Hokkaido

  (Redirected from Hokkaidō)

Hokkaido (Japanese: 北海道, Hepburn: Hokkaidō, literally "Northern Sea Circuit" or "Northern Sea Region", pronounced [hokkaidoː]), officially Hokkaido Circuit Prefecture, is the second largest island of Japan and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture.[1] The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu; the two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel.

Hokkaido
北海道
Japanese transcription(s)
 • Japanese北海道
 • RōmajiHokkaidō
Flag of Hokkaido
Official logo of Hokkaido
Location of Hokkaido
CountryJapan
RegionHokkaido
IslandHokkaido
CapitalSapporo
Largest citySapporo
SubdivisionsDistricts: 74, Municipalities: 179
Government
 • GovernorNaomichi Suzuki
Area
 • Total83,423.84 km2 (32,210.12 sq mi)
Area rank1st
Population
 (May 31, 2019)
 • Total5,281,297
 • Rank8th
 • Density63/km2 (160/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeJP-01
Websitewww.pref.hokkaido.lg.jp
Symbols
BirdTanchō (red-crowned crane, Grus japonensis)
FlowerHamanasu (rugosa rose, Rosa rugosa)
TreeEzomatsu (Jezo spruce, Picea jezoensis)

The largest city on Hokkaido is its capital, Sapporo, which is also its only ordinance-designated city. Sakhalin lies about 43 kilometers (26 mi) to the north of Hokkaido, and to the east and northeast are the Kuril Islands, which are administered by Russia, though the four most southerly are claimed by Japan. Hokkaido was formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso.[2]

EtymologyEdit

When establishing the Development Commission, the Meiji government decided to change the name of Ezochi. Matsuura Takeshirō submitted six proposals, including names such as Kaihokudō (海北道) and Hokkaidō (北加伊道), to the government. The government eventually decided to use the name Hokkaidō, but decided to write it as 北海道, as a compromise between 海北道 and 北加伊道 because of the similarity with names such as Tōkaidō (東海道). According to Matsuura, the name was thought up because the Ainu called the region Kai. The kai element also strongly resembles the On'yomi, or Sino-Japanese, reading of the characters 蝦夷 (on'yomi as [ka.i, カイ], kun'yomi as [e.mi.ɕi, えみし]) which have been used for over a thousand years in China and Japan as the standard orthographic form to be used when referring to Ainu and related peoples; it is possible that Matsuura's kai was actually an alteration, influenced by the Sino-Japanese reading of 蝦夷 Ka-i, of the Nivkh exonym for the Ainu, namely Qoy or IPA: [kʰuɣɪ].[3]

There is no known established Ainu language word for the island of Hokkaido. However, the Ainu people did have a name for all of their domain, which included Hokkaido along with the Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, and parts of northern Honshu, which was Aynu Mosir (アィヌ・モシ), a name taken by the modern Ainu to refer to their traditional homeland.[4][5][6][7][8] "Ainu Mosir" literally translates as "The Land Where People (the Ainu) Live", and it was traditionally used to be contrasted with Kamuy Mosir, "The Land of the Kamuy (spirits)".[9]

In 1947, Hokkaido became a full-fledged prefecture, but the -ken suffix was never added to its name, so the -dō suffix came to be understood to mean "prefecture". "Hokkai-do-ken" (literally "North Sea Province Prefecture") is, therefore, technically speaking, a redundant term, although it is occasionally used to differentiate the government from the island. The prefecture's government calls itself the "Hokkaido Government" rather than the "Hokkaido Prefectural Government".

HistoryEdit

Early historyEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
172115,615—    
175021,807+1.16%
178626,310+0.52%
179828,711+0.73%
182261,948+3.26%
183467,862+0.76%
184670,887+0.36%
1873123,668+2.08%
1890414,430+7.37%
19031,089,503+7.72%
19202,359,183+4.65%
19302,812,335+1.77%
19403,272,718+1.53%
19504,295,567+2.76%
19605,039,206+1.61%
19705,184,287+0.28%
19805,575,989+0.73%
19905,643,647+0.12%
20005,683,062+0.07%
20105,506,419−0.32%
20205,281,297−0.42%
source:[10][11][circular reference]

During the Jomon period the local culture and the associated hunter-gatherer lifestyle flourished in Hokkaido, beginning over 15,000 years ago. In contrast to the island of Honshu, Hokkaido saw an absence of conflict during this time period. Jomon beliefs in natural spirits are theorized to be the origins of Ainu spirituality. About 2,000 years ago, the island was colonized by Yayoi people, and much of the island's population shifted away from hunting and gathering towards agriculture.[12]

The Nihon Shoki, finished in 720 AD, is often said to be the first mention of Hokkaido in recorded history. According to the text, Abe no Hirafu[13] led a large navy and army to northern areas from 658 to 660 and came into contact with the Mishihase and Emishi. One of the places Hirafu went to was called Watarishima (渡島), which is often believed to be present-day Hokkaido. However, many theories exist concerning the details of this event, including the location of Watarishima and the common belief that the Emishi in Watarishima were the ancestors of the present-day Ainu people.

During the Nara and Heian periods (710–1185), people in Hokkaido conducted trade with Dewa Province, an outpost of the Japanese central government. From the Middle Ages, the people in Hokkaido began to be called Ezo. Hokkaido subsequently became known as Ezochi (蝦夷地, lit. "Ezo-land")[14] or Ezogashima (蝦夷ヶ島, lit. "Island of the Ezo"). The Ezo mainly relied upon hunting and fishing and obtained rice and iron through trade with the Japanese.

Feudal JapanEdit

 
Palace reception near Hakodate in 1751. Ainu bringing gifts (cf. omusha)

During the Muromachi period (1336–1573), the Japanese created a settlement at the south of the Oshima Peninsula, with a series of fortified residences such as that of Shinoridate. As more people moved to the settlement to avoid battles, disputes arose between the Japanese and the Ainu. The disputes eventually developed into war. Takeda Nobuhiro killed the Ainu leader, Koshamain,[13] and defeated the opposition in 1457. Nobuhiro's descendants became the rulers of the Matsumae-han, which was granted exclusive trading rights with the Ainu in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods (1568–1868). The Matsumae family's economy relied upon trade with the Ainu. They held authority over the south of Ezochi until the end of the Edo period.

 
The samurai and the Ainu, c. 1775

The Matsumae clan rule over the Ainu must be understood in the context of the expansion of the Japanese feudal state. Medieval military leaders in northern Honshu (ex. Northern Fujiwara, Akita clan) maintained only tenuous political and cultural ties to the imperial court and its proxies, the Kamakura shogunate and Ashikaga shogunate. Feudal strongmen sometimes located themselves within medieval institutional order, taking shogunate titles, while in other times they assumed titles that seemed to give them a non-Japanese identity. In fact, many of the feudal strongmen were descended from Emishi military leaders who had been assimilated into Japanese society.[15] The Matsumae clan were of Yamato descent like other ethnic Japanese people, whereas the Emishi of northern Honshu were a distinctive group related to the Ainu. The Emishi were conquered and integrated into the Japanese state dating back as far as the 8th century and as result began to lose their distinctive culture and ethnicity as they became minorities. By the time the Matsumae clan ruled over the Ainu, most of the Emishi were ethnically mixed and physically closer to Japanese than they were to Ainu. From this, the "transformation" theory postulates that native Jōmon peoples changed gradually with the infusion of Yayoi immigrants into the Tōhoku, in contrast to the "replacement" theory that posits the Jōmon was replaced by the Yayoi.[16]

 
Matsumae Takahiro, a Matsumae lord of the late Edo period (December 10, 1829 – June 9, 1866)

There were numerous revolts by the Ainu against the feudal rule. The last large-scale resistance was Shakushain's revolt in 1669–1672. In 1789, a smaller movement known as the Menashi–Kunashir rebellion was crushed. After that rebellion, the terms "Japanese" and "Ainu" referred to clearly distinguished groups, and the Matsumae were unequivocally Japanese.

After the arrival of Adam Laxman in 1799–1821 and 1855–1858, the Tokugawa shogunate took direct control over Hokkaido in response to a perceived threat from Russia. Leading up to the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate realized there was a need to prepare northern defenses against a possible Russian invasion and took over control of most of Ezochi. The shogunate made the plight of the Ainu slightly easier but did not change the overall form of rule.[17]

Meiji RestorationEdit

Hokkaido was known as Ezochi until the Meiji Restoration. Shortly after the Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island (the polity is commonly but mistakenly known as the Republic of Ezo), but the rebellion was crushed in May 1869. Ezochi was subsequently put under control of Hakodate-fu (箱館府), Hakodate Prefectural Government. When establishing the Development Commission (開拓使, Kaitakushi), the Meiji government introduced a new name. After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido;[2] and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.[18]

 
The Ainu, Hokkaido's indigenous people

The primary purpose of the Development Commission was to secure Hokkaido before the Russians extended their control of the Far East beyond Vladivostok. Kuroda Kiyotaka was put in charge of the venture. His first step was to journey to the United States and recruit Horace Capron, President Ulysses S. Grant's commissioner of agriculture. From 1871 to 1873 Capron bent his efforts to expounding Western agriculture and mining with mixed results. Capron, frustrated with obstacles to his efforts returned home in 1875. In 1876, William S. Clark arrived to found an agricultural college in Sapporo. Although he only remained a year, Clark left a lasting impression on Hokkaido, inspiring the Japanese with his teachings on agriculture as well as Christianity.[19] His parting words, "Boys, be ambitious!", can be found on public buildings in Hokkaido to this day. The population of Hokkaido boomed from 58,000 to 240,000 during that decade.[20]

In 1882, the Development Commission was abolished. Transportation on the island was underdeveloped, so the prefecture was split into several "sub-prefectures" (支庁 shichō), namely Hakodate Prefecture (函館県, Hakodate-ken), Sapporo Prefecture (札幌県, Sapporo-ken), and Nemuro Prefecture (根室県, Nemuro-ken), that could fulfill administrative duties of the prefectural government and keep tight control over the developing island. In 1886, the three prefectures were demoted, and Hokkaido was put under the Hokkaido Agency (北海道庁, Hokkaidō-chō). These sub-prefectures still exist today, although they have much less power than they possessed before and during World War II; they now exist primarily to handle paperwork and other bureaucratic functions.

World War IIEdit

In mid-July 1945, various shipping ports, cities, and military facilities in Hokkaido were attacked by the United States Navy's Task Force 38. On 14–15 July, aircraft operating from the task force's aircraft carriers sank and damaged a large number of ships in ports along Hokkaido's southern coastline as well as in northern Honshu. In addition, on 15 July a force of three battleships and two light cruisers bombarded the city of Muroran.[21] Before the Japanese surrender was formalized, the Soviet Union made preparations for an invasion of Hokkaido, but U.S. President Harry Truman made it clear that the surrender of all of the Japanese home islands would be carried out by General Douglas MacArthur per the 1943 Cairo Declaration.[22]

Hokkaido became equal with other prefectures in 1947, when the revised Local Autonomy Law became effective. The Japanese central government established the Hokkaido Development Agency (北海道開発庁, Hokkaidō Kaihatsuchō) as an agency of the Prime Minister's Office in 1949 to maintain its executive power in Hokkaido. The agency was absorbed by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in 2001. The Hokkaido Bureau (北海道局, Hokkaidō-kyoku) and the Hokkaido Regional Development Bureau (北海道開発局, Hokkaidō Kaihatsukyoku) of the ministry still have a strong influence on public construction projects in Hokkaido.

GeographyEdit

Hokkaido
Native name:
北海道
 
Geography
LocationEast Asia
Coordinates43°N 142°E / 43°N 142°E / 43; 142
ArchipelagoJapanese archipelago
Area77,981.87 km2 (30,108.97 sq mi)
Highest elevation2,290 m (7510 ft)
Highest pointMount Asahi
Administration
Japan
PrefecturesHokkaido
Largest settlementSapporo (pop. 1,890,561)
Demographics
Population5,377,435 (September 30, 2016)
Pop. density64.5/km2 (167.1/sq mi)
Ethnic groupsAinu
Japanese
 
Geofeatures map of Hokkaido
 
Hokkaido seen from the International Space Station
 
Satellite image of Hokkaido
 
The Oyashio Current colliding with the Kuroshio Current off the coast of Hokkaido. When two currents collide, they create eddies. Phytoplankton growing in the surface waters become concentrated along the boundaries of these eddies, tracing out the motions of the water.

The island of Hokkaido is located in the north of Japan, near Russia (Sakhalin Oblast). It has coastlines on the Sea of Japan (to the west of the island), the Sea of Okhotsk (to the north), and the Pacific Ocean (to the east). The center of the island is mountainous, with volcanic plateaux. Hokkaido has multiple plains such as the Ishikari Plain 3,800 km2 (1,500 sq mi), Tokachi Plain 3,600 km2 (1,400 sq mi), the Kushiro Plain 2,510 km2 (970 sq mi) (the largest wetland in Japan) and Sarobetsu Plain 200 km2 (77 sq mi). Hokkaido is 83,423.84 km2 (32,210.12 sq mi) which make it the second-largest island of Japan.

The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu (Aomori Prefecture);[2] La Pérouse Strait separates Hokkaido from the island of Sakhalin in Russia; Nemuro Strait separates Hokkaido from Kunashir Island in the Russian Kuril Islands.

The governmental jurisdiction of Hokkaido incorporates several smaller islands, including Rishiri, Okushiri Island, and Rebun. (By Japanese reckoning, Hokkaido also incorporates several of the Kuril Islands.) Hokkaido Prefecture is the largest and northernmost Japanese prefecture. The island ranks 21st in the world by area.

PopulationEdit

Hokkaido has the third-largest population of Japan's five main islands, with 5,383,579 people as of 2015.[1][23] It has the lowest population-density in Japan with just 64.5/km2 (160/sq mi) (2016). By population it ranks 20th globally. Major cities include Sapporo and Asahikawa in the central region and the port of Hakodate facing Honshu in the south. Sapporo is the largest city of Hokkaido and 5th-largest in Japan. It had a population of 1,957,914 as of 31 May  2019 and a population density of 1,746/km2 (4,520/sq mi).

City(-shi) Inhabitants
September 30, 2016
Sapporo 1,957,914
Asahikawa 343,393
Hakodate 266,192
Kushiro 174,938
Tomakomai 173,226
Obihiro 168,258
Otaru 121,269
Kitami 120,189
Ebetsu 119,247
Muroran 87,498
Iwamizawa 84,127
Chitose 96,372
Eniwa 69,215

Flora and faunaEdit

There are three populations of the Ussuri brown bear found on the island. There are more brown bears in Hokkaido than anywhere else in Asia besides Russia. The Hokkaido brown bear is separated into three distinct lineages. There are only eight lineages in the world.[24] Those on Honshu died out long ago.

The native conifer species in northern Hokkaido is the Abies sachalinensis (sakhalin fir)[25] The hydrangea hirta species is also located on the island.

Geologic activityEdit

Like many areas of Japan, Hokkaido is seismically active. Aside from numerous earthquakes, the following volcanoes are considered still active (at least one eruption since 1850):

In 1993, an earthquake of magnitude 7.7 generated a tsunami which devastated Okushiri, killing 202 inhabitants. An earthquake of magnitude 8.3 struck near the island on 26 September 2003. On 6 September 2018, an earthquake of magnitude 6.6 struck with its epicenter near the city of Tomakomai, causing a blackout across the whole island.[26]

On May 16, 2021,an earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale struck off Japan's Hokkaido prefecture.[27]

ParksEdit

National parks
Shiretoko National Park* 知床
Akan National Park 阿寒
Kushiro-shitsugen National Park 釧路湿原
Daisetsuzan National Park 大雪山
Shikotsu-Tōya National Park 支笏洞爺
Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park 利尻礼文サロベツ

* designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 2005-07-14.

Quasi-national parks (国定公園)
Abashiri Quasi-National Park 網走
Hidaka-sanmyaku Erimo Quasi-National Park 日高山脈襟裳
Niseko-Shakotan-Otaru Kaigan Quasi-National Park ニセコ積丹小樽海岸
Ōnuma Quasi-National Park 大沼
Shokanbetsu-Teuri-Yagishiri Quasi-National Park 暑寒別天売焼尻
Ramsar wetland sites
since
Kushiro Wetland 釧路湿原 1980-06-17
Lake Kutcharo クッチャロ湖 1989-07-06
Lake Utonai ウトナイ湖 1991-12-12
Kiritappu Wetland 霧多布湿原 1993-06-10
Lake Akkeshi, Bekkanbeushi Wetland 厚岸湖別寒辺牛湿原 1993-06-10,
enlarged 2005-11-08
Miyajima Marsh 宮島沼 2002-11-18
Uryūnuma Wetland 雨竜沼湿原 2005-11-08
Sarobetsu plain サロベツ原野
Lake Tōfutsu 濤沸湖
Lake Akan 阿寒湖
Notsuke Peninsula, Notsuke Bay 野付半島野付湾
Lake Fūren, Shunkunitai 風蓮湖春国岱

SubprefecturesEdit

 
Map of Hokkaido showing the subprefectures and the primary cities
Subprefecture Japanese Main City Largest Municipality Pop.
(2009)
Area
(km2)
Municipalities
1 Sorachi 空知総合振興局 Iwamizawa Iwamizawa 338,485 5,791.19 10 cities 14 towns
a Ishikari 石狩振興局 Sapporo Sapporo 2,324,878 3,539.86 6 cities 1 town 1 village
2 Shiribeshi 後志総合振興局 Kutchan Otaru 234,984 4,305.83 1 city 13 towns 6 villages
3 Iburi 胆振総合振興局 Muroran Tomakomai 419,115 3,698.00 4 cities 7 towns
b Hidaka 日高振興局 Urakawa Shinhidaka 76,084 4,811.97 7 towns
4 Oshima 渡島総合振興局 Hakodate Hakodate 433,475 3,936.46 2 cities 9 towns
c Hiyama 檜山振興局 Esashi Setana 43,210 2,629.94 7 towns
5 Kamikawa 上川総合振興局 Asahikawa Asahikawa 527,575 10,619.20 4 cities 17 towns 2 villages
d Rumoi 留萌振興局 Rumoi Rumoi 53,916 3,445.75 1 city 6 towns 1 village
6 Sōya 宗谷総合振興局 Wakkanai Wakkanai 71,423 4,625.09 1 city 8 towns 1 village
7 Okhotsk オホーツク総合振興局 Abashiri Kitami 309,487 10,690.62 3 cities 14 towns 1 village
8 Tokachi 十勝総合振興局 Obihiro Obihiro 353,291 10,831.24 1 city 16 towns 2 villages
9 Kushiro 釧路総合振興局 Kushiro Kushiro 252,571 5,997.38 1 city 6 towns 1 village
e Nemuro 根室振興局 Nemuro Nemuro 84,035 3,406.23 1 city 4 towns
*
* Japan claims the southern part of Kuril Islands (Northern Territories), currently administered by Russia,
belong to Nemuro Subprefecture divided into six villages. However, the table above excludes these islands' data.

As of April 2010, Hokkaido has 9 General Subprefectural Bureaus (総合振興局) and 5 Subprefectural Bureaus (振興局). Hokkaido is one of eight prefectures in Japan that have subprefectures (支庁 shichō). However, it is the only one of the eight to have such offices covering the whole of its territory outside the main cities (rather than having them just for outlying islands or remote areas). This is mostly because of its great size; many parts of the prefecture are simply too far away to be effectively administered by Sapporo. Subprefectural offices in Hokkaido carry out many of the duties that prefectural offices fulfill elsewhere in Japan.

MunicipalitiesEdit

Hokkaido is divided into 179 municipalities.

 
Map of Hokkaido as seen by municipalities
     Government Ordinance Designated City      City      Town      Village

CitiesEdit

There are 35 cities in Hokkaido:

Name Area (km2) Population Subprefecture Map
Rōmaji Kanji
  Abashiri 網走市 470.94 34,919 Okhotsk Subprefecture  
  Akabira 赤平市 129.88 10,686 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Asahikawa 旭川市 747.6 333,530 Kamikawa Subprefecture  
  Ashibetsu 芦別市 865.02 14,260 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Bibai 美唄市 277.61 24,768 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Chitose 千歳市 594.5 96,475 Ishikari Subprefecture  
  Date 伊達市 444.28 34,898 Iburi Subprefecture  
  Ebetsu 江別市 187.57 119,086 Ishikari Subprefecture  
  Eniwa 恵庭市 294.87 68,883 Ishikari Subprefecture  
  Fukagawa 深川市 529.12 21,618 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Furano 富良野市 600.97 22,715 Kamikawa Subprefecture  
  Hakodate 函館市 677.89 264,845 Oshima Subprefecture  
  Hokuto 北斗市 397.29 46,083 Oshima Subprefecture  
  Ishikari 石狩市 721.86 58,755 Ishikari Subprefecture  
  Iwamizawa 岩見沢市 481.1 84,127 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Kitahiroshima 北広島市 118.54 58,918 Ishikari Subprefecture  
  Kitami 北見市 1,427.56 119,135 Okhotsk Subprefecture  
  Kushiro 釧路市 1,362.75 167,875 Kushiro Subprefecture  
  Mikasa 三笠市 302.64 9,056 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Monbetsu 紋別市 830.7 22,983 Okhotsk Subprefecture  
  Muroran 室蘭市 80.65 93,716 Iburi Subprefecture  
  Nayoro 名寄市 535.23 28,373 Kamikawa Subprefecture  
  Nemuro 根室市 512.63 27,109 Nemuro Subprefecture  
  Noboribetsu 登別市 212.11 49,523 Iburi Subprefecture  
  Obihiro 帯広市 618.94 165,851 Tokachi Subprefecture  
  Otaru 小樽市 243.13 115,333 Shiribeshi Subprefecture  
  Rumoi 留萌市 297.44 22,242 Rumoi Subprefecture  
  Sapporo (capital) 札幌市 1,121.26 1,973,432 Ishikari Subprefecture  
  Shibetsu 士別市 1,119.29 19,794 Kamikawa Subprefecture  
  Sunagawa 砂川市 78.69 17,589 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Takikawa 滝川市 115.9 41,306 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Tomakomai 苫小牧市 561.49 174,216 Iburi Subprefecture  
  Utashinai 歌志内市 55.99 3,019 Sorachi Subprefecture  
  Wakkanai 稚内市 761.47 33,869 Sōya Subprefecture  
  Yūbari 夕張市 763.2 8,612 Sorachi Subprefecture  

Towns and villagesEdit

These are the towns and villages in Hokkaido Prefecture:

Name Area (km2) Population Subprefecture District Type Map
Rōmaji Kanji
  Abira 安平町 237.13 8,323 Iburi Subprefecture Yūfutsu District Town  
  Aibetsu 愛別町 250.13 2,992 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Akaigawa 赤井川村 280.11 1,157 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Yoichi District Village  
  Akkeshi 八石町 734.82 9,048 Kushiro Subprefecture Akkeshi District Town  
  Ashoro 足寄町 1,408.09 7,150 Tokachi Subprefecture Ashoro District Town  
  Assabu 厚沢部町 460.58 3,884 Hiyama Subprefecture Hiyama District Town  
  Atsuma 厚真町 404.56 4,659 Iburi Subprefecture Yūfutsu District Town  
  Betsukai 別海町 1,320.15 15,179 Nemuro Subprefecture Notsuke District Town  
  Biei 美瑛町 677.16 10,374 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Bifuka 美深町 672.14 4,609 Kamikawa Subprefecture Nakagawa District Town  
  Bihoro 美幌町 438.36 20,920 Okhotsk Subprefecture Abashiri District Town  
  Biratori 平取町 743.16 5,305 Hidaka Subprefecture Saru District Town  
  Chippubetsu 秩父別町 47.26 2,463 Sorachi Subprefecture Uryū District Town  
  Enbetsu 遠別町 590.86 2,966 Rumoi Subprefecture Teshio District Town  
  Engaru 遠軽町 1,332.32 20,757 Okhotsk Subprefecture Monbetsu District Town  
  Erimo えりも町 283.93 4,954 Hidaka Subprefecture Horoizumi District Town  
  Esashi 江差町 109.57 8,117 Hiyama Subprefecture Hiyama District Town  
  Esashi 枝幸町 1,115.67 8,578 Sōya Subprefecture Esashi District Town  
  Fukushima 福島町 187.23 4,390 Oshima Subprefecture Matsumae District Town  
  Furubira 古平町 188.41 3,265 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Furubira District Town  
  Haboro 羽幌町 472.49 7,338 Rumoi Subprefecture Tomamae District Town  
  Hamanaka 浜中町 427.68 6,120 Kushiro Subprefecture Akkeshi District Town  
  Hamatonbetsu 浜頓別町 401.56 3,841 Sōya Subprefecture Esashi District Town  
  Hidaka 日高町 992.67 12,596 Hidaka Subprefecture Saru District Town  
  Higashikagura 東神楽町 68.64 10,385 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Higashikawa 東川町 247.06 8,092 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Hiroo 広尾町 596.14 7,182 Tokachi Subprefecture Hiroo District Town  
  Hokuryū 北竜町 158.82 1,965 Sorachi Subprefecture Uryū District Town  
  Honbetsu 本別町 391.99 7,441 Tokachi Subprefecture Nakagawa District Town  
  Horokanai 幌加内町 767.03 1,571 Kamikawa Subprefecture Uryū District Town  
  Horonobe 幌延町 574.27 2,415 Sōya Subprefecture Teshio District Town  
  Ikeda 池田町 371.91 6,933 Tokachi Subprefecture Nakagawa District Town  
  Imakane 今金町 568.14 5,575 Hiyama Subprefecture Setana District Town  
  Iwanai 岩内町 70.64 13,210 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Iwanai District Town  
  Kamifurano 上富良野町 237.18 11,055 Kamikawa Subprefecture Sorachi District Town  
  Kamikawa 上川町 1,049.24 3,706 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Kaminokuni 上ノ国町 547.58 5,161 Hiyama Subprefecture Hiyama District Town  
  Kamishihoro 上士幌町 700.87 4,908 Tokachi Subprefecture Katō District Town  
  Kamisunagawa 上砂川町 39.91 3,278 Sorachi Subprefecture Sorachi District Town  
  Kamoenai 神恵内村 147.71 904 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Furuu District Village  
  Kenbuchi 剣淵町 131.2 3,293 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Kikonai 木古内町 221.88 4,448 Oshima Subprefecture Kamiiso District Town  
  Kimobetsu 喜茂別町 189.51 2,286 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Abuta District Town  
  Kiyosato 清里町 402.73 4,222 Okhotsk Subprefecture Shari District Town  
  Koshimizu 小清水町 287.04 5,029 Okhotsk Subprefecture Shari District Town  
  Kunneppu 訓子府町 190.89 5,227 Okhotsk Subprefecture Tokoro District Town  
  Kuriyama 栗山町 203.84 12,365 Sorachi Subprefecture Yūbari District Town  
  Kuromatsunai 黒松内町 345.65 2,739 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Suttsu District Town  
  Kushiro 釧路町 252.57 19,941 Kushiro Subprefecture Kushiro District Town  
  Kutchan 倶知安町 261.24 15,573 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Abuta District Town  
  Kyōgoku 京極町 231.61 3,144 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Abuta District Town  
  Kyōwa 共和町 304.96 6,136 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Iwanai District Town  
  Makkari 真狩村 114.43 2,081 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Abuta District Village  
  Makubetsu 幕別町 340.46 26,610 Tokachi Subprefecture Nakagawa District Town  
  Mashike 増毛町 369.64 4,634 Rumoi Subprefecture Mashike District Town  
  Matsumae 松前町 293.11 7,843 Oshima Subprefecture Matsumae District Town  
  Memuro 芽室町 513.91 18,806 Tokachi Subprefecture Kasai District Town  
  Minamifurano 南富良野町 665.52 2,611 Kamikawa Subprefecture Sorachi District Town  
  Mori 森町 378.27 16,299 Oshima Subprefecture Kayabe District Town  
  Moseushi 妹背牛町 48.55 3,134 Sorachi Subprefecture Uryū District Town  
  Mukawa むかわ町 166.43 8,527 Iburi Subprefecture Yūfutsu District Town  
  Naganuma 長沼町 168.36 11,262 Sorachi Subprefecture Yūbari District Town  
  Naie 奈井江町 88.05 5,664 Sorachi Subprefecture Sorachi District Town  
  Nakafurano 中富良野町 108.7 5,086 Kamikawa Subprefecture Sorachi District Town  
  Nakagawa 中川町 594.87 1,585 Kamikawa Subprefecture Nakagawa District Town  
  Nakasatsunai 中札内村 292.69 3,980 Tokachi Subprefecture Kasai District Village  
  Nakashibetsu 中標津町 684.98 24,014 Nemuro Subprefecture Shibetsu District Town  
  Nakatonbetsu 中頓別町 398.55 1,776 Sōya Subprefecture Esashi District Town  
  Nanae 七飯町 216.61 28,514 Oshima Subprefecture Kameda District Town  
  Nanporo 南幌町 81.49 7,816 Sorachi Subprefecture Sorachi District Town  
  Niikappu 新冠町 585.88 5,696 Hidaka Subprefecture Niikappu District Town  
  Niki 仁木町 167.93 3,874 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Yoichi District Town  
  Niseko ニセコ町 197.13 4,938 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Abuta District Town  
  Nishiokoppe 西興部村 308.12 1,120 Okhotsk Subprefecture Monbetsu District Village  
  Numata 沼田町 283.21 3,207 Sorachi Subprefecture Uryū District Town  
  Obira 小平町 627.29 3,277 Rumoi Subprefecture Rumoi District Town  
  Oketo 置戸町 527.54 3,042 Okhotsk Subprefecture Tokoro District Town  
  Okoppe 興部町 362.41 3,963 Okhotsk Subprefecture Monbetsu District Town  
  Okushiri 奥尻町 142.98 2,812 Hiyama Subprefecture Okushiri District Town  
  Ōmu 雄武町 637.03 4,596 Okhotsk Subprefecture Monbetsu District Town  
  Oshamambe 長万部町 310.75 5,694 Oshima Subprefecture Yamakoshi District Town  
  Otobe 乙部町 162.55 3,925 Hiyama Subprefecture Nishi District Town  
  Otoineppu 音威子府村 275.64 831 Kamikawa Subprefecture Nakagawa District Village  
  Otofuke 音更町 466.09 44,235 Tokachi Subprefecture Katō District Town  
  Ōzora 大空町 343.62 7,430 Okhotsk Subprefecture Abashiri District Town  
  Pippu 比布町 87.29 3,845 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Rankoshi 蘭越町 449.68 4,893 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Isoya District Town  
  Rausu 羅臼町 397.88 5,395 Nemuro Subprefecture Menashi District Town  
  Rebun 礼文町 81.33 2,651 Sōya Subprefecture Rebun District Town  
  Rikubetsu 陸別町 608.81 2,528 Tokachi Subprefecture Ashoro District Town  
  Rishiri 利尻町 76.49 2,169 Sōya Subprefecture Rishiri District Town  
  Rishirifuji 利尻富士町 105.69 2,665 Sōya Subprefecture Rishiri District Town  
Rubetsu[29] 留別村 1,442.82 2,814 Nemuro Subprefecture Etorofu District Village  
  Rusutsu 留寿都村 119.92 1,940 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Abuta District Village  
Ruyobetsu[29] 留夜別村 960.27 3,401 Nemuro Subprefecture Kunashiri District Village  
  Samani 様似町 364.33 4,482 Hidaka Subprefecture Samani District Town  
  Sarabetsu 更別村 176.45 3,275 Tokachi Subprefecture Kasai District Village  
  Saroma 佐呂間町 404.99 5,617 Okhotsk Subprefecture Tokoro District Town  
  Sarufutsu 猿払村 590 2,884 Sōya Subprefecture Sōya District Village  
  Setana せたな町 638.67 8,501 Hiyama Subprefecture Kudō District Town  
  Shakotan 積丹町 238.2 2,215 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Shakotan District Town  
Shana[29] 紗那村 973.3 1,426 Nemuro Subprefecture Shana District Village  
  Shari 斜里町 736.97 11,897 Okhotsk Subprefecture Shari District Town  
  Shibecha 標茶町 1,099.41 7,862 Kushiro Subprefecture Kawakami District Town  
Shibetoro[29] 蘂取村 760.5 881 Nemuro Subprefecture Shibetoro District Village  
  Shibetsu 標津町 624.49 5,374 Nemuro Subprefecture Shibetsu District Town  
  Shihoro 士幌町 259.13 6,234 Tokachi Subprefecture Katō District Town  
  Shikabe 鹿部町 110.61 3,920 Oshima Subprefecture Kayabe District Town  
  Shikaoi 鹿追町 399.69 5,570 Tokachi Subprefecture Katō District Town  
Shikotan[29] 色丹村 253.33 1,499 Nemuro Subprefecture Shikotan District Village  
  Shimamaki 島牧村 437.26 1,560 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Shimamaki District Village  
  Shimizu 清水町 402.18 9,784 Tokachi Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Shimokawa 下川町 644.2 3,836 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Shimukappu 占冠村 571.31 1,251 Kamikawa Subprefecture Yūfutsu District Village  
  Shinhidaka 新ひだか町 1,147.75 23,516 Hidaka Subprefecture Hidaka District Town  
  Shinshinotsu 新篠津村 78.24 3,235 Ishikari Subprefecture Ishikari District Village  
  Shintoku 新得町 1,063.79 6,285 Tokachi Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Shintotsukawa 新十津川町 495.62 6,787 Sorachi Subprefecture Kabato District Town  
  Shiranuka 白糠町 773.74 7,972 Kushiro Subprefecture Shiranuka District Town  
  Shiraoi 白老町 425.75 17,759 Iburi Subprefecture Shiraoi District Town  
  Shiriuchi 知内町 196.67 4,620 Oshima Subprefecture Kamiiso District Town  
  Shosanbetsu 初山別村 280.04 1,249 Rumoi Subprefecture Tomamae District Village  
  Sōbetsu 壮瞥町 205.04 2,665 Iburi Subprefecture Usu District Town  
  Suttsu 寿都町 95.36 3,113 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Suttsu District Town  
  Taiki 大樹町 816.38 5,742 Tokachi Subprefecture Hiroo District Town  
  Takasu 鷹栖町 139.44 6,780 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Takinoue 滝上町 786.89 2,757 Okhotsk Subprefecture Monbetsu District Town  
  Teshikaga 弟子屈町 774.53 7,631 Kushiro Subprefecture Kawakami District Town  
  Teshio 天塩町 353.31 3,241 Rumoi Subprefecture Teshio District Town  
  Tōbetsu 当別町 422.71 16,694 Ishikari Subprefecture Ishikari District Town  
  Tōma 当麻町 204.95 6,662 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Tomamae 苫前町 454.5 3,261 Rumoi Subprefecture Tomamae District Town  
  Tomari 泊村 82.35 1,750 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Furuu District Village  
Tomari[29] 泊村 538.56 5,595 Nemuro Subprefecture Kunashiri District Village  
  Tōyako 洞爺湖町 180.54 9,231 Iburi Subprefecture Abuta District Town  
  Toyokoro 豊頃町 536.52 3,262 Tokachi Subprefecture Nakagawa District Town  
  Toyotomi 豊富町 520.69 4,054 Sōya Subprefecture Teshio District Town  
  Toyoura 豊浦町 233.54 4,205 Iburi Subprefecture Abuta District Town  
  Tsubetsu 津別町 716.6 5,011 Okhotsk Subprefecture Abashiri District Town  
  Tsukigata 月形町 151.05 3,429 Sorachi Subprefecture Kabato District Town  
  Tsurui 鶴居村 571.84 2,516 Kushiro Subprefecture Akan District Village  
  Urahoro 浦幌町 729.64 5,023 Tokachi Subprefecture Tokachi District Town  
  Urakawa 浦河町 694.24 12,800 Hidaka Subprefecture Urakawa District Town  
  Urausu 浦臼町 101.08 1,983 Sorachi Subprefecture Kabato District Town  
  Uryū 雨竜町 190.91 2,546 Sorachi Subprefecture Uryū District Town  
  Wassamu 和寒町 224.83 3,553 Kamikawa Subprefecture Kamikawa District Town  
  Yakumo 八雲町 955.98 17,299 Oshima Subprefecture Futami District Town  
  Yoichi 余市町 140.6 19,698 Shiribeshi Subprefecture Yoichi District Town  
  Yūbetsu 湧別町 505.74 8,474 Okhotsk Subprefecture Monbetsu District Town  
  Yuni 由仁町 133.86 5,426 Sorachi Subprefecture Yūbari District Town  

ClimateEdit

 
Satellite image of Hokkaido in winter

As Japan's coldest region, Hokkaido has relatively cool summers and icy/snowy winters. Most of the island falls in the humid continental climate zone with Köppen climate classification Dfb (hemiboreal) in most areas but Dfa (hot summer humid continental) in some inland lowlands. The average August temperature ranges from 17 to 22 °C (62.6 to 71.6 °F), while the average January temperature ranges from −12 to −4 °C (10.4 to 24.8 °F), in both cases depending on elevation and distance from the ocean, though temperatures on the western side of the island tend to be a little warmer than on the eastern. The highest temperature ever recorded is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on 26 May 2019.[30]

The northern portion of Hokkaido falls into the taiga biome[31] with significant snowfall. Snowfall varies widely from as much as 11 metres (400 in) on the mountains adjacent to the Sea of Japan down to around 1.8 metres (71 in) on the Pacific coast. The island tends to have isolated snowstorms that develop long-lasting snowbanks. Total precipitation varies from 1,600 millimetres (63 in) on the mountains of the Sea of Japan coast to around 800 millimetres (31 in) (the lowest in Japan) on the Sea of Okhotsk coast and interior lowlands and up to around 1,100 millimetres (43 in) on the Pacific side. The generally high quality of powder snow and numerous mountains in Hokkaido make it a popular region for snow sports. The snowfall usually commences in earnest in November and ski resorts (such as those at Niseko, Furano, Teine and Rusutsu) usually operate between December and April. Hokkaido celebrates its winter weather at the Sapporo Snow Festival.

During the winter, passage through the Sea of Okhotsk is often complicated by large floes of drift ice. Combined with high winds that occur during winter, this frequently brings air travel and maritime activity to a halt beyond the northern coast of Hokkaido. Ports on the open Pacific Ocean and Sea of Japan are generally ice-free year round, though most rivers freeze during the winter.

Unlike the other major islands of Japan, Hokkaido is normally not affected by the June–July rainy season and the relative lack of humidity and typically warm, rather than hot, summer weather makes its climate an attraction for tourists from other parts of Japan.

Major cities and townsEdit

 
Sapporo, Hokkaido's largest city.

Hokkaido's largest city is the capital, Sapporo, which is a designated city. The island has two core cities: Hakodate in the south and Asahikawa in the central region. Other important population centers include Rumoi, Iwamizawa, Kushiro, Obihiro, Kitami, Abashiri, Wakkanai, and Nemuro.

GalleryEdit

EconomyEdit

 
Large farm of Tokachi plain

Although there is some light industry (most notably paper milling and beer brewing) most of the population is employed by the service sector. In 2001, the service sector and other tertiary industries generated more than three-quarters of the gross domestic product.[32]

Agriculture and other primary industries play a large role in Hokkaido's economy. Hokkaido has nearly one fourth of Japan's total arable land. It ranks first in the nation in the production of a host of agricultural products, including wheat, soybeans, potatoes, sugar beets, onions, pumpkins, corn, raw milk, and beef. Hokkaido also accounts for 22% of Japan's forests with a sizable timber industry. The prefecture is first in the nation in production of marine products and aquaculture.[32] The average farm size in Hokkaido is 26 hectares per farmer in 2013, which is almost 11 times bigger than the national average of 2.4 hectares.[33]

Tourism is an important industry, especially during the cool summertime when visitors are attracted to Hokkaido's open spaces from hotter and more humid parts of Japan and other Asian countries. During the winter, skiing and other winter sports bring other tourists, and increasingly international ones, to the island.[34]

Coal mining played an important role in the industrial development of Hokkaido, with the Ishikari coalfield. Cities such as Muroran were primarily developed to supply the rest of the archipelago with coal.[12]

TransportationEdit

Hokkaido's only land link to the rest of Japan is the Seikan Tunnel. Most travellers travel to the island by air: the main airport is New Chitose Airport at Chitose, just south of Sapporo. Tokyo–Chitose is in the top 10 of the world's busiest air routes, handling more than 40 widebody round trips on several airlines each day. One of the airlines, Air Do was named after Hokkaido.

Hokkaido can be reached by ferry from Sendai, Niigata and some other cities, with the ferries from Tokyo dealing only in cargo. The Hokkaido Shinkansen takes passengers from Tokyo to near Hakodate in slightly over four hours.[35] There is a fairly well-developed railway network, but many cities can only be accessed by road. The coal railways were constructed around Sapporo and Horonai during the late 19th century, as advised by American engineer Joseph Crawford.[12]

Hokkaido is home to one of Japan's Melody Roads, which is made from grooves cut into the ground, which when driven over causes a tactile vibration and audible rumbling transmitted through the wheels into the car body.[36][37]

EducationEdit

The Hokkaido Prefectural Board of Education oversees public schools (except colleges and universities) in Hokkaido. Public elementary and junior high schools (except Hokkaido Noboribetsu Akebi Secondary School and schools attached to Hokkaido University of Education) are operated by municipalities, and public high schools are operated by either the prefectural board or municipalities.

Hokkaido has 37 universities (7 national, 5 local public, and 25 private universities), 34 junior colleges, and 5 colleges of technology (4 national and 1 local public colleges). National universities located in Hokkaido are:

Hokkaido government runs Sapporo Medical University, a medical school in Sapporo.

CultureEdit

SportsEdit

 
Sapporo Dome in Sapporo.

The 1972 Winter Olympics were held in Sapporo.

The sports teams listed below are based in Hokkaido.

Winter festivalsEdit

  • Sapporo Snow Festival
  • Asahikawa Ice Festival
  • Sōunkyō Ice Festival
  • Big Air – snowboarding freestyle competition
  • Shōwa-Shinzan International Yukigassen - competitive snowballing

International relationsEdit

Hokkaido has relationships with several provinces, states, and other entities worldwide.[39]

As of January 2014, 74 individual municipalities in Hokkaido have sister city agreements with 114 cities in 21 different countries worldwide.[46]

PoliticsEdit

GovernorEdit

The current governor of Hokkaido is Naomichi Suzuki. He won the governorship in the gubernatorial election in 2019 as an independent. In 1999, Hori was supported by all major non-Communist parties and Itō ran without party support. Before 1983, the governorship had been held by Liberal Democrats Naohiro Dōgakinai and Kingo Machimura for 24 years. In the 1971 election when Machimura retired, the Socialist candidate Shōhei Tsukada lost to Dōgakinai by only 13,000 votes;[47] Tsukada was also supported by the Communist Party – the leftist cooperation in opposition to the US-Japanese security treaty had brought joint Socialist-Communist candidates to victory in many other prefectural and local elections in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1959, Machimura had defeated Yokomichi's father Setsuo in the race to succeed Hokkaido's first elected governor, Socialist Toshibumi Tanaka who retired after three terms. Tanaka had only won the governorship in 1947 in a run-off election against Democrat Eiji Arima because no candidate had received the necessary vote share to win in the first round as required by law at the time.

AssemblyEdit

The Hokkaido Legislative Assembly has 100 members from 47 electoral districts. As of April 30, 2015, the LDP caucus holds a majority with 51 seats, the DPJ-led group has 26 members. Other groups are the Hokkaidō Yūshikai of New Party Daichi and independents with twelve seats, Kōmeitō with eight, and the Japanese Communist Party with four members.[48] General elections for the Hokkaido assembly are currently held together with gubernatorial elections in the unified local elections (last round: April 2015).

National representationEdit

For the lower house of the National Diet, Hokkaido is divided into twelve single-member electoral districts. In the 2017 election, candidates from the governing coalition of Liberal Democrats and Kōmeitō won seven districts and the main opposition Constitutional Democrats five. For the proportional election segment, Hokkaido and Tokyo are the only two prefectures that form a regional "block" district of their own. The Hokkaido proportional representation block elects eight Representatives. In 2017, the Liberal Democratic Party received 28.8% of the proportional vote and won three seats, the Constitutional Democratic Party won three (26.4% of the vote), one seat each went to Kibō no Tō (12.3%) and Kōmeitō (11.0%). The Japanese Communist Party, who won a seat in 2014, lost their seat in 2017 while receiving 8.5% of the votes.

In the upper house of the National Diet, a major reapportionment in the 1990s halved the number of Councillors from Hokkaido per election from four to two. After the elections of 2010 and 2013, the Hokkaido electoral district – like most two-member districts for the upper house – is represented by two Liberal Democrats and two Democrats. In the 2016 upper house election, the district magnitude will be raised to three, Hokkaidō will then temporarily be represented by five members and six after the 2019 election.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b "離島とは(島の基礎知識) (what is a remote island?)". MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) (in Japanese). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 22 August 2015. Archived from the original (website) on 2007-11-13. Retrieved 9 August 2019. MILT classification 6,852 islands (main islands: 5 islands, remote islands: 6,847 islands)
  2. ^ a b c Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hokkaido" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 343, p. 343, at Google Books
  3. ^ "Chapter 3: Nivkh as an Aspiration Language," p. 53 RUG.nl Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Ainu Mosir. The land of human beings – Nanni Fontana – photographer". Nanni Fontana. Archived from the original on 2012-04-11. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  5. ^ July.04.2008 (2008-07-04). "ICU Students Support Indigenous Peoples Summit in Ainu Mosir 2008 "ICU BackNumbersite". Web.icu.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  6. ^ "Indigenous Peoples Summit in Ainu Mosir 2008 * News". Win-ainu.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-07. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  7. ^ Lewallen, Ann-Elise (November 30, 2008). "Indigenous at last! Ainu Grassroots Organizing and the Indigenous Peoples Summit in Ainu Mosir". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. 48-6-08. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
  8. ^ Okada, Mitsuharu Vincent (2012). "The Plight of Ainu, Indigenous People of Japan" (PDF). Journal of Indigenous Social Development. University of Hawaii. 1 (1): 1–14. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
  9. ^ "National Museum of Ethnology, Japan: Permanent Exhibitions". Archived from the original on 2019-04-11. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
  10. ^ Statistics Bureau of Japan
  11. ^ Hokkaido Population during Tokugawa Shogun
  12. ^ a b c "A Journey into the culture and history of Hokkaido" (PDF). hkd.mlit.go.jp.
  13. ^ a b Japan Handbook, p. 760
  14. ^ McClain, James L. (2002). Japan, A Modern History (First ed.). New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Company. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-393-04156-9.
  15. ^ Howell, David. "Ainu Ethnicity and the Boundaries of the Early Modern Japanese State", Past and Present 142 (February 1994), p. 142
  16. ^ Ossenberg, Nancy (see reference) has the best evidence of this relationship with the Jōmon. Also, a newer study, Ossenberg, et al., "Ethnogenesis and craniofacial change in Japan from the perspective of nonmetric traits" (Anthropological Science v.114:99–115) is an updated analysis published in 2006 which confirms this finding.
  17. ^ Nakamura, Akemi, "Japan's last frontier took time to tame, cultivate image", The Japan Times, 8 July 2008, p. 3.
  18. ^ Satow, Ernest. (1882). "The Geography of Japan" in Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vols. 1–2, p. 88., p. 33, at Google Books
  19. ^ McDougall, Walter A. (1993). Let the Sea Make a Noise, pp. 355–356.
  20. ^ McDougall, p. 357.
  21. ^ "Chapter VII: 1945". The Official Chronology of the US Navy in World War II. Hyperwar. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  22. ^ "Translation of Message from Harry S. Truman to Joseph Stalin", August 19, 1945, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, RGASPI Fond 558, Opis 11, Delo 372, Listy 112–113. Translated by Sergey Radchenko. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/122333. Retrieved 2017 September 22.
  23. ^ "総務省|住基ネット". soumu.go.jp.
  24. ^ Hirata, Daisuke; et al. (2013). "Molecular Phylogeography of the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) in Northeastern Asia Based on Analyses of Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequences". Mol Biol Evol. 30 (7): 1644–1652. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst077. PMID 23619144.
  25. ^ Zhang, D.; Katsuki, T.; Rushforth, K. (2013). "Abies sachalinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42298A2970610. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42298A2970610.en. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  26. ^ "M 6.6 - 27km E of Tomakomai, Japan". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  27. ^ "Earthquake ALERT! 6.1-magnitude quake strikes this country". Zee Business. 2021-05-16. Retrieved 2021-05-16.
  28. ^ "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment Japan. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Disputed with Russia (see Kuril Islands dispute).
  30. ^ Sim, Walter (26 May 2019). "Hokkaido sizzling in temperatures up to 39.5 deg C as unseasonal heat wave grips Japan". The Straits Times.
  31. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Taiga. eds. M.McGinley & C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  32. ^ a b "Hokkaido's Business Environment". Trade and Economic Exchange Group, Commerce and Economic Exchange Division, Department of Economic Affairs, Hokkaido Government. Archived from the original on 2010-07-21. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  33. ^ "Trend toward stronger agriculture seen in Hokkaido". The Nikkei. 5 January 2015. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  34. ^ Takahara, Kanako (July 8, 2008). "Boom time for Hokkaido ski resort area". The Japan Times. The Japan Times Ltd. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
  35. ^ Bender, Andrew (28 March 2016). "Japan Opens a Futuristic Bullet Train Line from Tokyo to Hokkaido". Forbes.
  36. ^ Johnson, Bobbie (13 November 2007). "Japan's melody roads play music as you drive". The Guardian. Farringdon Road, London, England: GMG. p. 19 (International section). Retrieved 2008-10-20.
  37. ^ "Your car as a musical instrument – Melody Roads". Noise Addicts. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
  38. ^ Nussbaum, "Hokkaido Daigaku" in p. 343, p. 343, at Google Books
  39. ^ "Exchange Affiliates" Archived 2015-05-24 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 5 December 2008.
  40. ^ a b c d "Hokkaido – Alberta Relations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-04. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
  41. ^ "Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation". Archived from the original on 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
  42. ^ "Massachusetts Hokkaido Association". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
  43. ^ "ソウル特別市との交流". Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  44. ^ "MOU of the Establishment of Friendship between Province of Chiang Mai and Prefecture of Hokkaido" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  45. ^ "Hawaii's Sister-States". State of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on October 16, 2020.
  46. ^ 市町村の姉妹友好提携 (Sister city partnerships) Archived 2017-12-28 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 3 November 2013. (in Japanese)
  47. ^ Hokkaido prefectural government: Gubernatorial election results since 1947[permanent dead link] (in Japanese)
  48. ^ Hokkaido Prefectural Assembly: Members by electoral district and parliamentary group Archived 2014-08-09 at the Wayback Machine (in Japanese)

^[note 1] Source: English edition of Sightseeing in Hokkaido, Winter Festival and Events

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Coordinates: 43°N 142°E / 43°N 142°E / 43; 142