Kagoshima Prefecture

Kagoshima Prefecture (鹿児島県, Kagoshima-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands.[1] Kagoshima Prefecture has a population of 1,599,779 (1 January 2020) and has a geographic area of 9,187 km2 (3,547 sq mi). Kagoshima Prefecture borders Kumamoto Prefecture to the north and Miyazaki Prefecture to the northeast.

Kagoshima Prefecture
鹿児島県
Japanese transcription(s)
 • Japanese鹿児島県
 • RōmajiKagoshima-ken
Flag of Kagoshima Prefecture
Official logo of Kagoshima Prefecture
Location of Kagoshima Prefecture
Country Japan
RegionKyushu
IslandKyushu
CapitalKagoshima
SubdivisionsDistricts: 8, Municipalities: 43
Government
 • GovernorKōichi Shiota
Area
 • Total9,187.01 km2 (3,547.12 sq mi)
Area rank10th
Population
 (January 1, 2020)
 • Total1,599,779
 • Rank24th
 • Density170/km2 (450/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeJP-46
Websitewww.pref.kagoshima.jp/foreign/english/index.html
Symbols
BirdLidth's jay (Garrulus lidthi)
FlowerMiyamakirishima (Rhododendron kiusianum)
TreeCamphor laurel
(Cinnamomum camphora)

Kagoshima is the capital and largest city of Kagoshima Prefecture, with other major cities including Kirishima, Kanoya, and Satsumasendai.[2] Kagoshima Prefecture is located at the southernmost point of Kyūshū and includes the Satsunan Islands group of the Ryukyu Islands. Kagoshima Prefecture's mainland territory extends from the Ariake Sea to Shibushi Bay on the Pacific Ocean coast, and is characterized by two large peninsulas created by Kagoshima Bay. Kagoshima Prefecture formed the core of the Satsuma Domain, ruled from Kagoshima Castle, one of the most important Japanese domains of the Edo period and the Meiji Restoration.

HistoryEdit

Kagoshima Prefecture corresponds to the ancient Japanese provinces Ōsumi and Satsuma, including the northern part of the Ryukyu Islands (Satsunan).[3] This region played a key role in the Meiji Restoration (Saigō Takamori), and the city of Kagoshima was an important naval base during Japan's 20th century wars and the home of admiral Tōgō Heihachirō. More recent incidents are the sinking of a North Korean spy ship (100 ton class) in 2001 by the Coast Guard, which was later salvaged and exhibited in Tokyo, and the abduction of an office clerk from a Kagoshima beach in 1978 by agents from the same country. This became known only recently under the Koizumi administration.

DemographicsEdit

The two main ethnic groups of Kagoshima Prefecture are the Japanese and the Ryukyuans (Amami Islands).

GeographyEdit

Kagoshima Prefecture is located at the southwest tip of Kyushu on the Satsuma Peninsula and Ōsumi Peninsula. This prefecture also includes a chain of islands stretching further to the southwest of Kyushu for a few hundred kilometers. The most important group is the Amami Islands. Surrounded by the East China Sea to the west, Okinawa Prefecture in the south, Kumamoto Prefecture to the north, and Miyazaki Prefecture to the east, it has 2,632 km (1,635 mi) of coastline (including the 28 islands). It has a bay called Kagoshima Bay (Kinkowan), which is sandwiched by two peninsulas, Satsuma and Ōsumi. Its position made it a 'gateway' to Japan at various times in history. While Kyushu has about 13 million people, there are less than 2 million in this prefecture.

The prefecture boasts a chain of active and dormant volcanoes, including the great Sakurajima, which towers out of the Kagoshima bay opposite Kagoshima city. A steady trickle of smoke and ash emerges from the caldera, punctuated by louder mini-eruptions on an almost daily basis. On active days in Kagoshima city an umbrella is advisable to ward off the ash. Sakurajima is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. Major eruptions occurred in 1914, when the island mountain spilled enough material to become permanently connected to the mainland, and a lesser eruption in 1960. Volcanic materials in the soil make Sakurajima a source for record daikon radishes, roughly the size of a basketball. Many beaches around the Kagoshima Bay are littered with well-worn pumice stones. A crater lake in the southwestern tip of the prefecture, near the spa town of Ibusuki, is home to a rare species of giant eel.

As of 31 March 2019, 13% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Amami Guntō, Kirishima-Kinkowan, Unzen-Amakusa, and Yakushima National Parks; Koshikishima and Nichinan Kaigan Quasi-National Parks; and Akune, Bōnoma, Fukiagehama, Imutaike, Ōsumi Nanbu, Sendaigawa Ryūiki, Takakumayama, and Tokara Rettō Prefectural Natural Parks.[4][5]

EconomyEdit

Most of the economic sector is focused in Kagoshima City and the surrounding area, corresponding to the extent of the former Satsuma Province. The eastern part of the prefecture, the former Ōsumi Province, is mostly rural and shows a general population decline.

The prefecture has strong agricultural roots, which are reflected in its most well-known exports: green tea, sweet potato, radish, Pongee rice, Satsuma ware, Berkshire pork ("kurobuta") and local Black Wagyu beef. Kagoshima prefecture's production of bonito flakes is second only to that of Shizuoka. In addition, it produces Japan's largest volume of unagi eels. Kagoshima is also largest beef and pork producing prefecture in Japan.

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has several facilities within the prefecture, including the country's main launch facility on Tanegashima and the Uchinoura Space Center.

The prefecture's gross domestic product is approximately 4.834 trillion yen.[citation needed]

MunicipalitiesEdit

 
Map of Kagoshima Prefecture
     City      Town      Village

The following is a list of Kagoshima Prefecture's cities, and its administrative districts with their constituent towns and villages:

CitiesEdit

 
Kagoshima from space
 
Sakurajima and Kagoshima City
 
Makurazaki
 
Amami City
 
Tarumizu

Nineteen cities are located in Kagoshima Prefecture:

Name Area (km2) Population Map
Rōmaji Kanji
  Aira 姶良市 231.32 75,665  
  Akune 阿久根市 134.3 23,887  
  Amami 奄美市 308.15 42,718  
  Hioki 日置市 253.06 51,819  
  Ibusuki 指宿市 149.01 43,931  
  Ichikikushikino いちき串木野市 112.04 30,551  
  Isa 伊佐市 392.36 30,070  
  Izumi 出水市 330.06 56,205  
  Kagoshima (capital) 鹿児島市 547.58 595,049  
  Kanoya 鹿屋市 448.33 104,148  
  Kirishima 霧島市 603.18 124,763  
  Makurazaki 枕崎市 74.88 21,960  
  Minamikyūshū 南九州市 357.85 39,738  
  Minamisatsuma 南さつま市 283.3 39,012  
  Nishinoomote 西之表市 205.75 16,418  
  Satsumasendai 薩摩川内市 683.5 96,411  
  Shibushi 志布志市 209.01 33,724  
  Soo 曽於市 390.39 37,038  
  Tarumizu 垂水市 161.86 14,847  

DistrictsEdit

These are the towns and villages in each district:

Name Area (km2) Population District

[subprefecture (if any)]

Type Map
Rōmaji Kanji
  Amagi 天城町 80.35 6,350 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  China 知名町 53.29 5,976 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  Higashikushira 東串良町 27.69 7,122 Kimotsuki District Town  
  Isen 伊仙町 62.7 6,594 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  Kikai 喜界町 56.94 7,657 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  Kimotsuki 肝付町 308.12 15,169 Kimotsuki District Town  
  Kinkō 錦江町 163.15 9,328 Kimotsuki District Town  
  Minamiōsumi 南大隅町 213.59 7,646 Kimotsuki District Town  
  Minamitane 南種子町 110.4 5,925 Kumage District

[Kumage Subprefecture]

Town  
  Mishima 三島村 31.36 383 Kagoshima District Village  
  Nagashima 長島町 116.13 10,124 Izumi District Town  
  Nakatane 中種子町 137.78 8,439 Kumage District

[Kumage Subprefecture]

Town  
  Ōsaki 大崎町 100.82 13,488 Soo District Town  
  Satsuma さつま町 303.43 23,842 Satsuma District Town  
  Setouchi 瀬戸内町 239.92 9,379 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  Tatsugō 龍郷町 82.08 5,992 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  Tokunoshima 徳之島町 104.87 11,673 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  Toshima 十島村 101.35 688 Kagoshima District Village  
  Uken 宇検村 103.07 1,843 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Village  
  Wadomari 和泊町 40.37 6,929 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  Yakushima 屋久島町 540.98 13,486 Kumage District

[Kumage Subprefecture]

Town  
  Yamato 大和村 88.15 1,638 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Village  
  Yoron 与論町 20.49 5,263 Ōshima District

[Ōshima Subprefecture]

Town  
  Yūsui 湧水町 144.33 12,220 Aira District Town  

MergersEdit

CultureEdit

FoodEdit

Kagoshima Prefecture has a distinct and rich food culture. The warm weather and diverse environments allow for the agriculture and aquaculture of Kagoshima to thrive and gain nationwide and worldwide recognition for unique and quality products. Numerous restaurants around Kagoshima feature Satsuma Province local cuisine. Popular cuisine incorporating local agriculture include Sweet Potato ,kibinago sashimi (silver-striped herring), buri Amberjack, kampachi yellowtail, "Black Label Products" such as kuro-ushi Wagyu beef, kuro-buta Berkshire pork dishes, and kuro-Satsuma jidori chicken (sometimes served as raw, chicken sashimi); smoked eel, keihan, and miki (fermented rice milk consumed among residents of the Amami Islands).

Satsuma-ageEdit

Satsuma-age, or deep-fried fish cake, comes in great variety in Kagoshima. Though the deep-fried fishcake can be found throughout the country, the Satsuma Domain (modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture) is commonly believed to be the birthplace of the snack. It is said, though, the concept was introduced from the Ryūkyū Kingdom (modern-day Okinawa Prefecture) by Satsuma Lord, Nariakira Shimazu.

SweetsEdit

There are many types of sweets produced in Kagoshima Prefecture. Kagoshima-based Seika Foods Co., Ltd. (Seika shokuhin kabushiki-kaisha) has produced some of Japan's most popular and timeless sweets such as hyōroku mochi Bontan Ame (ボンタンアメ), Satsuma Imo Caramel (さつまいもキャラメル), and green tea-flavored Hyōroku mochi, Minami "shirokuma" shaved ice desserts, etc. Traditional treats outside of Seika Food Co., Ltd. products include karukan (sweet cakes made from steamed yams and rice flour), jambo-mochi, kokutō brown sugar from the Amami Islands, getanha brown sugar cake, etc.

BeveragesEdit

In 1559, at Kōriyama Hachiman Shrine (郡山八幡神社) in Isa City (伊佐市) a carpenter wrote atop a wooden board "the Shintō Priest of this shrine is too stingy to offer me Shōchū (焼酎) showing an early love for the spirits. Kagoshima Prefecture is officially recognized (by the World Trade Organization) as the home to one of the most traditional beverages of Japan, shōchū. In Kagoshima there are 113+ distilleries, producing about 1,500 highly acclaimed brands, placing Kagoshima in the top for production quantity and shipment. While visiting Kagoshima, one may notice labels reading Honkaku-shōchū (本格焼酎). Honkaku-shōchū is a distilled beverage produced with traditional skills using ingredients such as natural spring water, sweet potatoes, locally grown sugar cane, and grains. There is a variety of honkaku-shōchū including Imo-jōchū (芋焼酎), shōchū distilled from sweet potatoes), Mugi-jōchū (麦焼酎), distilled from barley), Kome-jōchū (米焼酎), distilled from rice), etc. Another type of shōchū is Kokutō-shōchū (黒糖焼酎), shōchū distilled with brown sugar). Shōchū has long gained international favor and has come to be comparable to Bordeaux for wine, Scotch for whiskey, and Cognac for brandy. Also, the Amami Islands of Kagoshima Prefecture are the only areas sanctioned to bear the label of kokutō-shōchū.

Kurozu (黒酢) or black vinegar is another item of the "Black Label Products" of Kagoshima, the other of which is Kokutō-shōchū. There are a number of kurozu farms around Kagoshima, most of which are located around the Kirishima area. Most kurozu farms produce kurozu bottled vinegar (fermented for a single year, 2+ years) along with other items such as salad dressing, powders, capsules, spices, candy, etc. Kurozu also comes in different flavors such as grape, orange, ume plum, etc. though the most popular flavor by far is apple. The farms are open to visitations and often offer tours.

DialectEdit

Today, Kagoshima is home to a distinctive dialect of Japanese known as Satsugū dialect (薩隅方言, Satsugū Hōgen) or Kagoshima dialect (鹿児島弁, Kagoshima-ben, or Kagomma-ben), differing from the usual Kyushu dialects with its pronunciations of the yotsugana.

For the most part, Satsugū dialect is mutually unintelligible with Standard Japanese,[6] though most Satsugū speakers know both as a result of language standardization in Japan.

Sport and recreationEdit

Kagoshima Rebnise, a professional basketball team, was founded in 2003 and currently competes in the second division of the national B.League. Kagoshima United FC, a soccer team, was founded in 2014 and competes in the J3 League. Although no major professional baseball teams are based in the prefecture, a number of Kagoshima's ballparks have hosted the spring training camps of Nippon Professional Baseball teams:

The Kirishima-Yaku National Park is located in Kagoshima Prefecture.

EducationEdit

Universities and collegesEdit

High SchoolsEdit

Science and technology facilitiesEdit

MuseumsEdit

TransportationEdit

 
Kagoshima-Chuo Station
 
Kagoshima City Tram

RailEdit

TramsEdit

RoadsEdit

Expressways and toll roadsEdit

National HighwaysEdit

PortsEdit

AirportsEdit

Notable peopleEdit

Mythical creaturesEdit

Sister relationsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kagoshima prefecture" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 447, p. 447, at Google Books.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Kagoshima prefecture" at p. 447, p. 447, at Google Books.
  3. ^ Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" at p. 780, p. 780, at Google Books.
  4. ^ 自然公園都道府県別面積総括 [General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture] (PDF) (in Japanese). Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  5. ^ 自然公園 [Natural Parks] (in Japanese). Kagoshima Prefecture. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  6. ^ Okumura, Nao (July 26, 2016). "Japanese Dialect Ideology from Meiji to the Present". Portland State University. p. 9.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 31°24′N 130°31′E / 31.400°N 130.517°E / 31.400; 130.517