KBO League

The KBO League (KoreanKBO 리그),[1][2] originally called the Korea Baseball Championship (Korean한국야구선수권대회; Romanization: Hanguk Yagu Seonsukkwon Daehoe), is the highest level league of baseball in South Korea. The KBO League was founded with six franchises in 1982, and has expanded to ten franchises.[3] Nine of the ten franchises are named after the companies or business conglomerates which own them, while one sold their naming rights (Woori Heroes in 2008, Nexen Heroes from 2010 to 2018, and Kiwoom Heroes from 2019).[4] The KBO League is the most popular sports league in South Korea.[5] The Kia Tigers (formerly the Haitai Tigers) are the most successful team, having won 11 out of the 38 championships. (Teams are known primarily by the name of the sponsor, occasionally by their nickname, and never by the city in which they are based.)

KBO League
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2020 KBO League season
KBO League.svg
SportBaseball
Founded1982
FounderKorea Baseball Organization
No. of teams10
CountrySouth Korea
Most recent
champion(s)
Doosan Bears (6th title)
Most titlesKia Tigers (11 titles)
TV partner(s)Korea
KBS
MBC
SBS
SPOTV
outside Korea
TSN (Canada)
ESPN
Fox Sports (Asia-Pacific and Netherlands)
Official websiteKoreaBaseball.com

In comparison with American Major League Baseball, ESPN reports that the KBO level of play "appears to be somewhere between Double-A and Triple-A, on average, though the best players are more likely to be MLB-quality than your typical Double-A league."[6] Historically, the KBO is known for its vocal and exuberant fan base,[7][8] as well as the widespread practice of bat flips (ppa-dun (Korean: 빠던), a portmanteau of the "first syllables of the words for 'bat' and 'throw'")[9][10] by hitters after stroking what they think will be a home run.[9][10] In the KBO, the bat flipping tradition dates back to the 1990s.[10]

League structureEdit

Regular seasonEdit

Starting with the 2015 season, each team plays 144 games in the regular season, increased from 128 in 2015 with the addition of the KT Wiz to the league. Each team plays every other team 16 times.[11][12] In general, Korean teams play six games a week, with every Monday off.

KBO All-Star GameEdit

In mid-July of every season, the best players participate in the KBO All-Star Game. The franchises participating are divided into two sets of teams: "Dream All-Stars" (Doosan, KT, Lotte, Samsung, and SK) and "Nanum All-Stars" (Kia, Hanwha, LG, NC and Kiwoom). The KBO All-star game does not determine home-field advantage in the KBO Korean Series.

Post-seasonEdit

The KBO League's season culminates in its championship series, known as the KBO Korean Series. Currently, the top five teams qualify for the post-season based on win/loss records. The lowest-qualifying teams face off in a step-ladder playoff system, where each winner then faces the next-highest team, culminating in the Korean Series against the top-ranked team.[12]

  • KBO Wild Card Game: fifth-place team vs. fourth-place team
Fourth-place team starts the series with a 1–0 lead and advances with one win or a tie, while the fifth-place team must win twice to advance.
  • KBO Semi-playoffs: KBO Wild Card Game winner vs. third-place team
Best of five series.
  • KBO Playoffs: KBO Semi-playoffs winner vs. second-place team
Best of five series.
  • KBO Korean Series: KBO Playoffs winner vs. first-place team
Best of seven series.

Any playoff games ending in an official tie are replayed, thereby raising the possibility of a close series containing more than the scheduled five or seven games.

RulesEdit

The KBO League rules are essentially those of the American Major League Baseball (MLB). The designated hitter rule is universal in KBO.[8]

Traditionally, South Korean professional baseball games have a maximum number of extra innings before a game is declared an official tie. The KBO abolished this limit for the 2008 season, but it was reinstated in 2009, with a 12-inning limit imposed during the regular season,[8] and a 15-inning limit for playoff games.[13]

HistoryEdit

OriginsEdit

The first game was played on March 27, 1982, between the Samsung Lions and the MBC Chungyong (now the LG Twins) at Dongdaemun Baseball Stadium, Seoul. Then-president Chun Doo-hwan threw out the ceremonial first pitch.[14]

The inaugural franchises were:

The first Korean Series featured the Bears versus the Lions, with OB winning the championship 4-games-to-1, with a tie.

The 1980sEdit

The Haitai Tigers dominated the 1980s, winning the Korean Series five times — in 1983, 1986, and 1987 through 1989. They were led by pitcher Sun Dong-yol and infielders Kim Seong-han and Han Dae-hwa. Other KBO stars whose careers took off in the 1980s were sluggers Chang Jong-hoon and Lee Man-soo.

From 1982 to 1988, the regular season was divided into two (a spring season and a fall season), with a first-half pennant winner and a latter-half pennant winner. The two pennant winners then played each other for the Korean Series championship.[15] The 1982 campaign featured an 80-game (in total) season, which expanded to 100 games from 1983 to 1984. Rosters for each team were small (sometimes as few as 14 players), and many players in the league both pitched and batted. Bang Soo-won of the Haitai Tigers pitched the first no-hitter in Korean professional baseball history, in 1984 against the Sammi Superstars.[16]

Mid-season 1985, the Sammi Superstars were sold and became known as the Chungbo Pintos, and the full season expanded to 110 games. Because the Samsung Lions won both half-season pennants (with a still single-season record .706 winning percentage), the Lions won the title outright so no Korean Series was played that year.[15]

Because of the lack of a postseason in 1985, the next year saw some major changes, with the adoption of a playoff system, in which the top two teams from each half-season played for the right to get to the Korean Series.[15] 1986 also saw the OB Bears moving from Daejeon to share Jamsil Baseball Stadium with MBC Chungyong in Seoul. A new franchise, the Binggrae Eagles, joined the league, replacing the vacancy in Daejeon made by OB's move, and expanding the league to seven teams. From 1986 to 1988, the regular season shrunk to a total of 108 games.

1988 saw the Cheongbo Pintos change ownership again, becoming the Taepyoungyang Dolphins (also known as the "Pacific Dolphins"). In 1989 the KBO eliminated the two half-season pennants, moving to a single season of 120 games.[15]

The 1990sEdit

In the 1990s the Tigers were again dominant, winning the championship four times in the decade — 1991, 1993, 1996, and 1997. The Tigers were led by hitting-machine Lee Jong-beom and slugger Lee Ho-joon. Other KBO players who starred in the 1990s were Eagles' pitcher Song Jin-woo, who eventually became the all-time KBO leader in wins, strikeouts, and innings pitched; slugging catcher Park Kyung-oan, the first catcher in KBO history to hit 300 home runs; and stolen base king Jeon Jun-ho. But probably the most notable hitters to emerge from the 1990s were the Lions' Lee Seung-yuop and Yang Joon-hyuk, who between them now hold most of the KBO's career offensive records.

In 1990, MBC Chungyong became the LG Twins and an eighth franchise was added, the Ssangbangwool Raiders, who represented the Jeollabuk-do region.

From 1991 to 1998, the season increased to 126 games. The Lotte Giants won the Korean Series championship in 1992; the team has not won it since. There was little other change during this period except for a few major sponsors: in 1993 the Binggrae Eagles became the Hanwha Eagles, in 1996 the Taepyoungyang Dolphins became the Hyundai Unicorns, and in 1999 the OB Bears became the Doosan Bears.

The 1998 Korean Series was won by the Hyundai Unicorns for the franchise's first championship in 16 years of existence. (The team would go on to win the championship in 2000, 2003, and 2004.)

In 1999 the season was expanded to 132 games, and the KBO separated into two divisions — the Dream League and the Magic League.[15][17][18] The 1999 Dream League consisted of the Doosan Bears, the Lotte Giants, the Haitai Tigers, and the Hyundai Unicorns; the 1999 Magic League consisted of the Hanwha Eagles, the LG Twins, the Samsung Lions, and the Ssangbangwool Raiders. That year the Eagles — in their 14th season — won their franchise's first (and only) Korean Series championship, after 14 years in the KBO.

The 2000sEdit

Bigger changes were affected in 2000 when the Hyundai Unicorns moved from Incheon to Suwon, and a new franchise, the SK Wyverns, took their place in Incheon. The Ssangbangwool Raiders became defunct. The league's two-division structure slightly shifted as well, with SK taking Ssangbangwool's place in the Magic Division and Lotte and Samsung switching divisions.[19] Thus, the 2000 Dream League was composed of Doosan, Haitai, Hyundai, and Samsung; while the 2000 Magic League was composed of Hanwha, LG, Lotte, and SK.

Parity ruled the 2000s, with the Unicorns and Lions each winning three titles, and the upstart Wyverns coming away with two. The hard-luck Doosan Bears appeared in the Korean Series five times in the decade but only won it once, in 2001. Stars who emerged in the 2000s include all-time KBO hit king Park Yong-taik, Giants's first-baseman Dae-ho Lee, and Eagles' first-baseman Kim Tae-kyun. Other notable players from the era include slugging third-basemen Lee Bum-ho and Choi Jeong, the Bears' designated hitter Hong Sung-heon, and the Twins' long-time outfielder Lee Byung-kyu.

In 2001, the KBO returned to a single-division format.[15] The Haitai Tigers became the Kia Tigers. From 2000 to 2012 the length of the regular season fluctuated between 126 and 133 games.

Despite its string of championships in the early 2000s, in 2008 the Hyundai Unicorns franchise was disbanded. It re-founded as the Woori Heroes and moved to Mok-dong in Seoul. In 2010, the team's naming rights were sold to Nexen Tire and the team was renamed the Nexen Heroes until the end of the 2018 season, when its naming rights were sold to Kiwoom Securities.

The 2010sEdit

The Samsung Lions were a powerful team in the 2010s, winning the championship four times during six straight appearances in the Korean Series (from 2010 to 2015). The Doosan Bears were also a powerhouse, appearing in the Korean Series six times in the decade (including five straight appearances from 2015 to 2019), winning it three times.

Expansion resumed in the 2010s, with the addition of the NC Dinos, located in Changwon, which joined the league in 2013. It is the first team located in Changwon, the city having previously been the second home of the nearby Lotte Giants. The KBO played 128-game seasons in 2013–2014.

In 2015, the KT Wiz became the league's tenth franchise. They play their home games in Suwon, which had not had a team since the Hyundai Unicorns' disbandment. Since 2015 the KBO has played a 144-game season each year, and has added a fifth team to the playoffs, with the introduction of the Wild Card game. In 2015 the league also increased the active roster size of each team, from 26 to 27 (of those, 25 may play in any one game).[20]

After a number of seasons of inflated offensive production, the KBO introduced a new "dejuiced" baseball before the 2019 season. The results showed in a significant decrease in runs per game and home runs per game.[21][12]

The 2020 season was delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but finally started play on May 5, 2020, with no fans in attendance.[12] In response to the lack of live sports programming due to the pandemic, ESPN and the KBO League entered into an agreement to broadcast six games weekly. The Opening Day game between the NC Dinos and Samsung Lions was broadcast as the first game under the agreement that night. Karl Ravech, Jason Benetti, Boog Sciambi, Eduardo Perez, and Jessica Mendoza, along with various guests, broadcast the game remotely via Internet from their homes.[22]

Expatriate baseball players in the KBOEdit

As with Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB), the KBO league places a cap on the number of foreign players allowed on club rosters. The foreign player limit is set at three (no more than two of them being pitchers),[12][8] increased from two players from 2014. Foreign players can only sign single-season contracts, and they are restricted by a salary cap.[7] Since 2019, the total compensation for a foreign player has been capped at $1 million.[23][24] The foreign hitters on each team are expected to provide power in the middle of the order, while the foreign pitchers are expected to anchor the starting rotation.[25] As with foreign players in the NPB, many of the most celebrated foreign players came to Korea after not finding success in the Major Leagues.

The KBO first began allowing foreign players in 1998,[25] with American Tyrone Woods becoming the first notable import. Playing for the Bears, Woods was the first foreign player to hit a home run (as well as the first to be ejected from a game by an umpire).[citation needed] In his first year Woods set a then-KBO record with 42 homers and won the MVP award (becoming the first foreign player to win the award).[26] In five years in Korea, Woods hit 174 homers, drove in 510 runs, and batted .294. (He later found additional success in Nippon Professional Baseball.) Woods left Korea with the longest career of any foreign player in KBO history, a record later eclipsed by Jay Davis. Davis played seven seasons for Hanwha (1999–2002, 2004–2006), compiling a .313 batting average, 167 home runs, and 591 RBI during that span.[27]

Foreign pitchers with extended careers in the KBO include Dustin Nippert, who compiled a win-loss record of 102–51 and 1,082 strikeouts in eight seasons (a foreign player record);[citation needed] and Danny Rios, who in six seasons was 90–59 with 807 strikeouts and an ERA of 3.01, which is the lowest career ERA of any foreign pitcher in the KBO. Josh Lindblom pitched in the KBO for five seasons, compiling a 63–34 record and 750 strikeouts. Rios was given the 2008 KBO League Most Valuable Player Award, Nippert was KBO MVP in 2016, and Lindblom won the award in 2019.

American Jerry Royster was the first-ever non-Korean to take the helm of one of South Korea's professional baseball clubs when he was signed as manager of the Lotte Giants in 2007.[28] (Royster served as the Giants' manager through the 2010 season.)

Over the league's history, more than 200 Americans have played in the KBO; other countries which have produced many current and former KBO players include the Dominican Republic (with more than 80 players), and Venezuela (with more than 20 players).

KBO players in Japan and the U.S.Edit

Several Korean players have had successful careers in Japan's Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB), most notably Isao Harimoto (birth name Jang Hun), who holds the record for most hits in the Japanese professional leagues (and is in the top ten in many other career lists). Harimoto played in the 1960s and 1970s, before the formation of the KBO. Similarly, Baek In-chun played professionally in Japan from 1963 to 1981, compiling 209 home runs, 776 RBI, and 1,831 hits in the NPB. (He returned to Korea for his final three seasons as a player.) Lee Seung-yuop, who holds the KBO records for career home runs, runs scored, RBIs, total bases, slugging percentage and OPS, also played eight seasons in the NPB, accumulating an additional 159 home runs and 439 RBI. Other KBO hitters who had some success in the NPB include Kim Tae-kyun and Dae-ho Lee. Korean pitchers who have had an impact in the NPB include Sun Dong-yol, Lim Chang-yong, and Seung-hwan Oh (who led the NPB in saves in both 2014 and 2015).

Several Korean players have also successfully transitioned from the KBO to American Major League Baseball, starting in 1994 with pitcher Chan Ho Park. (Prior to Park, the South Korea-born Mexican pitcher Ernesto Carlos [born as Lee Won-Kuk] was signed to an American minor league contract with the San Francisco Giants' organization in 1968 after having found success in the NPB.[29] Similarly, pitcher Park Chul-soon signed a minor league deal with the Milwaukee Brewers organization in 1980.[30] Neither Ernesto Carlos nor Park Chul-soon, however, made it to the Major Leagues.) Other former KBO players who have had lengthy MLB careers include outfielder Shin-Soo Choo and pitchers Hyun-jin Ryu and Byung-hyun Kim. Altogether, 23 South Korean players have made it to the MLB as of 2020.[31]

TeamsEdit

Team City Stadium Capacity Founded Joined
Doosan Bears Seoul Jamsil Baseball Stadium 25,553 1982
Hanwha Eagles Daejeon Daejeon Hanwha Life Eagles Park 13,000 1985 1986
Kia Tigers Gwangju Gwangju-Kia Champions Field 27,000 1982
Kiwoom Heroes Seoul Gocheok Sky Dome 16,813 2008
KT Wiz Suwon, Gyeonggi Suwon kt wiz Park 22,800 2013 2015
LG Twins Seoul Jamsil Baseball Stadium 25,553 1982
Lotte Giants Busan Busan Sajik Baseball Stadium 26,800 1975 1982
NC Dinos Changwon, Gyeongnam Changwon NC Park 22,011 2011 2013
Samsung Lions Daegu Daegu Samsung Lions Park 24,000 1982
SK Wyverns Incheon Incheon SK Happy Dream Park 26,000 2000
Defunct clubs
Team City Stadium Founded Joined Ceased
Hyundai Unicorns Suwon Suwon Baseball Stadium 1982 2008
Ssangbangwool Raiders Jeonju Jeonju Baseball Stadium 1990 1991 1999

League sponsorshipEdit

Season Sponsor League name
1982–1999 No sponsor Korea Professional Baseball
2000–2001 Samsung Securities Samsung Fn.com Cup Professional Baseball
2002–2004 Samsung Securities Cup Professional Baseball
2005–2008 Samsung Electronics Samsung PAVV Professional Baseball
2009–2010 CJ Internet CJ Magumagu Professional Baseball
2011 Lotte Card Lotte Card Professional Baseball
2012 Paldo Paldo Professional Baseball
2013–2014 Korea Yakult Korea Yakult 7even Professional Baseball
2015–2017 Tirebank Tirebank KBO League
2018–2019 Shinhan Bank Shinhan Bank MY CAR KBO League
2020– Shinhan Bank SOL KBO League

BallparksEdit

Doosan Bears / LG Twins Hanwha Eagles Kia Tigers Kiwoom Heroes KT Wiz
Jamsil Baseball Stadium Hanwha Life Eagles Park Gwangju-Kia Champions Field Gocheok Sky Dome Suwon kt wiz park
Capacity: 25,553 Capacity: 13,000 Capacity: 27,000 Capacity: 16,813 Capacity: 22,800
         
Lotte Giants NC Dinos Samsung Lions SK Wyverns
Busan Sajik Baseball Stadium Changwon NC Park Daegu Samsung Lions Park Munhak Baseball Stadium
Capacity: 26,800 Capacity: 22,011 Capacity: 24,000 Capacity: 26,000
     

In addition to these ballparks, the Lotte Giants play some games at Ulsan Munsu Baseball Stadium, the Samsung Lions at Pohang Baseball Stadium and the Hanwha Eagles at Cheongju Baseball Stadium.

Attendance figuresEdit

The league has recently enjoyed a surge in popularity, with increased attendance every year.

In 2016 season, a new national record of over 8 million attendance figures was set. There was massive increase of 1 million compared with previous season.[32]

The record was smashed again in 2017 season with over 8.4 million fans to their games during the regular season. Bears, Twins, Giants and Tigers all attracted over 1 million fans. The average game attendance was above 11,600 fans.[33]

This increase in popularity has been accompanied by the building of larger and more modern ballparks to further enhance the fan experience and their expenditures during games, such as Gwangju-Kia Champions Field (2014), Gocheok Sky Dome (2016), Daegu Samsung Lions Park (2016), and Changwon NC Park (2019).

AssociationsEdit

KBO League players and coaches have formed a number of associations:[34]

Post-seasonEdit

Korean Series championsEdit

Club Champions Runners-up Championship seasons Runners-up seasons
Kia Tigers 11 0 1983, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2009, 2017
Samsung Lions 8 10 1985, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 1982, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1990, 1993, 2001, 2004, 2010, 2015
Doosan Bears 6 7 1982, 1995, 2001, 2015, 2016, 2019 2000, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2013, 2017, 2018
SK Wyverns 4 4 2007, 2008, 2010, 2018 2003, 2009, 2011, 2012
Hyundai Unicorns (defunct) 4 2 1998, 2000, 2003, 2004 1994, 1996
LG Twins 2 4 1990, 1994 1983, 1997, 1998, 2002
Lotte Giants 2 3 1984, 1992 1985, 1995, 1999
Hanwha Eagles 1 5 1999 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 2006
Kiwoom Heroes 0 2 2014, 2019
NC Dinos 0 1 2016
KT Wiz 0 0

Playoff resultsEdit

Legend
  • 1st – Champions
  • 2nd – Runners-up
  • PO – Playoff loser
  • SPO – Semi-playoff loser
  • WC – Wild card game loser
  •  —  – Did not qualify
  • DNP – Did not participate
Teams 1982 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Doosan 1st PO PO SPO 1st SPO PO 2nd
Hanwha DNP 2nd 2nd SPO 2nd 2nd PO SPO 1st
Hyundai PO 2nd 2nd 1st 1st
Kia 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st PO 1st PO 1st SPO 1st 1st
LG 2nd 1st PO 1st PO 2nd 2nd PO
Lotte 1st SPO 1st 2nd 2nd SPO
Samsung 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd PO SPO 2nd PO SPO 2nd PO PO PO PO
SK DNP
Ssangbangwool DNP PO SPO DNP
Number 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 5
Teams 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Total
Doosan 1st PO 2nd 2nd 2nd PO PO SPO 2nd 1st 1st 2nd 2nd 1st 22
Hanwha SPO PO 2nd PO SPO 13
Hyundai PO SPO 1st 1st PO DNP 10
Kia PO PO SPO SPO 1st SPO WC 1st WC 21
Kiwoom DNP SPO 2nd SPO SPO PO 2nd 6
KT DNP 0
LG 2nd PO PO PO SPO 13
Lotte SPO SPO SPO PO PO SPO 12
NC DNP SPO PO 2nd PO WC 5
Samsung 2nd 1st SPO 2nd 1st 1st SPO PO 2nd 1st 1st 1st 1st 2nd 28
SK 2nd SPO 1st 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 2nd WC WC 1st PO 12
Ssangbangwool DNP 2
Number 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 144

AwardsEdit

See footnote[35] and Baseball awards#South Korea

RecordsEdit

BattingEdit

PitchingEdit

No-hittersEdit

Sources: [16][41]
Date Pitcher (Club) Score Opponent Ballpark Notes
May 5, 1984 Bang Soo-won (Haitai Tigers) 5–0 Sammi Superstars Gwangju Mudeung Baseball Stadium
June, 5, 1986 Kim Jeong-haeng (Lotte Giants) 8–0 Binggrae Eagles Sajik Baseball Stadium
April 2, 1988 Jang Ho-yeon (OB Bears) 4–0 Lotte Giants Sajik Baseball Stadium Opening day of the season
April 17, 1988 Lee Dong-seok (Binggrae Eagles) 1–0 Haitai Tigers Gwangju Mudeung Baseball Stadium
July, 6, 1989 Sun Dong-yol (Haitai Tigers) 10–0 Samsung Lions Gwangju Mudeung Baseball Stadium
August 8, 1990 Lee Tae-il (Samsung Lions) 8–0 Lotte Giants Sajik Baseball Stadium
April, 30, 1993 Kim Won-hyeong (Ssangbangwool Raiders) 3–0 OB Bears Jeonju Baseball Stadium At age 20, Kim was the youngest KBO pitcher to ever throw a no-hitter
September 9, 1993 Kim Tae-won (LG Twins) 9–0 Ssangbangwool Raiders Jamsil Baseball Stadium
October 20, 1996 Jeong Myeong-won (Hyundai Unicorns) 4–0 Haitai Tigers Sungui Stadium Game 4 of the Korean Series
May 23, 1997[42] Jung Min-cheul (Hanwha Eagles) 8–0 OB Bears Jeonju Baseball Stadium
May 18, 2000 Song Jin-woo (Hanwha Eagles) 6–0 Haitai Tigers Gwangju Mudeung Baseball Stadium At age 34, Song was the oldest KBO pitcher to throw a no-hitter
June 25, 2014 Charlie Shirek (NC Dinos) 6–0 LG Twins Jamsil Baseball Stadium First foreignor to throw a KBO League no-hitter
April 9, 2015 Yunesky Maya (Doosan Bears) 1–0 Nexen Heroes Jamsil Baseball Stadium
June 30, 2016 Michael Bowden (Doosan Bears) 4–0 NC Dinos Jamsil Baseball Stadium
April 21, 2019 Deck McGuire (Samsung Lions) 16–0 Hanwha Eagles Hanwha Life Insurance Eagles Park

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Korea Baseball Championship is the annual pennant race of first-tier professional baseball league in South Korea." Confirmed by Moon Jung-kyun, Public Relations Manager of Korea Baseball Organization. For further information, refer to the talk page of the Korean version article.
  2. ^ For the official name of the league, refer to following page: http://baseballinkorea.com/2015/03/01/kbo-brand-identity
  3. ^ "A Cheerleader Helping to Reinvigorate Pro Baseball". english.chosun.com.
  4. ^ "Korea and Baseball". koreatimes.co.kr. 25 March 2009.
  5. ^ [2017 결산] 프로야구, 역대 최다 840만 관중..국민스포츠 공고 (in Korean). star.mt.co.kr. December 21, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
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  11. ^ Korea Baseball Organization (2015). 2015 달라지는 점 Archived 2015-04-05 at the Wayback Machine (Korean). Accessed on April 14, 2015.
  12. ^ a b c d e Reuter, Joel. "KBO for Dummies: An MLB Fan's Guide to the Korean Baseball League," Bleacher Report (May 5, 2020).
  13. ^ Kim Jae-Won (2009-01-13). KBO Abolishes Endless Overtime Rule. The Korea Times. Accessed on 2009-06-11.
  14. ^ Kim, Jinsung. "More than Sports: Politics in the Origins of the Professional Baseball League in South Korea," Asia Pacific Memo (April 5, 2017).
  15. ^ a b c d e f Young Hoon Lee, Rodney Fort, editors. The Sports Business in The Pacific Rim: Economics and Policy (Springer, Oct 31, 2014) p. 178.
  16. ^ a b Kim Tae-jong. "No-hitter records in KBO history," The Korea Times (2014-06-25).
  17. ^ Costello, Rory. Dae-Sung Koo entry, Society for American Baseball Research website. Footnote 11: "For the 1999 and 2000 seasons, Korea operated two leagues, the Dream League and Magic League. Hanwha was in the Magic League." Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  18. ^ "A Miraculous Comeback in the Making?", The Dong-a Ilbo (October. 17, 2007).
  19. ^ Zang, Hwansoo. "Law of Jungle Also Exists in Pro Baseball," The Dong-a Ilbo (July. 10, 2000).
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  21. ^ Kim, Sung Min. "Let’s Check in on the KBO’s De-Juiced Baseballs," FanGraphs (August 16, 2019).
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  27. ^ "Jay Davis," Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
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  29. ^ "Ernesto Carlos Kuk Lee," Baseball-Reference Bullpen. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  30. ^ "Cheol-Sun Bak," Baseball-Reference Bullpen. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
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External linksEdit