro of CPBL". Cpbl.com.tw. Archived from the original on 16 March 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "Pro Baseball Leagues open 2016 seasons worldwide – approx. 150 million fans expected". WBSC. 17 April 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Wang, Audrey (1 June 2008). "A Passion for Hoops". The Taiwan Review. Taiwan Review. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Chen, Christie (30 August 2017). "UNIVERSIADE: Foreign athletes praise Taipei's efforts as host city". Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- "Netherlands Retains World Youth Korfball Champion; Taiwan is on the Way to the World." Reuters Newswire. 8 November 2008. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Hazeldine, Richard (22 July 2009). "Jujitsu, korfball put Taiwan back on winning track". Taipei Times. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- "At Only 22, Tseng Wins Fifth Major". The New York Times. Associated Press. 1 August 2011.
- "Victorious Tseng takes No. 1 ranking". Taipei Times. Agence France-Presse. 14 February 2011.
- "Stacy Lewis wins, now No. 1 in world". ESPN. Associated Press. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Lotta Danielsson-Murphy. "Taiwan Calendar and Holidays". US-Taiwan Business Council. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Taiwan may drop idiosyncratic Republican calendar". Taipei Times. 25 February 2006. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Holidays and Festivals in Taiwan". Government Information Office, ROC. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "2008 White Paper on Taiwan Industrial Technology" (PDF). Department of Industrial Technology. 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
- Bird, Michael I; Hope, Geoffrey; Taylor, David (2004). "Populating PEP II: the dispersal of humans and agriculture through Austral-Asia and Oceania" (PDF). Quaternary International. 118–119: 145–163. doi:10.1016/s1040-6182(03)00135-6. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
- Chang, Maukuei (2005). "Chapter 7 : The Movement to Indigenize to Social Sciences in Taiwan: Origin and Predicaments". In Makeham, John; Hsiau, A-chin. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua (1 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7020-6.
- Davidson, James W. (1903). The Island of Formosa, Past and Present : history, people, resources, and commercial prospects : tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions. London and New York: Macmillan. OL 6931635M.
- Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (2014). The Republic of China Yearbook 2014 (PDF). ISBN 9789860423020. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Fenby, Jonathan (2009). The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850–2009. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-7139-9832-0.
- Fung, Edmund S. K. (2000). In search of Chinese democracy: civil opposition in Nationalist China, 1929–1949. Cambridge modern China series. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77124-5.
- Hsiau, A-Chin (2005). "Chapter 4 : The Indigenization of Taiwanese Literature: Historical Narrative, Strategic Essentialism, and State Violence". In Makeham, John; Hsiau, A-chin. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua (1 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7020-6.
- Jiao, Tianlong (2007). The Neolithic of southeast China: cultural transformation and regional interaction on the coast. Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-934043-16-5.
- Makinen, Gail E.; Woodward, G. Thomas (1989). "The Taiwanese hyperinflation and stabilization of 1945–1952". Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. 21 (1): 90–105. doi:10.2307/1992580. JSTOR 1992580.
- Makeham, John (2005). "Chapter 6 : Indigenization Discourse in Taiwanese Confucian Revivalism". In Makeham, John; Hsiau, A-chin. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua (1 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7020-6.
- Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B.; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin (January 2007). "A Mitochondrial Stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (1): 29–43. doi:10.1086/510412. PMC 1876738. PMID 17160892.
- Thompson, Lawrence G. (1964). "The earliest eyewitness accounts of the Formosan aborigines". Monumenta Serica. 23: 163–204. JSTOR 40726116.
- Valentijn, François (1903) [First published 1724 in Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën]. "History of the Dutch Trade". In Campbell, William. Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. pp. 25–75. OCLC 644323041.
- Winckler, Edwin (1994). Harrell, Stevan; Huang, Chun-chieh, eds. Cultural Policy in Postwar Taiwan. Cultural Change in Postwar Taiwan ( 10–14 April 1991; Seattle). Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-8632-4.
- Yip, June (2004). Envisioning Taiwan: Fiction, Cinema and the Nation in the Cultural Imaginary. Durham, N.C. and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3357-9.
- "Taiwan Flashpoint". BBC News. 2005.
- Bush, R.; O'Hanlon, M. (2007). A War Like No Other: The Truth About China's Challenge to America. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-98677-5.
- Bush, R. (2006). Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8157-1290-9.
- Carpenter, T. (2006). America's Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6841-8.
- Clark, Cal; Tan, Alexander C. (2012). Taiwan's Political Economy: Meeting Challenges, Pursuing Progress. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-58826-806-8.
- Cole, B. (2006). Taiwan's Security: History and Prospects. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-36581-9.
- Copper, J. (2006). Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China over Taiwan. Praeger Security International General Interest. ISBN 978-0-275-98888-3.
- Copper, John F. ed. Historical dictionary of Taiwan (1993) online
- Federation of American Scientists; et al. (2006). "Chinese Nuclear Forces and US Nuclear War Planning" (PDF).
- Feuerwerker, Albert (1968). The Chinese Economy, 1912–1949. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- Fravel, M. Taylor (2002) "Towards Civilian Supremacy: Civil-military Relations in Taiwan's Democratization", Armed Forces & Society 29, no. 1: 57–84
- Gill, B. (2007). Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8157-3146-7.
- Shirk, S. (2007). China: Fragile Superpower: How China's Internal Politics Could Derail Its Peaceful Rise. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530609-5.
- Tsang, S. (2006). If China Attacks Taiwan: Military Strategy, Politics and Economics. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-40785-4.
- Tucker, N.B. (2005). Dangerous Strait: the US-Taiwan-China Crisis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13564-1.
Overviews and data
- "Taiwan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Taiwan from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Taiwan at Curlie
- Taiwan country profile BBC News
- Taiwan flashpoint BBC News
- Background Note: Taiwan US Department of State
- Taiwan Travel Information and Travel Guide Lonely Planet
- Taiwan's 400 years of history New Taiwan, Ilha Formosa
- Key Development Forecasts for Taiwan from International Futures
- Taiwan Encyclopædia Britannica entry
- Chinese Taipei OECD
- Wikimedia Atlas of Taiwan