Wagyu (Japanese: 和牛, Hepburn: wagyū, lit.'Japanese cattle') is the collective name for the four principal Japanese breeds of beef cattle. All wagyū cattle derive from cross-breeding in the early twentieth century of native Japanese cattle with imported stock, mostly from Europe.[1]: 5 

Japanese Black cattle of the Tajima strain on a farm in northern Hyōgo Prefecture
High-grade sliced Matsusaka wagyu beef

Wagyu beef is one of the most expensive meats in the world.[2] It features rich marbling, meaning that streaks of fat exist within the red meat that make it tenderer and moister, while adding flavor. Wagyu beef is often known by different names depending on its place of origin. In several Japanese prefectures, Wagyu beef is shipped with an area name; examples include Matsusaka beef, Kobe beef, Yonezawa beef and Ōmi beef. In recent years, Wagyu beef has increased in fat percentage due to a decrease in grazing and an increase in the use of feed, resulting in larger, fattier cattle.[3][4][5]

Wagyu has a rigorous authentication process. A user can authenticate the wagyu through the Japanese carcass verification bureau website. A user will be able to determine whether the Wagyu beef on their plate is genuine using the 10-digit cattle ID number on the certificate.[6]

Authentication Certificate Miyazaki Prefecture

Definition Edit

Wagyu means "Japanese cattle" and is not the name of a breed of cattle. Japanese native cattle became extinct as a result of crossbreeding with European breeds after the Meiji Restoration (1868), with the exception of a few such as the Mishima cattle. There are only a few hundred Japanese native cattle, and meat from these cattle is rarely sold on the market. Therefore, Wagyu is now the generic term for four crossbred breeds called kairyō washu (改良和種, literally, improved Japanese breed).

The rich marbling that is considered a characteristic of Wagyu is actually a feature of the Japanese Black breed, and not of the other three breeds. This is often misunderstood because the Japanese Black currently accounts for 95% of all Wagyu raised in Japan.

In 2001, bovine spongiform encephalopathy was reported in Japanese cattle and became a major social problem. Since then, the testing and registration of cattle in Japan has been tightened. Since 2007, only four breeds of kairyō washu and their crossbreds, as well as cattle born, raised, and duly registered in Japan, are allowed to be labeled as Wagyu for meat.[7]

Western breeds such as Holstein and Jersey are also raised in Japan for dairy cattle. When meat from these cattle is sold in Japan, it must be labeled "domestic beef" (国産牛), not "Wagyu."[7]

Origin Edit

Wagyu show in Sasebo, Japan

In 1927, fossils of an ancient wild cattle, Hanaizumi Moriushi (Leptobison hanaizumiensis), dating from the Paleolithic period about 20,000 years ago, were discovered at the Hanaizumi Site in Ichinoseki City, Iwate Prefecture. The Hanaizumi Moriushi is a species similar to the bison and is said to be close to the steppe bison (Bison priscus) lineage. Fossil bones of Aurochs (Bos primigenius) have also been found in Ichinoseki City.[8] Since Hokkaido and Honshu were land-locked with the Eurasian continent during the Ice Age, these animals came from the continent via Hokkaido.

In addition, projectile points made from polished wild cattle bones have been found at the same site, although in small quantities , suggesting that humans existed during this period and that hanaizumi moriushi and aurochs were hunted.[8]

At the Ohama Site in Goto City, Nagasaki Prefecture, cattle teeth dating to the middle Yayoi period were excavated.[9] Among them were also processed cattle molars. However, this excavation was controversial because it contradicted the statement in the Wajinden in Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms that there were no cattle or horses in Japan.[10] Later, radiocarbon dating of the excavated cattle molars yielded a date of around 40 AD (±90 years).[11]

Cow-shaped haniwa

However, some in the Japanese archaeological community remain skeptical about the presence of cattle in Japan during the Yayoi period, and there is a persistent view that they were brought to Japan from the Korean peninsula by the toraijin, a group of people who came to Japan in the mid-5th century during the Kofun period. At the Nango-Ōhigashi site in Gose City, Nara Prefecture, cow bones were excavated that are thought to date to the 5th century. At the Funamiya Kofun Tumulus (late 5th century) in Asago City, Hyogo Prefecture, pieces of a cow-shaped haniwa (clay figurine), believed to be the oldest in Japan, have been excavated. In addition, a cow-shaped haniwa was excavated from the Hashida No. 1 Tumulus in Tawaramoto Town, Shiki-gun, Nara Prefecture in the first half of the 6th century, and was designated as an Important Cultural Property of Japan in 1958.[12]

On the other hand, recent genetic studies have shown that Wagyu and Korean cattle (Hanwoo and others) differ greatly in their genetic information. Livestock cattle are divided into two major lineages: northern lineage cattle (Bos taurus) and Indian lineage cattle (Bos indicus), and both Wagyu and Korean cattle belong to the northern lineage and do not contain Indian lineage such as Zebu cattle.[13]

However, in terms of mitochondrial DNA sequence haplogroups, haplogroup T4 (East Asian type) is predominant in the Wagyu (Japanese Black) at about 65%, while haplogroup T3 (European type) is predominant in Korean cattle at 66-83%.[13][14]

T4 is a haplogroup unique to East Asia that is not observed in Near Eastern, European, and African cattle, and T3 is the predominant haplogroup in European cattle, but T3 is also predominant in Korean cattle. This means that the present breed of Korean cattle is not the main ancestor of the Wagyu.

In addition, the rare haplogroup P has also been detected in about 46% of the Japanese Shorthorn.[15] P has been detected in many extinct European aurochs, but has only been found in a total of three current livestock cattle, one Chinese and two Korean, out of several thousand individuals in the database.

The Japanese Shorthorn was created by crossing the Nanbu cattle bred in the former Nanbu Domain territory in northeastern Japan (present-day Iwate Prefecture) with Shorthorns and other breeds imported from the United States, but P has not been detected in Shorthorns and is thought to be derived from the Nanbu cattle.[15]

Fossils of Hanaizumi Moriushi and Aurochs have been found in Iwate Prefecture, but it is unclear if the Nanbu cattle were related to these. Haplogroup P has also been found in Chinese and Korean cattle, but it is extremely rare compared to T4. Therefore, it is suggested that the ancestors of the Nanbu cattle have a different origin from the ancestors of the Japanese Black in western Japan, where T4 is abundant, and that there is no single ancestor of the Wagyu.

History Edit

Cattle were brought to Japan from the Korean Peninsula or China, but archaeological and genetic studies have proposed different dates for their arrival, ranging from around A.D. to the 5th century.

Nara Period (710 - 794) Edit

In 675, due to the influence of Buddhism, Emperor Tenmu issued a decree banning meat eating, and eating cattle was officially prohibited in Japan. However, a study of human excrement excavated from the Heijo Palace site has revealed that Japanese people in the Nara period (710-794) continued to eat cattle even after the prohibition.[16] In addition, the Yoro Code (757) stipulates that when a government-owned horse and ox dies, it should be dismembered and the skin, brain, horns, and gall bladder removed, and if there is calculus bovis (gallstones), it should be delivered to the state.[17] The Yoro Code also includes provisions for the sale of the hides and meat of horses and cattle, and there were distribution channels throughout Japan for buying and selling these items during the Nara period.

Heian and Kamakura Period (794 - 1333) Edit

"Swift Bull," 13th century

During the Heian period (794 - 1185), the main use of cattle was for bullock carts. Cattle that excelled in this use were called sun-gyū (駿牛, swift bulls) and were regarded as excellent bulls. Owning such an excellent bull became a source of pride for the aristocrats of Japan at that time.

The "Pictorial Record of Swift Bulls" (駿牛絵詞) which is believed to have been written around 1279, is said to be the world's oldest specialized book on bulls.[18] In the same book, the names of 52 bulls are listed as swift bulls. At the time, the cattle from Iki Island in present-day Nagasaki Prefecture had the highest reputation as swift bulls, but they were temporarily destroyed by the Mongolian army during the Mongolian invasion, which killed them and used them as food.

From the Kamakura period (1185-1333) to the Muromachi period (1336-1573), farming using cattle and horses became popular mainly in western Japan, contributing greatly to the development of agriculture. In a complaint by a farmer in 1423, describing the wrongdoing of a manor administrator, the fact that the farmer owned cattle and used them for farming is mentioned.[19]

Edo Period (1603 - 1867) Edit

Until about the time of the Meiji Restoration in 1868, cattle were used only as draught animals, in agriculture, forestry, mining and for transport, and as a source of fertilizer. Milk consumption was unknown, and – for cultural and religious reasons – meat was not eaten. Cattle were highly prized and valuable, too expensive for a poor farmer to buy.[1]: 2 

Japan was effectively isolated from the rest of the world from 1635 until 1854; there was no possibility of the intromission of foreign genes to the cattle population during this time.

Image of "tsuru" and "tsuru-ushi"

In western Japan during the Edo period (1603-1867), superior cattle were produced by aggressive inbreeding, and the superior bloodlines were called "tsuru" (vine), and cattle with superior bloodlines (tsuru-ushi, vine cattle) were traded at high prices.[20] Famous tsuru include the Takenotani tsuru (Okayama Prefecture), Bokura tsuru (Shimane Prefecture), Iwakura tsuru (Hiroshima Prefecture), and Shusuke tsuru (Hyogo Prefecture). In Japan, where meat eating was frowned upon and the use of milk was not widespread, cows in the Edo period were basically work cattle that plowed the fields, so a good cow in this period meant one that was healthy and obedient.

The famous "Tajiri-go" bull was born from the "Atsuta tsuru," which is a descendant of the Shusuke tsuru. According to a survey conducted by the Japan Wagyu Registry Association, the pedigree was traced from a database of 718,969 Japanese black cattle mothers registered in Japan, and it was found that 718,330 or 99.9% of them are descended from the Tajiri-go.[21]

On the other hand, there are those who are concerned about the current situation in which only the Tajima cattle line represented by the Tajiri-go is spreading and genetic diversity is being lost from Wagyu, and the movement to revive the Takenotani tsuru has been attracting attention in recent years.[22]

In 1859, Japan opened the port of Yokohama in accordance with the demands of Western nations. At the same time, a foreign settlement was established in Yokohama. Foreign residents sought cattle for meat from neighboring villages but were refused, so cattle were imported from the U.S., China, and Korea, which gradually became unable to meet the demand.

In 1865, before the Port of Kobe was opened, the Hyogo Port Opening Demand Incident occurred, in which nine warships from Britain, France, the Netherlands, and the United States invaded Hyogo Port demanding its opening. At that time, sailors negotiated with local cattle merchants for cattle, which were initially slaughtered on board, but as demand increased, it became necessary to slaughter them on land. 1866 saw the first slaughter of cattle by foreigners in the pine forests of Cape Wadamisaki.[23] In this way, foreign ships bought 30 or 40 cows at a time in Kobe before the port opened and brought them to Yokohama, where "Kobe beef" (actually Tajima beef) became well known for its delicious taste.[23]

Modern times Edit

In January 1868, when the new port of Kobe opened east of the Hyogo Port, the Kobe foreign settlement was established. In 1868, Englishman Edward Charles Kirby established the first slaughterhouse in Kobe, and in 1869, a sukiyaki restaurant called "Gekka-tei" opened in Kobe.[23][24]

According to a newspaper article in 1875, Kobe was the first place where meat eating was popular, with 800 cows slaughtered in a month. Next was Yokohama with 600, followed by Tokyo with 500, and Osaka and Nagoya with 300.[25]

The reputation of Wagyu beef as having a superior taste spread from the residents of the foreign settlement to the Japanese, and it was written in books of the time that "Wagyu beef has a better taste than foreign beef"[26] and "there has never been beef as good as Kobe's beef".[27]

At the same time, however, it was also believed that Wagyu cattle were superior to Western breeds in taste and cattle farming, but inferior in milk and meat production, and that their improvement was urgently needed.[28]

Between 1868, the year of the Meiji Restoration, and 1887, some 2600 foreign cattle were imported.[1]: 7  At first, there was little interest in cross-breeding these with the native stock, but from about 1900, it became widespread.

In 1900, the Japanese government established a committee to investigate the improvement of cattle breeding, and began a systematic crossbreeding program between Wagyu and Western breeds. The Ayrshire and Simmental breeds were imported first, followed by the Brown Swiss, but few people wanted to crossbreed with them because of their large size, and the Japanese government encouraged it, but the crossbreds were very unpopular. [29]

The crossbreds' oversized stature made them inconvenient for Japan's narrow arable land, and their movements were slow and sluggish, and their temperaments were rough and lacking in obedience. They also had poor meat quality and were condemned from all quarters as being unsuitable for sukiyaki.[29] As a result, from around 1907, there were no more crossbreds being bred, and in reaction, the old black cattle were considered good, and as long as they were small and black, they could be sold.[29]

As crossbreeding with Western breeds progressed, the term "pure Wagyu" (純粋和牛, junsui Wagyū)[30][31] emerged to describe native Japanese cattle, and by 1912, it was claimed that there were two definitions of Wagyu: "pure Wagyu" and "improved Wagyu" (改良和牛, kairyō Wagyū).[32]

As the demand for meat increased and arable land was improved, it was generally believed that smaller cattle were still not enough. The goal was to increase the size of the cattle like the Western breeds while retaining the meat quality and working qualities of the Wagyu.

"Fukutomi-go," one of the first Improved Japanese Breeds to win the first prize (1912)

In October 1912, when the 6th Chugoku Six Prefectures United Livestock Breeders' Show was held in Himeji City, Hyogo Prefecture, two crossbred bulls won the first prize as "Improved Japanese Breeds" (改良和種, kairyō washu) and the name "Improved Japanese Breed" came into use thereafter. [33] Thereafter, organized breeding efforts to increase the number of superior Wagyu cattle began.

According to a survey conducted in 1914, there were 61 different breeds of Wagyu in Japan at that time, including Tajima cattle, Iwaizumi cattle, Mishima cattle, Aso cattle, and others.[34] However, these were not actual breeds, but only names of regional classifications.

In the case of Hyogo Prefecture, the leading producer of Wagyu cattle (Kobe cattle and Tajima cattle) at that time, the number of stud bulls owned by breed as of 1914 was as follows.

Number of stud bulls owned in Hyogo Prefecture by breed (1914) [35]
National Prefectural Publicly owned Private Total
Ayrshire Breed 30 5 17 52
Ayrshire Crossbreed 11 11
Brown Swiss Breed 5 5
Brown Swiss Crossbreed 4 4
Holstein Breed 18 18
Holstein Crossbreed 23 23
Jersey Crossbreed 1 1
Improved Japanese Breed 1 13 57 2 73
Japanese Breed 71 16 87
Total 1 52 133 88 274

In Hyogo Prefecture, farmers were enthusiastic about crossbreeding with European breeds and their hybrids around 1907, but as the price of hybrid cattle dropped significantly, many farmers began to favor crossbreeding with improved or pure Japanese breeds, and the number of improved and pure Japanese breed bulls owned increased.[36]

Around 1919, the examination and registration of Wagyu began mainly in western Japan, and pedigrees and body types began to be registered. Nine breeds were registered: Tajima, Bisaku, Hiroshima, Bocho, Shimane, Inhaku, Bungo, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima.[37] However, the examination and registration process was carried out by each prefecture, and the criteria for examination varied.

In 1937, when the former Japan Livestock Industry Association became the central organization for the registration of cattle throughout Japan, the breed names of "Japanese Black," "Japanese Polled," and "Japanese Brown" were created in place of the above nine breeds.

In 1944, it was officially decided to abolish the conventional name "Improved Japanese Breed" and call the breeds Japanese Black, Japanese Brown, and Japanese Polled, as the characteristics of each breed had been clarified as a result of improvements.[38] This meant that the three crossbreeds were recognized as fixed breeds. Then, in 1957, the Japanese Shorthorn was added. They are collectively known as Wagyu.

Breeds and Brands Edit

Breeds Edit

Wagyu Edit

Most of today's Wagyu are improved Wagyu (改良和牛, kairyō wagyū) that have been fixed as breeds through crossbreeding with foreign breeds. There are four breeds of improved Wagyu as follows:[39]: 66 [40]: 420 [41]

Native Wagyu Edit

Native Wagyu (在来和牛, zairai wagyū) are cattle from ancient Japan that have not been crossbred with foreign breeds. It is also called "Japanese breed," "pure Japanese breed," "pure Wagyu," etc. There are two breeds of native Wagyu as follows:

Wagyu Brands Edit

Today, each region in Japan has its own brand of Wagyu beef, numbering more than 320.[46] The first Wagyu beef to gain a reputation was Kobe beef, already famous since the 1860s and known to foreign countries through foreign residents.[47][48] Ōmi beef also had a reputation since the Meiji era (1868-1912) for its delicious taste.[49] In the Taisho era (1912-1926), Matsusaka beef also became well known.[50] These were originally Tajima cattle, and calves were purchased from the Tajima region, fattened in each region, and then sold.

In the Tokyo area, Yonezawa beef has also been known since the Meiji era.[48] Kobe beef, Matsusaka beef, Omi beef, or Yonezawa beef are also called the three major Wagyu beef brands (三大和牛, sandai wagyū).

Since the 1980s, Wagyu beef branding has been promoted in various regions of Japan. However, the Japanese Trademark Law at the time did not allow for the establishment of regional collective trademarks, which posed a problem in terms of legal protection. Before the Beef Traceability Act (2003) was enacted, there were also issues regarding the verification of the origin, breeding location, and distribution of Wagyu beef.

In 2006, the Japanese Trademark Law was amended to recognize regional collective trademarks, allowing Wagyu beef to be registered as a "regional brand." In 2014, the Geographical Indications Law was passed, and the operation of Geographical Indications (GI) protection began in 2015.

Australia Edit

A Wagyu bull in Australia

The Australian Wagyu Association is the largest breed association outside Japan.[51] Both fullblood and Wagyu-cross cattle are farmed in Australia for domestic and overseas markets, including Taiwan, China, Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, the U.K., France, Germany, Denmark and the U.S.[52] Australian Wagyu cattle are grain fed for the last 300–500 days of production.[citation needed] Wagyu bred in Western Australia's Margaret River region often have red wine added to their feed as well.[53]

United States Edit

In the United States, some Japanese Wagyu cattle are cross-bred with American Angus stock. Meat from this cross-breed is marketed as "American-Style Kobe Beef",[54] or "Wangus",[55] although many American retailers simply (inaccurately) refer to it as Wagyu. Wagyu were first competitively exhibited at the National Western Stock Show in 2012.[56] Other U.S. Wagyu breeders have full-blooded animals directly descended from original Japanese bloodlines, that are registered through the American Wagyu Association.[57]

In the United States, National Wagyu Day is observed on June 21st, starting in 2022 declared by Steve Haddadin.[58]

Canada Edit

Wagyu cattle farming in Canada appeared after 1991 when the Canadian Wagyu Association was formed. Wagyu style cattle and farms in Canada are found in Alberta,[59] Saskatchewan,[60] Ontario,[61] Quebec,[62] British Columbia,[63] Prince Edward Island,[64] and Newfoundland and Labrador.[65] Canadian Wagyu beef products are exported to the US (including Hawaii), Australia, New Zealand, and Europe.[64]

United Kingdom Edit

In 2008, a herd of Wagyu cattle was imported to North Yorkshire, first becoming available for consumption in 2011.[66] Since 2011 there have been Wagyu herds in Scotland.[67][68][69][70][71]

The Wagyu Breeders Association Ltd was established in July 2014.[72]

Notes Edit

  1. ^ a b c d e Kiyoshi Namikawa (2016 [1992]). Breeding history of Japanese beef cattle and preservation of genetic resources as economic farm animals. Kyoto: Wagyu Registry Association. Accessed January 2017.
  2. ^ Kim, Jack Houston, Irene Anna. "The rarest steak in the world can cost over $300. Here's why wagyu beef is so expensive". Business Insider. Retrieved 26 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Gotoh, Takafumi (July 2018). "The Japanese Wagyu beef industry: current situation and future prospects – A review". Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 31 (7): 942–47. doi:10.5713/ajas.18.0333. PMC 6039323. PMID 29973029. S2CID 49693378 – via Science Citation Index.
  4. ^ Ogino, Mizuna; Matsuura, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Atusi; Irimajiri, Mami; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Komatsu, Tokushi; Kushibiki, Shiro; Shingu, Hiroyuki; Kasuya, Etsuko (17 January 2013). "Biological rhythms related to metabolism in Japanese Shorthorn cattle under varying environments and management techniques". Animal Science Journal. 84 (6): 513–26. doi:10.1111/asj.12029. ISSN 1344-3941. PMID 23607269.
  5. ^ Higuchi, Mikito; Shiba, Nobuya; Imanri, Mai; Yonai, Miharu; Watanabe, Akira (1 April 2018). "Effects of Grazing or Exercise in the Middle of the Fattening Period on the Growth and Carcass Traits of Japanese Shorthorn Steers". Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. 52 (2): 163–72. doi:10.6090/jarq.52.163. ISSN 0021-3551.
  6. ^ "Whats written on a Japanese Wagyu cattle nose Print Certificate". crowdcow.com. Crowd Cow. 14 July 2020.
  7. ^ a b Japan External Trade Organization 2023.
  8. ^ a b Kurosawa 2008, p. 29.
  9. ^ Sakazume 1964, pp. 6–10.
  10. ^ Fukuda 1998, p. 7.
  11. ^ Fukuda 1998, p. 58.
  12. ^ Kimine 2017.
  13. ^ a b Mannen H et al. 2004.
  14. ^ Kim JH et al. 2016.
  15. ^ a b Noda A et al. 2018.
  16. ^ Imai, Kōki (1 December 2013). "天平人の腹をさぐる" [To search the belly of the Tenpyo people]. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  17. ^ Matsui, Akira (2009). "肉食の忌避という虚構―動物考古学からの視点―" [The Fiction of Meat Eating Avoidance: A View from Zooarchaeology]. The Japanese Society of Cultural Anthropology. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  18. ^ Onsen Town History Editorial Committee 1984, p. 413.
  19. ^ Onsen Town History Editorial Committee 1984, p. 440.
  20. ^ Habu 1948, p. 1.
  21. ^ "The 'Father' of Japanese Black Cattle Identified," Asahi Shimbun , March 2, 2012.
  22. ^ "First shipment of 'Takenotani Tsuru,' a Japanese black breed," Tsuyama Asahi Shimbun, February 8, 2022.
  23. ^ a b c Kobe City 1924, p. 54.
  24. ^ Ochiai et al. 1967, pp. 85–86.
  25. ^ Ochiai et al. 1967, p. 86.
  26. ^ Dainippon Fisheries Association 1886, p. 20.
  27. ^ Nōbi 1897, p. 90.
  28. ^ Agricultural Bureau of Agriculture and Commerce 1884, p. 164.
  29. ^ a b c Habu 1950, p. 3.
  30. ^ Tengu 1901, p. 27.
  31. ^ Tanahashi 1911, p. 53.
  32. ^ Agricultural Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce 1912, p. 78.
  33. ^ Ban 1912, p. 45.
  34. ^ Agricultural Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce 1918, p. 1.
  35. ^ Agricultural Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce 1915, p. 307.
  36. ^ Agricultural Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce 1915, p. 308.
  37. ^ Sato 1934, p. 1636.
  38. ^ Dairy Jijo-sha 1944, p. 46.
  39. ^ Valerie Porter, Lawrence Alderson, Stephen J. G. Hall, D. Phillip Sponenberg (2016). Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding (sixth edition). Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 9781780647944.
  40. ^ T. Muramoto, M. Higashiyama, T. Kondo (2005). Effect of pasture finishing on beef quality of Japanese Black steers. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 18: 420–426.
  41. ^ What Is Wagyu? Japan Meat Information Service Center. Archived 22 October 2013.
  42. ^ Wagyu Japanese Beef. Tokyo: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Archived 25 January 2013.
  43. ^ a b Wagyu Cattle. Stillwater, Oklahoma: Oklahoma State University, Department of Animal and Food Sciences. Archived 27 October 2022.
  44. ^ [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences] (2005). Country Report: Japan; annex to The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome: Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9789251057629. Archived 29 July 2022.
  45. ^ Kazuto Motegi (1 October 2009). Japanese Shorthorn Cattle: A Rare Breed Native to Northern Japan. Tokyo: Tokyo Foundation for Policy Research. Archived 27 October 2022.
  46. ^ "Please tell us about the brands of beef," Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan.[1]
  47. ^ Gakuno-sha 1884, p. 283.
  48. ^ a b Pastoral Magazine 1892, p. 9.
  49. ^ Kaneko 1897, p. 158.
  50. ^ Ochi 1925, p. 135.
  51. ^ "Australian Wagyu Forum". australianwagyuforum.com.au. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013.
  52. ^ "Exports". wagyu.org.au. Australian Wagyu Association. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011.
  53. ^ "Wine Fed Wagyu". mrpme.com.au. Margaret River Premium Meat Exports. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  54. ^ "U.S. ranches breed famous Kobe-style beef". The Japan Times. Associated Press. 12 August 2011. p. 3. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  55. ^ Houston, Jack (2 August 2019). "The rarest steak in the world can cost over $300". Business Insider. Several US restaurants are serving hybrid "wangus" beef from domestically raised wagyu and Angus cows.
  56. ^ Raabe, Steve (11 January 2012). "Tender Wagyu muscles onto meat scene, makes stock-show exhibition debut". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012.
  57. ^ "Registration – DNA Tests – American Wagyu Association". wagyu.org. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  58. ^ "Wagyu Day". daysoftheyear.com. Days of the Year. 16 July 2023.
  59. ^ Spurr, Bill (22 July 2014). "Kobe beef on P.E.I.? Veterinarian raising wagyu cattle". The Chronicle Herald. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  60. ^ Sciarpelletti, Laura (24 December 2020). "Saskatchewan: Prairie farmers using high-end Wagyu genetics to create 'snow beef'". CBC.ca. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  61. ^ "Kuntz First to Breed Wagyu in Ontario". thepost.on.ca. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  62. ^ "Accueil – Éleveurs Wagyu / Wagyu Breeders". wagyuquebec.com. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  63. ^ Arstad, Steve (28 May 2020). "This Princeton-grown beef is some of the rarest, most-prized in the world". infotel.ca. iNFOnews Ltd. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  64. ^ a b "About Us". CanadianWagyu.ca. Archived from the original on 11 October 2013.
  65. ^ "New World Beef". NewWorldBeef.ca. New World Beef. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  66. ^ Wainwright, Martin (7 February 2008). "World's dearest beef to be sold in Yorkshire". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  67. ^ "Try a little tenderness: on the farm with Scotland's Wagyu cattle". The Herald. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  68. ^ "Scottish farm to make Japanese Wagyu beef". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  69. ^ "Highland Wagyu beef firm in expansion drive". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 29 July 2013. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  70. ^ "Perthshire - the Wagyu centre of Europe". thescottishfarmer.co.uk. The Scottish Farmer. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  71. ^ "Spreading the wagyu message". thescottishfarmer.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  72. ^ "The Association". britishwagyu.co.uk. British Wagyu. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.

References Edit

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