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Honshu (本州, Honshū, pronounced [hoɰ̃ꜜɕɯː] (About this soundlisten); "Main island/Main province") is the largest and most populous island of Japan,[3] located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits. The island separates the Sea of Japan, which lies to its north and west, from the North Pacific Ocean to its south and east. It is the seventh-largest island in the world, and the second-most populous after the Indonesian island of Java.[4][5]

Honshū
Native name:
本州
Japan honshu map small.png
Geography
LocationEast Asia
ArchipelagoJapanese archipelago
Area227,960[1] km2 (88,020 sq mi)
Area rank7th
Length1,300 km (810 mi)
Width50–230 km (31–143 mi)
Coastline10,084 km (6,265.9 mi)
Highest elevation3,776 m (12,388 ft)
Highest pointMount Fuji
Administration
Japan
Prefectures
Largest settlement Tokyo (pop. 13,617,445)
Demographics
Population104,000,000[2] (2017 estimate)
Pop. density447 /km2 (1,158 /sq mi)
Ethnic groupsJapanese

Honshu had a population of 104 million as of 2017,[2] mostly concentrated in the coastal lowlands, notably in the Kantō plain where 25% of the total population resides in the Greater Tokyo Area.[citation needed] As the historical center of Japanese cultural and political power,[citation needed] the island includes several past Japanese capitals, including Kyoto, Nara, and Kamakura. Much of the island's southern shore forms part of the Taiheiyō Belt, a megalopolis that spans several of the Japanese islands.

Most of Japan's industry is located in a belt running along Honshu's southern coast, from Tokyo to Kyoto, Osaka, Nagoya, Kobe, and Hiroshima;[citation needed] by contrast, the economy along the northwestern Sea of Japan coast is largely based on fishing and agriculture.[6] The island is linked to the other three major Japanese islands by a number of bridges and tunnels. Its climate is humid and mild.

Contents

GeographyEdit

The island is roughly 1,300 km (810 mi) long and ranges from 50 to 230 km (31 to 143 mi) wide, and its total area is 227,960 km2 (88,020 sq mi),[1] making it slightly larger than Great Britain.[7] Its land area has been increasing with land reclamation and coastal uplift in the north, but global sea level rise has diminished these effects.[citation needed] Honshu has 10,084 kilometres (6,266 mi) of coastline.[3]

Mountainous and volcanic, Honshu experiences frequent earthquakes (the Great Kantō earthquake heavily damaged Tokyo in September 1923, and the earthquake of March 2011 moved the northeastern part of the island by varying amounts of as much as 5.3 m (17 ft)[8][9] while causing devastating tsunamis). The highest peak is the active volcano Mount Fuji at 3,776 m (12,388 ft), which makes Honshu the world's 7th highest island. There are many rivers, including the Shinano River, Japan's longest. The Japanese Alps span the width of Honshu, from the 'Sea of Japan' coast to the Pacific shore. The climate is generally humid subtropical in western Japan and humid continental in the north.

Extreme pointsEdit

Bridges and tunnelsEdit

Honshu is connected to the islands of Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku by tunnels and bridges. Three bridge systems have been built across the islands of the Inland Sea between Honshu and Shikoku (Akashi Kaikyō Bridge and the Ōnaruto Bridge; Shin-Onomichi Bridge, Innoshima Bridge, Ikuchi Bridge, Tatara Bridge, Ōmishima Bridge, Hakata–Ōshima Bridge, and the Kurushima-Kaikyō Bridge; Shimotsui-Seto Bridge, Hitsuishijima Bridge, Iwakurojima Bridge, Yoshima Bridge, Kita Bisan-Seto Bridge, and the Minami Bisan-Seto Bridge), the Seikan Tunnel connects Honshu with Hokkaido, and the Kanmonkyo Bridge and Kanmon Tunnel connects Honshu with Kyushu.[citation needed]

PopulationEdit

Its population was 104 million people, according to a 2017 estimate. This represents 81.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.[2]

Administrative regions and prefecturesEdit

The island is divided into five nominal regions and contains 34 prefectures, including metropolitan Tokyo. Administratively, some smaller islands are included within these prefectures, notably including the Ogasawara Islands, Sado Island, Izu Ōshima, and Awaji Island.[citation needed]

The regions and its prefectures are:

Natural featuresEdit

AgricultureEdit

Most of Japan's tea and silk is from Honshu. Fruits, vegetables, grains, rice and cotton are grown in Honshu.[10] Niigata is noted as an important producer of rice. The Kantō and Nōbi plains produce rice and vegetables. Yamanashi is a major fruit-growing area, and Aomori is famous for its apples.[citation needed] Rare species of the lichen genus Menegazzia are found only in Honshu.[11]

MineralsEdit

Yields of zinc, copper, and oil have been found on Honshu.[10]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Farjon, Aljos; Filer, Denis (2013). An Atlas of the World's Conifers: An Analysis of their Distribution, Biogeography, Diversity and Conservation Status. BRILL. p. 268. ISBN 9789004211810.
  2. ^ a b c Boquet, Yves (2017). The Philippine Archipelago. Springer. p. 16. ISBN 9783319519265.
  3. ^ a b "Honshu". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  4. ^ Japan Civil Registry Database 2013
  5. ^ See Japan Census of 2000; the editors of List of islands by population appear to have used similar data from the relevant statistics bureaux, and totalled up the various administrative districts that make up each island, and then done the same for less populous islands. An editor of this article has not repeated that work. Therefore this plausible and eminently reasonable ranking is posted as unsourced common knowledge.
  6. ^ Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan
  7. ^ "Islands By Land Area". Islands.unep.ch. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  8. ^ "Map of Horizontal Land Movement caused by 2011/3/11 M9.0 earthquake" (PDF) (in Japanese). Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. March 19, 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  9. ^ "Quake shifted Japan by over two meters". Deutsche Welle. March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  10. ^ a b "Honshu". infoplease.com. 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-23.
  11. ^ Bjerke JW (2004). "Revision of the lichen genus Menegazzia in Japan, including two new species". The Lichenologist. 36 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1017/S0024282904013878. ISSN 0024-2829.

Coordinates: 36°N 138°E / 36°N 138°E / 36; 138